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WHAT IS A NARRATIVE?• Narrative is the organization of events that are presented in a story.• The audience need and use the narrative to make sense of things inside their head.• Genre, form, character and time are the elements which create a narrative.
TVZETAN TODOROV • A Bulgarian theorist. • He came up with the idea that all narratives start with equilibrium where everything is balanced. Then a problem comes along where the balanced is disrupted and to close the problem is solved, returning to the equilibrium.Equilibrium Disequilibrium (problem) New equilibrium
Vladimir Propp •Russian •Born 17th April 1895 •Died At 75 •Russian& Soviet Formalist Vladimir Propp developed a character theory for studying media texts and productions, which indicates that there were 7 broad character types in the 100 tales he analysed. He studies Russian fairytales and discovered that in stories there were always 8 types of characters evident. These are: the hero, the villain, the donor, the dispatcher, the false hero, the helper, the princess and her father.
Hero Father Mentor Person withMale or female is Teaches/aids the authorityusually looking for hero position whosomething or tryingto solve a offers theproblem/mystery heroine (prize) Villain Characters Donor Simply, conflic ts with the Give the hero hero something to help them along. Can be anything from a map to a car Heroine Helper The ‘prize’ for The hero’s the hero in sidekick, eg Robin what ever task to Batman or they are on Donkey to Shrek (above)
CLAUDE LEVI-STRAUSS •French •Born 28th November 1908 •Died 30 October 2009(Aged 100) Levi-Strauss looked at narrative structure in terms of binary oppositions.Binary oppositions are sets of opposite values which reveal thestructure of media texts. An example would be GOOD and EVIL– we understand the concept of GOOD as being the opposite of EVIL. Levi –Strauss was not so interested in looking at the order inwhich events were arranged in the plot. He looked instead for deeper arrangements of themes. For example, if we look at Science Fiction films we can identify a series of binary oppositions.
TERMS• Equilibrium – when something is in balance. (the beginning of a story)• Disequilibrium – lack of balance. (when a problem/conflict comes up in the narrative)• New equilibrium – when balanced is returned (when the problem is solved)• Binary opposition – each main event has an equal and opposite reaction. (old & young people, good & evil ect)• Flashbacks – looking back on an event (holding a photo then fading into a past event)• Flashforwards – looking forward to an event that is yet to happen (a character daydreaming thinking ahead)