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University of Cincinnati, College of
Medicine, Environmental Health
Department, Division of Industrial
Occupational Health and Safety Issues and
Developments in Emerging Economies with
Focus on INDIA
• Workplace demographics
• Issues: Working conditions
• Current occupational health and safety
• Approaches adopted
• Suggested approaches
• Labor Force: About 400M (44M to 90M Child
• Unemployment Rate: 22%
• Industrial Growth 8%, Inflation Rate: 9%
• Unions represents: 25 % of industrial and service
workers in the organized sector
• 1977 law prohibits Bonded Labor Factories Act. A
1986 law bans employment of children under age
• One of world’s largest
• Exposure to serious health and
• Conditions exacerbated by export
of hazards from developed
• Hazardous conditions + scarcity
of trained EHS professionals and
infrastructure = serious threat of
occupational illnesses and
Hence, greater role of
health and Safety
• Occupational diseases occurred in early 1900 in USA
and Europe are still occurring
• Large affected population-industries, hospitals, farms,
• Pro-active companies not able to practice IH due to
lack of trained professionals and infrastructure
• Quality Assurance is a concern in IH being practiced
• 7000 Industrial Hygienists Needed - 2000 CIHs for
260M people and 1 for 1B people
• Occupational Safety-Fairly good, Environment
and Ecology-Improving, Industrial Hygiene-Long
way to go.
Addressing the Issues
• Media Coverage
• State and Supreme Courts Ruling
– Closed down an operation or plant
– Suspended forest based activities including about
900 saw mills, veneer and plywood mills
– Relocation of thousands of hazardous industries-
Under court order, electrical supply discontinued for
companies not acting.
Addressing the Issues
• Amendment in legislation and increase in awareness
since Bhopal tragedy
• Multinational corporations bringing corporate OHS
• Proactive public Sector companies and large
corporations conscious about environment and safety.
• EHS associations’ role in education and awareness
• Institutions offering postgraduate safety and
environmental management program since 1979
Addressing the Issues-India’s first Master in
Industrial Hygiene Program
• Offered at BVM Engineering College, Sardar
Patel University, Vallabh Vidya Nagar, Gujarat,
300 miles north of Bombay with University of
• First 19 Industrial Hygienists trained
• All from the first and second class working
• Presented Technical Papers last year and this
year at AIHCs, Toronto and Orlando.
• Admission: Science or Engineering degree
• Seven students selected out of 30 applicants in the first
and second batch.
• Three semester, 16 courses and 6 months internship.
• UC Provided course curriculum and course notes
modified to meet Indian needs.
• Fee per semester: $150.
• Students published technical papers in Industrial
Safety Chronicle and presented poster session at AIHC,
• National and International Agencies
– UC, NIOH, ACGIH
– Individual Professionals
– Australian Occupational Hygiene Associations
• A truck load of donated premier books costing about
$50000 arrived. Pfizer paid the shipping cost.
• SKC, Kellogg, Quest donated sampling equipment
• Competent and committed faculties from USA and India
• PSM Medical College in India and Staff
• Recognition of Industrial Hygiene as a
• Placement of Students
• Implementation of prevention and
control measures-Especially In Small
• Funding for MIH program
• Establish Industrial Hygiene Institute-Non-profit
Non-Governmental organization providing cost
• Strengthen MIH program.
• Government on amending existing legislation:
COSHH, UK/EC Directives
• Employee State Insurance Corporation, to provide
medical AND IH Services following EC model
• Country specific certification
• Adopt a small scale industry program
Safety and Health Organizations
• National Safety Council, Mumbai, Director General
(DG) Mr. K. C. Gupta, Phone: 022-4091285, 4073694
• National Institute of Occupational Health, Ahmedabad,
Phone: DG, Dr. H.N. Saiyed, 079-2867351, 2867352
• Central Labor Institute, Mumbai, DG, Mr. S.K.
Saxena, Phone 022-4092203
• Indian Occupational Health Association, Mumbai
• Indian Toxicological Research Institute, Lukhanou, UP
Associations and Trade Unions
• Confederation of Indian Industry, New Delhi, Mr.
K. P. Nyati, Advisor Environment 011-4645288
• Federation of Indian Industries and Chamber of
Commerce, New Delhi
• Standing Conference of Public Enterprises
(SCOPE) Secretary General: Mr. M.A. Hakim,
• Indian National Trade Union Congress
• Bhartiya Mazadoor Sangh
Overview of Pertinent
• Indian Factories Act 1948 and Subsequent
• Indian Boiler Regulations (1950, 1994)
• Gas Cylinder (1981) and Static and Mobile
Pressure Vessel (unfired) Rules (1981)
• Indian Petroleum Act (1934) and Rules
Amended (1987) Factories Act 1948-Key
• Factories Act and Rules Promulgated by
– Approval of New Plants and Expansion Projects (6)
– Precautions against gas Vapors and Dust (14, 36
– Control of Hazardous processes (Chap IVA, 41A-G),
1st Schedule-Drugs and Pharma Industries
– Medical Surveillance and Record Keeping
– Permissible exposure Limits (41F, 2nd Schedule)
– 29 Notifiable Occupation Diseases
– Competent Person, Penalties
Amended (1987) Factories Act 1948-
State Rules- Key Provisions
• Storage handling and transportation of flammable chemicals,
Ignition Sources (sec 70)e.g., Fl Liq with FP<20 C to be kept below
20L in any work room.
• Machine Guarding, Confined Space Entry and Lockout Tagout
• Permit Systems
• Right to Know and Hazard Communication (Chap IV, Rules-73M)
• Ventilation (air movement 30 m/min) and Temperature (max WBT
30 C)-Sec 22A, Chap 3-Health, Light Level 30 to 100 lux (sec 35)
• Centrifugal Machines (Chap IV, Schedule V), Interlocks etc.,
Agitator and Mixing machines (Schedule VII)
• Max Weight One is allowed to carry-55 kg (male) and
30 Kg female (Act 34, Regs 66)
• Control of Sources of ignition, spontaneous ignition,
fire protection, Fire Exit (Act-38 Rules-70)
• Medical Examinations-Occupational Health Centers
(Act-41B,C Rules 73V)
• Dangerous Operations (Act -87, Rules -114)
– Handling and Manipulation of Corrosive Substances
(Sc. 12), Highly Flammable Liquids (Sc. 23), Operation
with high noise levels (Sc. 24)
What can we do?
• Understand the economics and culture before
• Participate in developing local expertise.
• Exchange of hazard control technology.
• AIHA/ACGIH/NIOSH: Assist professionals
already working in emerging countries.
• DO, not talk. Facilitate, not complain
• Small step at a time is better than not walking at
all, especially on rough roads!