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Leadership

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Leadership

  1. 1. What is Leadership? It is a very important aspect of management which has various meanings to different authors. Leadership is the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically toward the achievement of group goals. It a process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task.
  2. 2. David J. Cherrington provided an important distinction between leadership and management. According to him, to manage means “to direct, to bring about, to accomplish, and to have responsibility for. To lead, however, is to inspire to influence and to motivate” .
  3. 3. Richard M. Steers identified three views on the Approach to the definitions of leadership: 1. an attribute of position 2. a characteristic of a person 3. a category of behavior He argued that the standpoint of understanding the nature of people at work is to consider leadership as a category of behavior.
  4. 4. Why is leadership necessary? According to Cherrington, “effective leaders inspire to pursue excellence, to extend themselves, and to go beyond their perfunctory job requirements by generating creative ideas”.
  5. 5. 1. Power The nature of power and differences between power and authority should be placed In a proper perspective. It is much broader than authority.
  6. 6. What is the difference between Power and Authority? Power is the ability of an individual to induce or influence the beliefs or actions of other persons or group of persons, while Authority is the right in a position of the person to exercise discretion in making decisions affecting others.
  7. 7. 2. Understanding of People The manager should know the motivation theory and is able to relate it into meaningful practice. 3. The ability to inspire followers to apply their full capabilities to an undertaking. It may be normal that while the use of motivators seems to focus on subordinates and their needs, inspiration also emanates from group heads.
  8. 8. 4. The style of the leader and the climate he develops. The strength of motivation, to a large extent will depend on expectancies, perceived rewards, the amount of effort to be necessary for the task to be done, and other factors that are part of an environment and the organizational climate.
  9. 9. There are a number of studies on leadership which were primarily based on attempts to identify the traits that leaders posses. The “great man” theory infers that leaders are born and not made, a belief in which dates back to the ancient Greeks and Roman.
  10. 10. The essence of leadership is followership (Treedy Heller, 1982). It is the willingness of people to follow that makes a person a leader. Leaders must exercise all the functions of their role to combine human and material resources to achieve objectives.
  11. 11. 1. The Trait Theory In this theory, the leader is conceived to be a “great man” whose superior endowments induce others to follow him. 2. Environment Theory This theory explains leadership on the basis of situations and crises that provide opportunities for people to propose solutions or exhibit heroic actions that place them in the position of leadership.
  12. 12. 3. Personal Environment Theory This maintains that characteristics of a leader, the followers and the situations that interact determine who will be the leader. 4. Exchange Theory It suggests that group interaction represents an exchange process in which leadership is conferred upon the members whose efforts appears more likely to reward other members for their effort on behalf of the group.
  13. 13. 5. Humanistic Theory This is based on the hypothesis that groups will be more effective and members will be Better satisfied when the leader allows freedom to satisfy their needs for achievement and self- actualization. 6. Exceptional Theory This theory maintains that leadership is most likely to be achieved by the member who succeeds in initiating and reinforcing the expectations that he will maintain the role structure and direction of the group.
  14. 14. 7. Contingency Theory This proposes that a given pattern of leadership behavior will lead to effective group performance in some circumstances and ineffective, in some cases. 8. Path-Goal Theory This suggests that certain patterns of leader behavior facilitate the clarification of the group goals while other patterns of behavior stimulate effective instruments and responses on the follower group.
  15. 15. There are several theories on leadership behavior and styles. The two major styles of leadership are : • Task-oriented Style - the leader gains satisfaction from seeing the task performed. • People-oriented Style - the leader looks toward achieving good interpersonal relations by way of attaining a position of personal prominence in the organization.
  16. 16. 1. Autocratic Leader He commands and expect compliance; is dogmatic and positive; and leads the ability to withhold or give rewards and punishment. This is the “one rule type”. 2. Democratic or Participative Leader He consults with subordinates on proposed actions and decisions and encourages participation from them.
