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LIGHTING FIXTURES AT HAVELLS INDIA LTD. NEEMRANA 
BY 
CHETAN GOYAL 
(ECE 11004) 
Project dissertation submitted in partial...
LIGHTING FIXTURES AT HAVELLS INDIA LTD. NEEMRANA 
Submitted to 
RAFFLES UNIVERSITY, NEEMRANA 
in partial fulfillment of th...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 
“Such Thanks I give as near death to those that wish him Live”- Shakespeare. A formal statement of acknow...
SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY 
RAFFLES UNIVERSITY, NEEMRANA 
DECLARATION 
I CHETAN GOYAL student of B.TECH (ECE) he...
PREFACE 
Someone has rightly said that practical experience is far better and closer to the real world than mere theoretic...
Havells India Limited is a $1.3 Billion leading Fast Moving Electrical Goods (FMEG) Company with a strong global footprint...
to offer door step service via its initiative ‘Havells Connect’. Thanks to the quality of products and quicker service, it...
 First Indian CFL manufacturers to have adopted RoHS, European norms on Restriction of Hazardous Substances in CFLs in th...
In December, 2004 placed 235 fully convertible debentures of Rs. 10 Lacs on M/s. Shine Ltd., Mauritius and the debenture w...
Launch of Domestic Appliances 
Standard Electrical merged with Havells 
Entered into a Joint Venture with Shanghai Yaming ...
o FPL 
o Residual Current Circuit Breaker (RCCB) 
o Panel Board system 
o RCBO 
o Changeover Switch 
o Distribution Board ...
VISION, MISSION & CORE VALUES OF HAVELLS 
Vision 
"To be a globally recognized corporation that provides best electrical &...
Quality Control 
The essence of quality is closely wrapped in the way Havells team think, plan and work. It finds its true...
SAFE & SECURE WORKPLACE OF HAVELLS 
Havells as a leading electrical goods manufacturer also ensure environment, health and...
Reducing Risk:- 
Risk should be minimised at workplace to ensure Good Quality, Good performance and good output. To minimi...
 Do not play with any machine/equipment. 
 Do not taste, touch, smell any material/chemical in plant 
 Vehicles maximum...
STOREHOUSE 
Raw Material Incoming: For production the incoming raw material comes from different vendors and suppliers. To...
STORE PROCESS FLOW 
VENDORS AND SUPPLIERS 
CRCA STEEL, BHUSHAN STEEL (IS-513 standard grade) 
Electronic ballast from Have...
Production Planning & Control 
For efficient, effective and economic operation in a manufacturing unit of an organisation ...
DISPATCHING 
Authorizing the start of an operation on the shop floor is the function of dispatching. This function may be ...
LED PROCESS FLOW FOR JOY 5W 
Commercial Assembly Line- On this assembly line commercial products are manufactured. It cons...
 IVY 2/2 Crystal & Classic 
 Softline Direct 2/2 
 Softline Perforated 2/2 
 RANA 2/2 (Sylvania product) 
 RANA 1/4 (...
Consumer Assembly Line- It consist of 6 assembly lines. It mainly manufactures product for customer use. It focuses on goo...
CNC SHOP 
Lighting fixture division at Havells is well equipped with magnificent CNC machines like Amada, salvagnini, Gasp...
Salvagnini P2XE (MADE IN ITALY) 
Accuracy- 99.98% Tolerance- 0.02mm 
Operation – Bending 
Neemrana Fixture Plant is a repl...
AMADA RGM2-3512 Bending Machine 
Amada RGM2-3512 is a metal-sheet bending machine. It is used for preparing the other hous...
PRESS SHOP & TOOL ROOM 
Tool Room 
WEDM (Wire Electric Discharge Machine) 
The wire electric discharge machine of Electron...
PAINT SHOP 
Lighting Fixture division of Havells has its own paint shop. The paint Shop is well equipped with the ITW GEMA...
The substance contains few carbonates and phosphates which cements the cracks on the surface. 
PH- 4-6 
Ambient Temperatur...
PAINT SHOP PROCESS FLOW 
v 
REJECT 
Ok Accept 
Material Received from CNC SHOP & PRESS SHOP 
Loading of material on convey...
QUALITY IN HAVELLS 
Quality is first priority in Havells. Havells ensures quality of its product at each stage of producti...
Testing Laboratories At Havells-: 
PHOTOMETRY LAB-: 
Photometry lab at Havells India Ltd. (Luminaires fixture) checks phot...
2. Chromaticity Diagram- It is a plane diagram formed by plotting one of three chromaticity co-ordinates against another. ...
 Largest specifications of measurement lamp: current: 20A 
 Weight: 50kg 
 Lamp radius: R80cm 
 Measurement distance: ...
Electrical and Mechanical Lab-: 
For testing Electrical Parameters: 
Electronic Ballast Analyser (HB-6B)-: HB-6B is profes...
