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DEFINITION OF CLASSICAL APPROACH
“Classical approach of management professes
the body of management thought based on
the belief that employees have only
economical and physical needs and that the
social needs & need for job satisfaction either
does not exist or are unimportant. Accordingly
it advocates high specialization of
labour,centralized decision making & profit
• Classical approach is the oldest formal school of thought
which began around 1900 and continued into the 1920s.
• Its mainly concerned with the increasing the efficiency of
workers and organizations based on management
practices, which were an outcome of careful observation.
• Classical approach mainly looks for the universal
principles of operation in the striving for economic
• Classical approach includes scientific, administrative &
• SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT focuses on the
“one best way” to do a job.
• ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT focuses on
the manager & basic managerial functions.
• BUREAUCRACTIC MANAGEMENT focuses on
the guidelines for structuring with
formaliazation of rules,procedures and a clear
division of labour.
• FREDERICK WINSLOW
• FRANK GILBERTH (18681924) & LILLIAN
• HENRI FAYOL
• MAX WEBER
• SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT
• GENERAL ADMINSTRATIVE
- FATHER OF SCIENTIFIC
• ANALYSED MANAGEMENT
SCIENTIFICALLY TO FIND OUT THE
MOST EFFICTIVE WAY TO DO A
JOB - “ONE BEST WAY” TO DO
HENRI FAYOL (1841- 1925)
- FATHER OF MODERN
• ANALYSED MANAGEMENT AS A
UNIVERSAL PROCESS OF
COMMANDING,COORDINATING& CONTROLLING. ALSO
PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT.
• TAYLOR’S THEORY OF SCIENTIFIC
• FAYOL’S ADMINISTRATIVE THEORY
• WEBER’S THEORY OF BUREAUCRACY
FEDRICK WINSLOW TAYLOR(1856-1915)
Father of Scientific Management
“one best way for doing the job”
Scientific management was a theory of management
that analyzed and workflows, with the objective of
improving labor productivity
management of a business, industry, or economy,
according to principles of efficiency derived from
experiments in methods of work and production,
especially from time-and-motion studies- (mass noun)
In 1898, Taylor joined Bethlehem Steel.
Taylor was a mechanical engineer who sought to
improve industrial efficiency.
Working in the steel industry, Taylor had observed
the phenomenon of workers' purposely operating
well below their capacity, that is, soldiering. He
attributed soldiering to three causes:
The almost universally held belief among workers that if
they became more productive, fewer of them would be
needed and jobs would be eliminated.
Employees take great care never to work at a good pace for fear
that this faster pace would become the new standard. If
employees are paid by the quantity they produce, they fear that
management will decrease their per-unit pay if the quantity
Workers waste much of their effort by relying on rule-ofthumb methods rather than on optimal work methods that
can be determined by scientific study of the task.
Taylor insisted that management itself would
have to change and further, that the manner
of change could be determined only by
Hence, term ‘Scientific Management’ evolved.
Taylor suggested that decisions based on rules
of thumb and tradition be replaced with
precise procedures developed after careful
study of individual situations
Taylor argued that even the most basic, mindless tasks could be
planned in a way that dramatically would increase productivity,
and that scientific management of the work was more effective
than the "initiative and incentive" method of motivating workers.
To scientifically determine the optimal way to perform a job,
Taylor performed experiments that he called time studies, (also
known as time and motion studies).
He use stop watches to measure the workers efficiency
The main things Taylor noticed for inefficiency
The lack of
There is no
skill and job
Replace rule-of-thumb work methods with methods based on a
scientific study of the tasks.
Scientifically select, train, and develop each worker rather than
passively leaving them to train themselves.
Cooperate with the workers to ensure that the scientifically
developed methods are being followed.
Divide work nearly equally between managers and workers, so
that the managers apply scientific management principles to
planning the work and the workers actually perform the tasks.
method for performing
Selected workers with
appropriate abilities for
Trained workers in
Supported workers by
planning their work and
Provided wage incentives
to workers for increased
Demonstrated the importance
of compensation for
Initiated the careful study of
tasks and jobs
Demonstrated the importance
of personal selection and
Did not appreciate the social context
of work and higher needs of workers.
Did not acknowledge variance among
Tended to regard workers as
uninformed and ignored their ideas
FRANK B GILBRETH & LILLIAN M GILBRETH
Followers of Taylor
Frank B Gilbreth (1868-1924) pioneered time and motion study and
arrived at many of his management techniques independently of Taylor .