  17. 17. 3. Benevolent-Autocrat He is a “father figure” who wants everyone to feel good. The emphasis is on keeping everyone happy and satisfied. Although he listens to his subordinates, the decision is his own. 4. Liberal Leader/Free-rein Leader He uses his power very rarely, if at all, giving subordinates a high degree of independence in their operations. They depend largely on subordinates.
  18. 18. 1. Laissez-Faire This word means to let people do as they choose. This is practically no leadership at all. It allows everything to run on its own course. 2. Manipulative-Inspirational This is actually hard to find. The leader/group of leaders sets the rules and interprets as they see fit. High pressure tactics or emotionalism is used to sell the people into following the directions by the leader.
  19. 19. Real Leadership Power comes from an honorable character and from the exercise of certain power tools and principles; yet many discussions of leadership focus on genetic “great man” theories, personality “trait” theories, or behavioral “style” theories. These theories have had more explanatory than predictive value.
  20. 20. 1. Coercive Power Followers follow out of fear; they are afraid of what might happen to them if they don’t do what they asked to do. The leader in this case has created a fear in the followers that either something bad is going to happen or something good will be taken away if they don’t comply.
  21. 21. 2. Utility Power Followers follow because of the benefits that come to them if they do. The power in the relationship is based on the useful exchange of goods and services. 3. Principle-Centered Power It is based on the power that some people have with others because others tend to believe in them and in what they are trying to accomplish. They are trusted, respected and honored.
  22. 22. Likert believes that an effective leader relies on communication to keep all parties concerned working in a department. All members of the group, including the leader, adopt a supportive attitude in which they share in one another’s common needs, values, aspirations, orientations, expectations, and goals. Since this appeals to human motivations, he inferred that this approach is the most effective way to lead a group. He recommend the four systems as Follows:
  23. 23. 1. System 1 Management (exploitative-authoritative) - Its leaders are highly autocratic; have little trust in subordinates; motivate people through fear and punishment and occasional rewards. 2. System Management (benevolent-authoritative) - Its leaders have patronizing confidence and trust in subordinates, motivates with rewards and some fear punishment; allow some delegation of decision making but with close policy control.
  24. 24. 3. System 3 Management (consultative) - Leaders have substantial but not complete confidence and trust in subordinates; usually try to make use of subordinates’ ideas and opinions; use rewards for motivation with occasional punishment and some participation. 4. System 4 Management (participative group) - In this, leaders have complete trust and confidence in subordinates in all matters affecting the organization. They always get ideas and opinions from subordinates and constructively use them.
  25. 25. “To make you a good leader, you must learn two sciences, you must learn the science of holding your tongue; then you can learn the science of using it correctly” - Socrates
  26. 26. Leaders do not command excellence, they build excellence. Excellence is “being all you can be” within the bounds of doing what is right for your organization. To reach this, we must be a leader of character. Traits of a good leader can be explained simply and comprehensively by the acronym S T R O N G..
  27. 27. S – Steadfast ( strong in character) T – Trustworthy ( true to his word/reliable) R – Respectful (Courteous) O – Open-Minded (broad in his outlook in life) N – Noble ( Concerned about his followers and transparent) G – Gutsy (firm in his convictions)
  28. 28. • Knowledge • Bearing • Courage • Endurance • Enthusiasm • Integrity • Decisiveness • Dependability • Force • Humility • Humor • Initiative • Judgment • Justice • Empathy • Tact • Unselfishness • Wit A leader envisions the future. He inspires the members of the organization and charts the course of the expertise. Here are some traits of a leader:
  29. 29. 1. Human Leadership - refers to the extent to which the school leader can be supportive, fosters participation, enhances staff commitment and satisfaction. 2. Structural Leadership - refers to the extent to which the school leader thinks clearly and logically, develops clear school goals and policies and coordinate.
  30. 30. 3. Management of Trust - educational leaders have in such a way that others strongly believe them and their styles of leadership do not become controversial or Debatable issue. 4. Management of Self - effective educational leaders should have an accurate inventory of their own strengths and weaknesses.
  31. 31. 1. Love of the task and concern with the people. 2. Energy. 3. Acceptance of realities. 4. Discipline. 5. Expertise. 6. Responsibility.
  32. 32. Leadership is “ a particular type of power relationship characterized by a group member’s perception that another group member influence behavior patterns regarding its activity as a group member”.

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