High Voltage Tester (CS2672C)- The purpose of this test is to ensure that electric strength of the luminaire is as per spe...
Endurance Lab-: 
The motive of endurance lab is to check the behavior of product when subjected to thermal and electrical ...
THERMAL LAB-: 
Thermal Test-: To check temperatures of critical components in a luminaire when subjected to voltage. 
 Dr...
Safety Lab- Checks Luminaire/part of luminaire on safety issues. It checks luminaires performance in abnormal conditions o...
 Their surfaces shall show no signs of rust. However Traces of rust on sharp edges and any yellowish film removable by ru...
 The tip of the glow-wire is then bought slowly into contact with the test specimen for 30±1s 
 An approximate rate of a...
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Report OF Summer Training inHAVELLS INDIA LTD.(Lighting Fixture Division Neemrana)

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This is about my experience in Havells India Ltd.(Lighting Fixture Division).Neemrana.It was a great opportunity for me.I am extremely thanful to Havells group for giving me a chance.

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Report OF Summer Training inHAVELLS INDIA LTD.(Lighting Fixture Division Neemrana)

  1. 1. LIGHTING FIXTURES AT HAVELLS INDIA LTD. NEEMRANA BY CHETAN GOYAL (ECE 11004) Project dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for Summer Training Work carried out at HAVELLS INDIA LTD., NEEMRANA Submitted to DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY RAFFLES UNIVERSITY, NEEMRANA
  2. 2. LIGHTING FIXTURES AT HAVELLS INDIA LTD. NEEMRANA Submitted to RAFFLES UNIVERSITY, NEEMRANA in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Summer Training Submitted by CHETAN GOYAL ECE 11004 B.Tech (ECE), VITH Semester Under the Guidance of Mr D.C. LAKHERA Mr R.N. Tiwari QUALITY MANAGER HOD, ECE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT “Such Thanks I give as near death to those that wish him Live”- Shakespeare. A formal statement of acknowledgement will hardly meet the ends of justice in the matter of expressing my deep sense of gratitude and obligation to all those who helped me in the completion of this project report. First of all I would like to thank Mr R.L. Ruhela (Deputy GM), Havells India Ltd who allowed me to enrich my skills in Havells India Ltd. (Luminaire Fixture Division). The experience of past four weeks in Havells under the guidance of my Project Leader and Guide has greatly influenced my way of thinking towards facing the challenges during training. This will help me a lot in future as I move further ahead in my professional life in the days to come. I am especially indebted to my Project Manager, Mr D.C. Lakhera, Quality Manager without whose precious time & expert guidance, I would not have acquired so much knowledge about luminaires Fixture. I would also like to thank Mr Pradeep Shukla, Sr. Engineer His guidance and in depth knowledge of lighting concepts have boosted my confidence to complete this industrial training successfully. He made the intricacies of the Luminaire production clear to me. He deserves special thanks for his technical guidance throughout the training. I am also extremely thankful to Mr R.N. Tiwari, HOD (ECE) who was gave me this wonderful break to implement my knowledge in this industrial world. Last but not the least I would also like to express my gratitude to Havells employees and all my friends who helped me a lot throughout this training.
  4. 4. SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY RAFFLES UNIVERSITY, NEEMRANA DECLARATION I CHETAN GOYAL student of B.TECH (ECE) hereby declare that the project title “Havells India LTD.” which is submitted by me to department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, School of Engineering and Technology, RAFFLES UNIVERSITY NEEMRANA in partial fulfilment of requirement for the Summer training has not been previously formed for the basis of any degree, diploma or other similar title or recognition. Place: Neemrana CHETAN GOYAL Date: Signature:
  5. 5. PREFACE Someone has rightly said that practical experience is far better and closer to the real world than mere theoretical exposure. The practical experience helps the student to view the real business world closely, which in turn widely influences his/her perceptions and understanding of the real situation .Practical work constitutes the backbone of any technical education program. An engineering student has to do practical work quite frequently during his entire life span. The present report is a part of the Summer industrial training that contains the work done by me during the training period at Havells India Ltd. (Lighting Fixture Division), Neemrana True to the core, a properly and executed industrial training helps a lot in providing linkage between the student and the industry. It develops the awareness of industrial approach to problem solving based on a board understanding of the mode of operation of industrial organization. This vocational training has offered me an opportunity to put all my efforts and the theoretical knowledge to practice and enhance my knowledge, and at the same time, given me practical experience in the field of engineering. It is surely going to help me in my future too. In the preparation of this report, I have made every effort to ensure that all steps involved in production & quality at Havells are adequately covered and the report be completed in it .Any suggestions for improvement, if rendered, will be gratefully accepted .I sincerely hope that this training will prove pure knowledge imparting and would prove fruitful for me in my near future.
