What is Leadership?
It is a very important aspect of management
which has various meanings to different authors.
Leadership is the art or process of influencing
people so that they will strive willingly and
enthusiastically toward the achievement of
It a process of social influence in which one
person can enlist the aid and support of others in
the accomplishment of a common task.
David J. Cherrington provided an
important distinction between leadership and
According to him, to manage means “to
direct, to bring about, to accomplish, and to
have responsibility for. To lead, however, is to
inspire to influence and to motivate” .
Richard M. Steers identified three views on
the Approach to the definitions of leadership:
1. an attribute of position
2. a characteristic of a person
3. a category of behavior
He argued that the standpoint of
understanding the nature of people at work is to
consider leadership as a category of behavior.
Why is leadership necessary?
According to Cherrington, “effective leaders
inspire to pursue excellence, to extend
themselves, and to go beyond their
perfunctory job requirements by generating
The nature of power and differences
between power and authority should be placed
In a proper perspective. It is much broader than
What is the difference between
Power and Authority?
Power is the ability of an individual to
induce or influence the beliefs or actions of
other persons or group of persons, while
Authority is the right in a position of the
person to exercise discretion in making
decisions affecting others.
2. Understanding of People
The manager should know the motivation
theory and is able to relate it into meaningful
3. The ability to inspire followers to apply
their full capabilities to an undertaking.
It may be normal that while the use of
motivators seems to focus on subordinates
and their needs, inspiration also emanates
from group heads.
4. The style of the leader and the
climate he develops.
The strength of motivation, to a large extent
will depend on expectancies, perceived rewards,
the amount of effort to be necessary for the task
to be done, and other factors that are part of an
environment and the organizational climate.
There are a number of studies on leadership
which were primarily based on attempts to identify
the traits that leaders posses.
The “great man” theory infers that leaders
are born and not made, a belief in which
dates back to the ancient Greeks and
The essence of leadership is followership
(Treedy Heller, 1982). It is the willingness of
people to follow that makes a person a leader.
Leaders must exercise all the functions of their
role to combine human and material resources
to achieve objectives.
1. The Trait Theory
In this theory, the leader is conceived to be a
“great man” whose superior endowments
induce others to follow him.
2. Environment Theory
This theory explains leadership on the basis
of situations and crises that provide opportunities
for people to propose solutions or exhibit heroic
actions that place them in the position of
3. Personal Environment Theory
This maintains that characteristics of a leader,
the followers and the situations that interact
determine who will be the leader.
4. Exchange Theory
It suggests that group interaction represents
an exchange process in which leadership is conferred
upon the members whose efforts appears more likely
to reward other members for their effort on behalf of
5. Humanistic Theory
This is based on the hypothesis that groups
will be more effective and members will be
Better satisfied when the leader allows freedom
to satisfy their needs for achievement and self-
6. Exceptional Theory
This theory maintains that leadership is most
likely to be achieved by the member who succeeds
in initiating and reinforcing the expectations that he
will maintain the role structure and direction of the
7. Contingency Theory
This proposes that a given pattern of leadership
behavior will lead to effective group performance in
some circumstances and ineffective, in some cases.
8. Path-Goal Theory
This suggests that certain patterns of leader
behavior facilitate the clarification of the group
goals while other patterns of behavior stimulate
effective instruments and responses on the follower
There are several theories on leadership
behavior and styles. The two major styles of
leadership are :
• Task-oriented Style
- the leader gains satisfaction from seeing the
• People-oriented Style
- the leader looks toward achieving good
interpersonal relations by way of attaining a position
of personal prominence in the organization.
1. Autocratic Leader
He commands and expect compliance; is
dogmatic and positive; and leads the ability to
withhold or give rewards and punishment. This is the
“one rule type”.
2. Democratic or Participative Leader
He consults with subordinates on proposed
actions and decisions and encourages participation
He is a “father figure” who wants everyone to
feel good. The emphasis is on keeping everyone
happy and satisfied. Although he listens to his
subordinates, the decision is his own.
4. Liberal Leader/Free-rein Leader
He uses his power very rarely, if at all, giving
subordinates a high degree of independence in
their operations. They depend largely on
This word means to let people do as they
choose. This is practically no leadership at all. It
allows everything to run on its own course.
This is actually hard to find. The leader/group of
leaders sets the rules and interprets as they see fit.
High pressure tactics or emotionalism is used to sell
the people into following the directions by the
Real Leadership Power comes from an
honorable character and from the exercise of
certain power tools and principles; yet many
discussions of leadership focus on genetic “great
man” theories, personality “trait” theories, or
behavioral “style” theories. These theories have
had more explanatory than predictive value.
1. Coercive Power
Followers follow out of fear; they are afraid
of what might happen to them if they don’t do
what they asked to do. The leader in this case
has created a fear in the followers that either
something bad is going to happen or something
good will be taken away if they don’t comply.
2. Utility Power
Followers follow because of the benefits that
come to them if they do. The power in the
relationship is based on the useful exchange of
goods and services.
3. Principle-Centered Power
It is based on the power that some people have
with others because others tend to believe in them
and in what they are trying to accomplish. They are
trusted, respected and honored.
Likert believes that an effective leader relies on
communication to keep all parties concerned
working in a department. All members of the group,
including the leader, adopt a supportive attitude in
which they share in one another’s common needs,
values, aspirations, orientations, expectations, and
goals. Since this appeals to human motivations, he
inferred that this approach is the most effective way
to lead a group. He recommend the four systems as
1. System 1 Management
- Its leaders are highly autocratic; have little
trust in subordinates; motivate people through
fear and punishment and occasional rewards.
2. System Management
- Its leaders have patronizing confidence and
trust in subordinates, motivates with rewards and
some fear punishment; allow some delegation of
decision making but with close policy control.
3. System 3 Management (consultative)
- Leaders have substantial but not complete
confidence and trust in subordinates; usually try
to make use of subordinates’ ideas and
opinions; use rewards for motivation with
occasional punishment and some participation.
4. System 4 Management
- In this, leaders have complete trust and
confidence in subordinates in all matters affecting
the organization. They always get ideas and
opinions from subordinates and constructively use
“To make you a good leader, you must learn two
sciences, you must learn the science of holding
your tongue; then you can learn the science of
using it correctly”
Leaders do not command excellence, they
build excellence. Excellence is “being all you can
be” within the bounds of doing what is right for
your organization. To reach this, we must be a
leader of character.
Traits of a good leader can be explained
simply and comprehensively by the acronym
S T R O N G..
S – Steadfast ( strong in character)
T – Trustworthy ( true to his word/reliable)
R – Respectful (Courteous)
O – Open-Minded (broad in his outlook in life)
N – Noble ( Concerned about his followers and transparent)
G – Gutsy (firm in his convictions)
A leader envisions the future. He inspires the
members of the organization and charts the course
of the expertise. Here are some traits of a leader:
1. Human Leadership
- refers to the extent to which the school
leader can be supportive, fosters participation,
enhances staff commitment and satisfaction.
2. Structural Leadership
- refers to the extent to which the school leader
thinks clearly and logically, develops clear school
goals and policies and coordinate.
3. Management of Trust
- educational leaders have in such a way that
others strongly believe them and their styles of
leadership do not become controversial or
4. Management of Self
- effective educational leaders should have an
accurate inventory of their own strengths and
1. Love of the task and concern with the
3. Acceptance of realities.
Leadership is “ a particular type of power
relationship characterized by a group
member’s perception that another group
member influence behavior patterns
regarding its activity as a group member”.
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