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Occupational health in emerging economies

Occupational health in emerging economies

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Occupational health in emerging economies

  1. 1. University of Cincinnati, College of Medicine, Environmental Health Department, Division of Industrial Hygiene email:Maharshi.Mehta@Pfizer.com Occupational Health and Safety Issues and Developments in Emerging Economies with Focus on INDIA
  2. 2. Agenda • Workplace demographics • Issues: Working conditions • Current occupational health and safety status • Approaches adopted • Suggested approaches
  3. 3. Workplace Demographics • Labor Force: About 400M (44M to 90M Child Labor) • Unemployment Rate: 22% • Industrial Growth 8%, Inflation Rate: 9% • Unions represents: 25 % of industrial and service workers in the organized sector • 1977 law prohibits Bonded Labor Factories Act. A 1986 law bans employment of children under age 14
  4. 4. Issues-The Need • One of world’s largest manufacturing base manufacturing/processing highly toxic chemicals. • Exposure to serious health and safety hazards • Conditions exacerbated by export of hazards from developed countries • Hazardous conditions + scarcity of trained EHS professionals and infrastructure = serious threat of occupational illnesses and injuries. Hence, greater role of health and Safety Professionals
  5. 5. Issues-The Need • Occupational diseases occurred in early 1900 in USA and Europe are still occurring • Large affected population-industries, hospitals, farms, offices • Pro-active companies not able to practice IH due to lack of trained professionals and infrastructure • Quality Assurance is a concern in IH being practiced • 7000 Industrial Hygienists Needed - 2000 CIHs for 260M people and 1 for 1B people • Occupational Safety-Fairly good, Environment and Ecology-Improving, Industrial Hygiene-Long way to go.
  6. 6. Total Injury Rate/1000 worker 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1971 1981 1991
  7. 7. Addressing the Issues • Media Coverage • State and Supreme Courts Ruling – Closed down an operation or plant – Suspended forest based activities including about 900 saw mills, veneer and plywood mills – Relocation of thousands of hazardous industries- Under court order, electrical supply discontinued for companies not acting.
  8. 8. Addressing the Issues • Amendment in legislation and increase in awareness since Bhopal tragedy • Multinational corporations bringing corporate OHS culture. • Proactive public Sector companies and large corporations conscious about environment and safety. • EHS associations’ role in education and awareness • Institutions offering postgraduate safety and environmental management program since 1979
  9. 9. Addressing the Issues-India’s first Master in Industrial Hygiene Program • Offered at BVM Engineering College, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidya Nagar, Gujarat, 300 miles north of Bombay with University of Cincinnati. • First 19 Industrial Hygienists trained • All from the first and second class working • Presented Technical Papers last year and this year at AIHCs, Toronto and Orlando.
  10. 10. MIH Program • Admission: Science or Engineering degree • Seven students selected out of 30 applicants in the first and second batch. • Three semester, 16 courses and 6 months internship. • UC Provided course curriculum and course notes modified to meet Indian needs. • Fee per semester: $150. • Students published technical papers in Industrial Safety Chronicle and presented poster session at AIHC, Toronto.
  11. 11. Phenomenal Cooperation • National and International Agencies – UC, NIOH, ACGIH – Individual Professionals – Australian Occupational Hygiene Associations • A truck load of donated premier books costing about $50000 arrived. Pfizer paid the shipping cost. • SKC, Kellogg, Quest donated sampling equipment • Competent and committed faculties from USA and India • PSM Medical College in India and Staff
  12. 12. A student with donated books
  13. 13. Challenges • Recognition of Industrial Hygiene as a Profession • Placement of Students • Implementation of prevention and control measures-Especially In Small Scale Industries • Funding for MIH program
  14. 14. Proposed Approaches • Establish Industrial Hygiene Institute-Non-profit Non-Governmental organization providing cost effective consulting. • Strengthen MIH program. • Government on amending existing legislation: COSHH, UK/EC Directives • Employee State Insurance Corporation, to provide medical AND IH Services following EC model • Country specific certification • Adopt a small scale industry program
  15. 15. Safety and Health Organizations in India • National Safety Council, Mumbai, Director General (DG) Mr. K. C. Gupta, Phone: 022-4091285, 4073694 • National Institute of Occupational Health, Ahmedabad, Phone: DG, Dr. H.N. Saiyed, 079-2867351, 2867352 • Central Labor Institute, Mumbai, DG, Mr. S.K. Saxena, Phone 022-4092203 • Indian Occupational Health Association, Mumbai • Indian Toxicological Research Institute, Lukhanou, UP
  16. 16. Associations and Trade Unions • Confederation of Indian Industry, New Delhi, Mr. K. P. Nyati, Advisor Environment 011-4645288 • Federation of Indian Industries and Chamber of Commerce, New Delhi • Standing Conference of Public Enterprises (SCOPE) Secretary General: Mr. M.A. Hakim, Phone:011-4362604 • Indian National Trade Union Congress • Bhartiya Mazadoor Sangh
  17. 17. Overview of Pertinent Legislation-OHS • Indian Factories Act 1948 and Subsequent Amendments (1987) • Indian Boiler Regulations (1950, 1994) • Gas Cylinder (1981) and Static and Mobile Pressure Vessel (unfired) Rules (1981) • Indian Petroleum Act (1934) and Rules (1976)
  18. 18. Amended (1987) Factories Act 1948-Key Provisions • Factories Act and Rules Promulgated by States – Approval of New Plants and Expansion Projects (6) – Precautions against gas Vapors and Dust (14, 36 (confined space) – Control of Hazardous processes (Chap IVA, 41A-G), 1st Schedule-Drugs and Pharma Industries – Medical Surveillance and Record Keeping – Permissible exposure Limits (41F, 2nd Schedule) – 29 Notifiable Occupation Diseases – Competent Person, Penalties
  19. 19. Amended (1987) Factories Act 1948- State Rules- Key Provisions • Storage handling and transportation of flammable chemicals, Ignition Sources (sec 70)e.g., Fl Liq with FP<20 C to be kept below 20L in any work room. • Machine Guarding, Confined Space Entry and Lockout Tagout • Permit Systems • Right to Know and Hazard Communication (Chap IV, Rules-73M) • Ventilation (air movement 30 m/min) and Temperature (max WBT 30 C)-Sec 22A, Chap 3-Health, Light Level 30 to 100 lux (sec 35) • Centrifugal Machines (Chap IV, Schedule V), Interlocks etc., Agitator and Mixing machines (Schedule VII)
  20. 20. Additional Provisions • Max Weight One is allowed to carry-55 kg (male) and 30 Kg female (Act 34, Regs 66) • Control of Sources of ignition, spontaneous ignition, fire protection, Fire Exit (Act-38 Rules-70) • Medical Examinations-Occupational Health Centers (Act-41B,C Rules 73V) • Dangerous Operations (Act -87, Rules -114) – Handling and Manipulation of Corrosive Substances (Sc. 12), Highly Flammable Liquids (Sc. 23), Operation with high noise levels (Sc. 24)
  21. 21. What can we do? • Understand the economics and culture before intervention. • Participate in developing local expertise. • Exchange of hazard control technology. • AIHA/ACGIH/NIOSH: Assist professionals already working in emerging countries. • DO, not talk. Facilitate, not complain • Small step at a time is better than not walking at all, especially on rough roads!

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