  6. 6. Havells India Limited is a $1.3 Billion leading Fast Moving Electrical Goods (FMEG) Company with a strong global footprint. Havells enjoys enviable market dominance across a wide spectrum of products, including Industrial & Domestic Circuit Protection Devices, Cables & Wires, Motors, Pumps, Fans, Modular Switches, Home Appliances, Electric Water Heaters, Power Capacitors, CFL Lamps, Luminaires for Domestic, Commercial and industrial Applications. Havells in 2007 created history by acquiring world’s renowned lighting company Sylvania thus registering itself amongst top 4 lighting companies in the world. Today, Havells owns some of the most prestigious global brands like Havells, Crabtree, Sylvania, Concord, Luminance and Standard. Its global network constitutes of 6500 professionals across 91 branches & representative offices in over 50 countries. Its 11 state-of-the-art manufacturing plants in India located at Haridwar, Baddi, Noida, Sahibabad, Faridabad, Alwar, Neemrana and 7 world class manufacturing plants located in Europe, Latin America, Africa & China are manufacturing globally acclaimed products, synonymous with excellence and precision in the electrical industry . HAVELLS CORPORATE OFFICE IN NOID A 20000 strong global distribution network continuously strives to set new benchmarks in prompt delivery and service to customers – powering their smiles like none other electrical brand in the country. Further to this the company pioneered the concept of exclusive brand showroom in the electrical industry with ‘Havells Galaxy’. Today over 210 Havells Galaxies across the country are helping customers, both domestic and commercial, to choose from a wide variety of products for different applications. Havells became the first FMEG Company QRG ORGANISATION COMPANY PROFILE
  7. 7. to offer door step service via its initiative ‘Havells Connect’. Thanks to the quality of products and quicker service, it has minimum customer complaints and highest customer satisfaction. Havells along with its brands, have earned the distinction of being the preferred choice of electrical products for discerning individuals and industrial consumers both in India and abroad. Havells offers same quality products for both Indian and international markets. Havells products & processes have acquired a number of International quality certifications, like BASEC, CSA, KEMA, CB, CE, ASTA, CPA, SEMKO, SIRIUM (Malaysia), SPRING (Singapore), TSE (Turkey), SNI (Indonesia) and EDD (Bahrain) – thus complying with stringent quality norms at even the most testing markets, worldwide. It is committed to keep powering the world with its state-of-the-art innovations and energy-efficient solutions. Currently 70% of its product offering is energy efficient. HISTORY OF QRG ENTERPRISE Qimat Rai Gupta is the founder, Chairman and Managing Director of Havells India Ltd. Founder Chairman and Managing Director of Havells India Ltd. On a sultry day in the electric wholesale market in Old Delhi in the summer of 1958, a 21- year-old school teacher traded education for entrepreneurship and never looked back. Driven more than by the economic necessity of helping his family, Qimat Rai Gupta swapped the security of a classroom in Punjab for the uncharted waters of a small trading company selling fixtures and electric cable to businesses in and around Delhi. With an investment of Rs.10000, he started Guptajee and Company and began writing one of the most compelling businesses in the history of the electrical manufacturing and supply business in India. His unmatched leadership and vision has led him to create QRG Enterprises as one of the major players in the power distribution equipment industry as well as make its mark on the global scape. Some of the ‘Firsts’ from Havells:  Sets up India's First New Generation CMH Lamp Plant at Neemrana in the year 2010  Launched India`s 1st HPF CFL in the year 2009  Havells launched India's 1st BEE 5* Rated Fan in the year 2009
  8. 8.  First Indian CFL manufacturers to have adopted RoHS, European norms on Restriction of Hazardous Substances in CFLs in the year 2008  First Company to get the ISI Certification for complete range of CFLs in the year 2006 Awarded the KEMA certification by The Dutch Council for Accreditation, making QRG the only group to attain this certification in the year 2005. 1958 : Commenced trading operations in Delhi. 1971 : Bought HAVELLS brand 1976 : Set up the first manufacturing plant for Rewireable Switches & Changeover Switches at Kirti Nagar, Delhi. 1979 : Set up a manufacturing plant for HBC Fuses at Badli, Delhi. 1980 : Started manufacturing high quality Energy Meters at Tilak Nagar , Delhi. 1983 : Acquired Towers and Transformers Ltd. and turned it into a profitably manufacturing Energy Meters Company in 1 year. 1987 : Started manufacturing MCBs at Badli, Delhi in Joint Venture With Geyer, Germany. 1990 : Set up a manufacturing plant at Sahibabad, UP for Changeover Switches. 1993 : Set up another manufacturing plant at Faridabad, Haryana for Control Gear Products. 1997 : Acquired Electric Control & Switchboards at NOIDA, UP for manufacturing customized packaged solutions. 1998 : Introduced high-end Ferraris Meters in Joint Venture with DZG, Germany. 2000 : Acquired controlling stake in Duke Arnics Electronics (P) Limited engaged in manufacturing of Electronic Meters-Single Phase, Three Phase, Multi-Function, Tri Vectors. Acquired controlling interest in an industry major-Standard Electricals Ltd. 2001 : Acquired business of Havells Industries Ltd, MCCB of Crabtree India Limited and merged ECS Limited in the company to consolidate its area of core competence. 2002 : Standard Electrical Company becomes a 100% Subsidiary of the company. Attained the IEC certification for Industrial switchgear and CSA certification for all manufacturing plants. 2003 : Launch of Fans, CFL and Lighting 2004 : Set up manufacturing plant at Baddi , HP for manufacturing of Domestic Switchgear. Set up a manufacturing plant for manufacturing of CFL at existing manufacturing plant in Faridabad, Haryana. Set up a manufacturing plant for manufacturing of Ceiling Fans at Noida, UP. Set-up our own marketing office in London through our wholly owned subsidiary company Havells U.K. Ltd. Year Wise Growth of QRG Enterprises (1958-2014)