He stressed efficiency and was known for his
quest for “one best way” to do work.
His work had great impact on medical surgery by
drastically reducing the time patients spent on
He invented a device – ‘MICRO CHRONOMETER’ in
order to record workers movement and the
amount of time spend to done a job
Gilbreth performed experiments that
focused on specific motions, such as
bricklaying experiments that resulted in a
dramatic decrease in the number of
motions required to lay bricks. The
husband and wife Gilbreth team used
motion picture technology to study the
motions of the workers in some of their
Lady Gilbreth was more interested in human
aspect of work
On the basis of their study and experiments
frank give shape to 17 principles known as
Frederick Taylor’s scientific management
techniques were expanded by automaker Henry
Replaced workers with machines for heavy lifting
Applied to total car assembly, Improving
efficiency and reducing worker-hours required to
produce a model-t ford to less than two
Drawbacks of Scientific Management
While scientific management principles improved
productivity and had a substantial impact on industry, they
also increased the monotony of work
While in many cases the new ways of working were
accepted by the workers, in some cases they were not.
The use of stopwatches often was a protested issue and led
to a strike at one factory where "Taylorism" was being
Complaints that Taylorism was dehumanizing led to an
investigation by the United States Congress.
Despite its controversy, scientific
management changed the way that
work was done, and forms of it continue
to be used today.
o Henri Fayol(1841-1925)
-French mining engineer and a management
-Started as an engineer at a mining company and
became Director in 1888.
- Viewed management as a profession that can be
trained and developed.
-First one to analyze the functions of management.
-Made three major contributions to the
theory of Management:
(A)A clear distinction b/n technical &
(B)Identified functions constituting the
(C)Developed principles of management.
-Activities of an industrial
enterprise can be
grouped in to six categories: technical,
commercial, financial, security, accounting &
(1)Technical Processing production &
(2)Commercial Buying, selling &
(3)Financial Optimum use of capital
(4)Security Protection of asset and
(5)Accounting Ascertaining the
(6)Managerial Optimum use of
resources for optimum result
(B) Fayol described management as a
scientific process built up of five
Planning, Organizing, Commanding,
Functions of Management
1. Planning –process of activities required
to meet a goal.
2. Organizing – making orderly determination &
arrangement of a task.
3. Commanding(Directing) – involves guiding,
supervising, motivating & leading people for
attainment of the time-oriented tasks.
4. Coordinating- bringing together the elements
5. Controlling- having control over all of the aspects
that contribute to meeting the goal.
• Henri Fayol, developed a set of 14 principles:
1. Division of Labour: allows for job specialization.
• Fayol noted firms can have too much specialization
leading to poor quality and worker involvement.
2.. Authority and Responsibility: Fayol included both
formal and informal authority resulting from special
3. Discipline: obedient, applied, respectful employees
4. Line of Authority: a clear chain from top to bottom of
the firm[ ‘Gang Plank’]
5. Centralization: the degree to which authority rests at
the very top.
Unity of Direction: One plan of action to
guide the organization.
7. Unity of Command: Employees should have
only one boss.
8. Order: Each employee is put where they
have the most value.
9. Initiative: Encourage innovation.
10. Equity: Treat all employees fairly in justice
11. Remuneration of Personnel: The payment
system contributes to success.
12. Stability of Tenure: Long-term employment
13. General interest over individual interest:
The organization takes precedence over the
14. Esprit de corps: ‘Union is strength’- refers
to harmony & mutual understanding among
the members of an organization.
• German theorist and sociologist.
• Follower of General Administrative Theory
proposed by Henry Fayol.
• Introduced most of the concepts on
Birth of Bureaucracy
• During 1800’s, European Org. were managed on a
personal, family-like basis.
• Employees loyal towards a single individual.
• Resources used to realize individual desires.
• Weber envisioned Org. would be managed on an
impersonal, rational basis. This form of Org. is
known as Bureaucracy.
• Org. based on rational authority would be
more efficient and adaptable to changes.
• Employee selection and advancement is based
on competence and technical qualification.
• Org. relies on rules and regulations which are
impersonal and applied uniformly to all
• Division of labour.
• Positions in an Org. are organised in a
• Managers depends not on personality for
successfully giving orders but on legal power
invested in managerial position.