  9. 9. In December, 2004 placed 235 fully convertible debentures of Rs. 10 Lacs on M/s. Shine Ltd., Mauritius and the debenture will be converted in June, 2006. Attained the CE certificate for CFL. 2005 : Set up manufacturing plant in Haridwar, Uttaranchal for manufacturing Fans. Awarded the KEMA certification by The Dutch Council for Accreditation, making QRG the only group to attain this certification. Set up of R&D Centre in Noida H.O. 2006 : Crabtree India merged with Havells India. Added CFL production unit in Haridwar manufacturing plant. Expansion at Alwar manufacturing plant for increase of production capacity. Expansion at Baddi manufacturing plant and set-up of an Export Oriented Unit. First Company to get the ISI Certification for complete range of CFLs. Started mid-day meal program at Alwar, Rajasthan caters to 10,000 students from 77 schools. 2007 : Set-up of Capacitor manufacturing plant in Noida, UP with the capacity of 6, 00,000 kVAr per month. Acquired the Lighting business of a Frankfurt based company "Sylvania", a global leader in lighting business and now the company's turnover crosses US$ 1 Billion. Warburg Pincus, a global private equity firm and one of the largest investors in India, invested US $110 million in Havells India Ltd. Havells issued fresh shares to Warburg Pincus, representing approximately 11.2% of the fully diluted share capital of the company. QRG Group entered healthcare business by acquiring a majority stake in Central Hospital and Research Centre, Faridabad. 2008 : First Indian CFL manufacturers to have adopted RoHS, European norms on Restriction of Hazardous Substances in CFLs. Set up of Global Corporate office, QRG Towers at Expressway Noida Investment of Rs.50 Crores in Global centre for Research and Innovation (CRI) Set up of fully automatic plant for Havells Lafert Motors at Neemrana Change in Corporate BRAND identity 2009: Set up of fully automatic 2nd unit for switchgear manufacturing at Baddi. Global consolidation of CFL manufacturing plant at Neemrana for domestic and export purposes. Launch of India's 1st HPF CFL Launch of India's 1st BEE 5* Rated Fan 2010 : Sets up 2nd unit for Fan manufacturing at Haridwar. Acquired 100% interest in Standard Electricals Sets up World's First New Generation CMH Lamp Plant at Neemrana. Enter into Electric Water Heaters business. Launch of Havells brand in US & Mexico 2011 : Launch of new range of Control Gear Cosmic Star series Set up of new Industrial Switchgear Plant in Sahibabad Milestones:-
  10. 10. Launch of Domestic Appliances Standard Electrical merged with Havells Entered into a Joint Venture with Shanghai Yaming Lighting, China 2012 : Launch Copper Flexible Cables under the Standard brand Set up of new Lighting Fixtures plant in Neemrana Installed India’s first large scale lighting fixtures plant at Neemrana. 2013 : Entered the business of Self Priming Monoblock Pumps. 2014 : Introduced fans Category under the Standard Brand. PEOPLE AT HAVELLS-: Qimat Rai Gupta- Non Independent executive chairman of the Board Rajesh Gupta- Non-Independent Executive Director, Director - Finance of Havells India Limited. Anil Rai Gupta- Joint Managing Director, Supervising marketing and sales functions of Havells India Limited. Surjit Gupta- Non-Independent Non-Executive Director of Havells India Limited. worked as technical head Havells. Havells Products-: ‡ Building Circuit Protection ‡ Industrial Circuit Protection o Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB) o Air Circuit Breaker o Isolator Changeover Switch o MCCB
  11. 11. o FPL o Residual Current Circuit Breaker (RCCB) o Panel Board system o RCBO o Changeover Switch o Distribution Board (DB) o By-pass Changeover Switch o Indicator Light o Load Changeover Switch ‡ Motors ‡ Capacitors o Foot Mounting o Normal Duty o Flange Motor o Heavy Duty o Foot Cum Flange o Super Heavy Duty o Inverter Duty Motors with Forced Cooling o Agriculture Duty o Crane Duty Motors o Motor Run Capacitors o Brake Motors ‡ Lighting ‡ Fans o LED Lighting o Ceiling Fans o Consumer Lighting o Table Fans o Commercial Lighting o Wall Mounting Fans o Down Lighter o Pedestal Fans o Landscape ± Bunker Lighting o Air Circulator Fans o Industrial Lighting o Ventilating Fans o Area Lighting o Road Lighting o Specialty Lamps o Accessories o Aura Lighting ‡ CFL ‡ Cables and Wires o Retrofit o Power Cables Aluminium o Non Retrofit o Control Cables Copper o Higher Range o Copper Flexible Cables ‡ Water Heater ‡ Modular Plate Switches o Instantaneous Water Heater o Havells Modular Switches o Electric Storage Water Heater o Crabtree Modular Switches ‡Domestic Appliances
  12. 12. VISION, MISSION & CORE VALUES OF HAVELLS Vision "To be a globally recognized corporation that provides best electrical & lighting solutions, delivered by best-in-class people." Mission To achieve our vision through fairness, business ethics, global reach, technological expertise, building long term relationships with all our associates, customers, partners, and employees Values  Customer Delight: A commitment to surpassing our customer expectations.  Leadership by example: A commitment to set standards in our business and  Transactions based on mutual trusts.  Integrity and Transparency: A commitment to be ethical, sincere and open in our dealings.  Pursuit of Excellence : A commitment to strive relentlessly, to constantly improve ourselves, our teams, our services and products so as to become the best in class R&D AT HAVELLS Innovation is the hallmark of every vital development at QRG Group. New ideas, inventions deepen scientific knowledge and give its work force a new impetus towards technical Progress. QRG’s technological strengths and its endeavour towards continuous Research & Development have allowed it to fulfil its responsibilities towards its customers. The responsibility of providing its customers the best products and zero defect services to enable them to be comfortable and secure in usage of electricity. Havells has recently invested 50 Crores in the QRG Centre for Research and Innovation, set-up at the company's Head Office premises in Noida, U.P. The objective of this centre is to provide the theoretical & experimental foundations for all segments of electrical engineering. The centre closely cooperates with the various departments so as to provide the best and the latest in terms of technology and design.
  13. 13. Quality Control The essence of quality is closely wrapped in the way Havells team think, plan and work. It finds its true expression when we extend beyond ourselves to exceed our customer’s expectations. To deliver products those are safer, faster and simply better. Each time, every time. Building customer confidence through teamwork is a top priority to provide a wide variety of products and services. Realising and respecting the basic needs of customers to feel more secure, Havells have committed themselves to make their products better, safer and smarter than what he or she is looking for. That's a passion that began 30 years ago and that's how it continues to be even today. Havells customers rely on us and it is our responsibility to give them the very best. All Havells products are as per IEC standards. QRG has a simple rule on quality. “If it doesn't exceed customer expectation, it's not quality performance”. CSR AT HAVELLS Social and environmental responsibility has been at the forefront of Havells operating philosophy and as a result the company consistently contributes to socially responsible activities. For instance, the company is providing mid-day meal in government schools in Alwar district, covering 35000 students per day. Besides this company has acquired land for constructing a larger kitchen with all the modern facilities to serve freshly cooked food to 35000 students in the area. The group company, QRG Healthcare runs a 140 bed hospital in Faridabad and will soon launch another 450 bed hospital in Faridabad by end of the year. In the past, the company has generously contributed to the society during various national calamities like the Bihar Flood, Tsunami and Cargill National Relief Fund etc. The essence of Havells’ success lies in the expertise of its fine team of professionals, strong relationships with associates and the ability to adapt quickly and efficiently, coupled with the vision to always think ahead.
  14. 14. SAFE & SECURE WORKPLACE OF HAVELLS Havells as a leading electrical goods manufacturer also ensure environment, health and safety at its work premises along with its quality product. It strictly follows to the Occupational Health & Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS) a British Standard for occupational health and safety management system. It helps all kind of organisation to put in place demonstrably sound and occupational health& safety performance. It is widely used as the World’s most recognized occupational health and safety management system standard. OHSAS (18001): Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series. Accident: - OHSAS (18001) says accident is an undesired event giving rise to death, ill health injury, damage or other loss. Incident: - An event that gave rise to an accident or had the potential to lead to an accident (OHSAS 18001). Near Miss: – A near miss is an unplanned event that did not result in injury, illness or damage- but had the potential to do so other familiar terms for these event is a “close call” or “near collision” in case of moving objects. Safety: - Freedom from un-acceptable risk of harm (OHSAS-18001) Hazard:- Source or situation with a potential for harm in terms of human injury or ill health, damage to property, damage to the workplace environment or the combination of these. Risk-: Combination of the likely hood & consequences of a specified hazardous event occurring. ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH & SAFETY POLICY Havells India Limited is committed to conduct business with strong conscience ensuring sustainable safe environment & workplace and enrichment of quality of life of employees, customers and the community. HIL manufacture the electrical products keeping in view of environment, health and safety performance are an integral part of efficient and profitable business management.  Comply legal requirements.  Education and training  Prevention of pollution & minimizing generation of wastes & disposal in a responsible manner  Optimal consumption of natural resources  Safe, occupational hazard free & healthy work environment  Continual improvement on environment, health & safety system by setting & reviewing EHS objectives and targets.
  15. 15. Reducing Risk:- Risk should be minimised at workplace to ensure Good Quality, Good performance and good output. To minimise risk Havells follow various methods such as:- 1. 4 T’s  Terminate - Stop doing the activity all together.  Treat - Re-engineer, Substitute a less harmful substance  Tolerate - Accept the residual level of risk.  Transfer – Use Specialist Contractor/Person. For greater efficiency and increasing productivity 5S is employed in Havells in each and every department and line assemblies. 2. 5s  SEIRI - Sorting, Separating useful & waste material and removing waste material.  SEITON - Fix place for everything.  SEISO - Cleanliness, clean workplace.  SEIKETSU- Standardisation, making standards and following them.  SHITSUKE- Discipline 5s is helpful in High availability rate, improved safety, reliable deliveries, product diversification, higher quality and lower costs. 3. 7 R’s In Havells focus is paid on 7 R’s to reduce cost and improve efficiency  REDUCE- Reducing waste material generation  REVISE- To look back if any mistake has been made  RECYCLE- Recycling material  REPROCESS- to subject to a special process or treatment in preparation for reuse  RE-ENGINEERING- Troubleshooting  RE-DESIGN- Designing product again to meet customer expectation  RE-USE- Use material over and over when economically feasible PLANT SAFETY RULES  Use of Tobacco, Gutkha, Biddi, and Cigarette strictly prohibited in plant premises.  Wear appropriate footwear/shoes in plant premises. (Slipper not allowed)  Loose clothes are not allowed.  Obey all safety signage.  Do not run on plant gang way & roads  Do not enter in restricted area.
  16. 16.  Do not play with any machine/equipment.  Do not taste, touch, smell any material/chemical in plant  Vehicles maximum speed Limit in plant road is 10Km/Hr PLANT HOUSEKEEPING Plant housekeeping means cleanliness of plant and arrangement of processes, tools equipment, storage facilities and supplies. Our elders had also suggested a golden rule for managing our workplace i.e. “jab ka tab aur jha ka wha”. In other words housekeeping means places for every things and everything at its place (5s).It is very effective in increasing production, reducing cost and improving organisation prestige. General rules for good housekeeping.  Before starting our job our workplace must be clean.  Check for any spillage and leakage and clean it immediately.  Use Dust-bins for disposal of waste material.  Planning job before starting it.  Pathways, corridors, platforms, stairs must be free from any hindrances.  Do not block firefighting equipment’s and emergency exits.  Keep minimum inventory of materials on the workplace.  Keep tools and portable equipment neatly in place. Material Safety Improper gripping, improper lifting, carrying too heavy & not wearing PPE (Personal protection Equipment) are various major causes for invitations to accidents. Important measures and precautions must be taken to prevent injury, loss of product, effective and Safe handling of product.  Correct way of standing and position of feet must be proper.  Grip must be tight on material.  Using body weight for counter balance.  Do not stand under suspending load.  Chain pulley, sling rope and hand pallets must be used to lift heavy weight.  One must know about material before handling it.  PPE must be used wherever necessary. MANAGING YOUR TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTS  Do not work on unprotected & unfenced machine.  Ensuring guard and fences are in position after job is over.  Always keep pump and compressor guards in position.  Cover the openings in floors, barricade opening to prevent falling.  Safety devices like safety valve, safety relief valves, rupture discs, interlocks, alarms and annunciators are in working condition and inspecting them properly.
  17. 17. STOREHOUSE Raw Material Incoming: For production the incoming raw material comes from different vendors and suppliers. To ensure quality in its products it also ensures quality of incoming material. IQC (Incoming Quality Check) department take care of these things. It checks the incoming material are according to standards or not. Then it accepts or rejects the material from vendor. After Incoming Quality Check, if the material from different vendors and suppliers is accepted then it is kept in store and if it is not accepted then it is sent back to the vendor it belongs. Sometimes material kept on hold for the inspection of production manager so that they can better decide material can be used in production or not For e.g. Ballast and drivers coming from the various vendors like Choice, Tridonic, Sylvania, Helvar are first inspected on various parameters like Electrical, Photometric, and Thermal properties and then it is decided whether the product is accepted or rejected by production manager.
  18. 18. STORE PROCESS FLOW VENDORS AND SUPPLIERS CRCA STEEL, BHUSHAN STEEL (IS-513 standard grade) Electronic ballast from Havells, Tridonic, Sylvania, DALI, Helvar Cartoons from Bhuwneshwari packaging company Louvers, novelty plastics & JP optics and cross louvers: Ganesh Luminaires Rover & Prodigy plastic channels: Ambika, New Delhi
  19. 19. Production Planning & Control For efficient, effective and economic operation in a manufacturing unit of an organisation it is essential to integrate the production planning and control system. Production planning and subsequent production control follow adaption of product design and finalization of a product process. OBJECTIVES OF PRODUCTION PLANNING CONTROL The main objectives of production planning and control are to establish routes and schedules for work that will ensure the optimum utilisation of materials, workers and machines and to provide the means for ensuring the operation of the plant in accordance with these plans. Havells focuses on 4 Zero’s of TPM (Total Production Management) 1. Zero Accidents 2. Zero Defects 3. Zero Breakdown 4. Zero Waste PRODUCTION PLANNING COMISSION AND CONTROL FUNCTIONS Process Planning The determination of where each operation on a component part subassembly is to be performed results in a route for the movement of a manufacturing lot through the factory LOADING Once the route has been established, the work required can be loaded against the selected machine or workstation. The total time required to perform the operation is computed by multiplying the unit operation times given on the standard process sheet by the number of parts to be processed. This total time is then added to the work already planned for the workstation. SCHEDULING Scheduling is the last of the planning functions. It determines when an operation is to be performed, or when work is to be completed; the difference lies in the detail of the scheduling procedure In a centralized control situation where all process planning, loading, and scheduling for the plant are done in a central office the details of the schedule may specify the starting and finishing time for an operation. On the other hand, the central schedule may simply give a completion time for the work in a given department.
  20. 20. DISPATCHING Authorizing the start of an operation on the shop floor is the function of dispatching. This function may be centralized or decentralized REPORTING OR FOLLOWUP The manufacturing activity of a plant is said to be in control when the actual performance is within objectives of the planned performance. When jobs are started and completed on schedule, there should be very little, if any, concern about the meeting of commitments. Optimum operation of the plant, however, is attained only if the original plan has been carefully prepared to utilize the manufacturing facilities fully and effectively. CORRECTIVE ACTION This is the keystone of any production planning and control activity. A plant in which all manufacturing activity runs on schedule in all probability is not being scheduled to its optimum productive capacity. With an optimum schedule, manufacturing delays are the rule, not the exception. RE-PlANNING Re-planning is not corrective action. Re-planning revise routes, loads, and schedules; a new plans developed. In manufacturing this is often required. Changes in market conditions manufacturing methods, or many other factors affecting the plan will often indicate that a manufacturing plan is needed. PRODUCTION ASSEMBLY LED ASSEMBLY LINE -: On this assembly line L.E.D. products are manufactured It Consist of -:  TABLE ASSEMBLY  LED LINE 1  LED LINE 2  LED LINE 3 It manufactures a wide variety of L.E.D. products such as  JOY 5W  POLO 15W  QUANTO 5W/10W  ENDURA LINEAR 10W, 20W  SOLITAIRE 16W  ENDURA DL 7W/15W/18W/22W  ENDURA DL  ENDURA FLAT PANEL 9W/16W/18W/32W  LED PLUTO RECESS  ENDURA 15W SQUARE
  21. 21. LED PROCESS FLOW FOR JOY 5W Commercial Assembly Line- On this assembly line commercial products are manufactured. It consist of manly two lines  Domestic Production Line  Export Production Line Products manufactured on this assembly line are -:  P5 Mirror Optimix 2/2 Surface & Recess  P5 Mirror Optimix 1/2 Surface & Recess Raw Material from paint shop PCB Depanelising Output Wire Mounting Soldering & spring mounting Diffusor Mounting & Sleeve Mounting Driver mounting & diffusor riveting Aging for 15 minutes Driver cover mounting Sticker & cleaning Mono Packing & Q.C. Final Packing
  22. 22.  IVY 2/2 Crystal & Classic  Softline Direct 2/2  Softline Perforated 2/2  RANA 2/2 (Sylvania product)  RANA 1/4 (Sylvania product) Commercial Assembly Process Flow Input housing inspection Thimble Assembly Connecting Assembly Wiring Assembly Wire dressing Ballast Fixing Holder Assembly Louver fixing 5 in 1 Q.C. & Hanging tie fixing Air Cleaning & Sticker pasting Final Packing & moving to F.G. store
  23. 23. Consumer Assembly Line- It consist of 6 assembly lines. It mainly manufactures product for customer use. It focuses on good products at lower costs based on Fluorescent tubular lamp. Complete Fitting With Lamp-:  Electra Popular 36W, T8 FTL  Electra Slim 18W/36W, T8 FTL  Dreamlite 18W/36W, T8 FTL  Rover Plus (with Diffuser & Mono packing)  Lilliput Electra 36W FPL  Euro Strip 28W T5 FTL  Prodigy 14W/28W, T5 FTL Complete Fitting Without Lamp -:  Elite Maglev 14W/28W, T5, FTL (With Diffusor & Mono packing)  Elite Desire 28W, T%5,FTL (With Diffusor & Mono packing) Consumer Assembly Line Process flow Input housing inspection Rivet Fitment Slider & end cap fitment Ballast fitment Wiring Output & Wire dressing Holder & connector fitment Sleeve mounting & Glow testing Q.C. & packing
  24. 24. CNC SHOP Lighting fixture division at Havells is well equipped with magnificent CNC machines like Amada, salvagnini, Gasparini & much more. Computer Numerical Control (CNC) is one in which the functions and motion of a machine tool are controlled by means of a prepared program containing coded alphanumeric data. CNC can control the motions of the work piece or tool, the input parameters such as feed, depth of cut, speed and the functions such as turning spindle on/off, turning coolant on/off. Its applications include lathe, drill press, milling machine, grinding unit, laser, sheet metal press working machine, tube bending machines etc. Highly automated machine tool such as turning centre and machining centre which change the cutting tools under CNC control have been developed. Its advantages are High accuracy in manufacturing, short production time, simpler fixturing and reduced human error. AMADA EM2510NT (MADE IN JAPAN) Amada EM2510NT is a metal sheet punching machine. It has a press capacity of 200 KN. It is an AC servo direct twin drive press drive system which ensures high functionality & productivity. It is easily controlled by menu-driven AMNC controller. Specifications Press capacity (kN) 200 Press drive system AC servo direct twin drive Maximum Material Thickness (mm) 3.2(brush table) Maximum punch size 114.3 Axis travel (mm) 1270 x 2500 Axis speed X.Y m/min X100,Y80 Punching Accuracy 0.1(mild mode 0.07)
  25. 25. Salvagnini P2XE (MADE IN ITALY) Accuracy- 99.98% Tolerance- 0.02mm Operation – Bending Neemrana Fixture Plant is a replica of Sylvania plant in France and one of its first kind. It completes the job in 45 seconds with zero human intervention. It has a capacity of 1300 pieces in a day (one shift). Different parts: Manipulator: Has the capability to rotate the job 720 to fit it according to the requirement. Clamping. Bending Unit Hydraulic Unit. Sheet thickness that can be used: 0.4mm to 3 mm The P2Xe is the compact hybrid Salvagnini panel bender and it has been developed for companies that want to improve their competitiveness, quality and lead-times.The technological solutions used in the design and construction of the P2Xe, such as making widespread use of high performance motors and electrical components, make this machine an extremely competitive, cost-effective and ecologically responsible solution for all companies in the world of sheet metal processing.
  26. 26. AMADA RGM2-3512 Bending Machine Amada RGM2-3512 is a metal-sheet bending machine. It is used for preparing the other housing and louver material. Specification-: Tonnage KN (TON) 350(35) Max Bend Length (mm) 1250 Stroke Length (mm) 100 Approach Speed (mm/s) 55 Bending Speed At mm/s 9.5 Return Speed 40 Machine Weight 1900 PROCESS FLOW FROM CNC TO COMMERCIAL HOUSING CRCA STEEL SHEET Punching, pressing, blanking at AMADA MACHINES (EM2510NT,AE 255NT) BENDING OF SHEET IN SALVAGNINI P2XE & AMADA RGM2 3512 SPOT WELDING IN KRIPEKAR MACHINES Paint Shop IN ITW GEMA MACHINE Powder Coated Housing Assembly in Commercial Line
  27. 27. PRESS SHOP & TOOL ROOM Tool Room WEDM (Wire Electric Discharge Machine) The wire electric discharge machine of Electronica is used to draw complex design in cast iron for making dies which is used in press shop. KAIZEN Milling 1 MTR-: Used for many operations like facing, tapering boring, Remmuring, angle cutting, drilling etc. for making dies of required shapes. Metal used for making die is steel EN31. Press Shop- There are many presses in press shop with capacity ranges from 40 tons to 110 tons which is used for punching, pressing and then blanking in different shapes as per requirement like towels, Lilliput Electra siders, clamps etc. FIXTURE OF PRESSS MACHINES Therefore according to our requirements we first make the die and then attach the die with machine for their opera TOP PLATE MILD STEEL THRUST PLATE PUNCH PLATE JOB GUIDE STRIPPER PLATE LOWER PLATE MILD STEEL
  28. 28. PAINT SHOP Lighting Fixture division of Havells has its own paint shop. The paint Shop is well equipped with the ITW GEMA the Powder Coating Machine from Switzerland. The technology for powder coating is very advanced and wastage of paint powder is very less. The Conveyor length is about 350 meters. Processes in the Paint Shop:  Loading -: All the materials from CNC shop & press shop which are to be painted are loaded on conveyor belt with help of hangers & wires.  Hot Water Rinse: This process is done to discard any unwanted oil on the metal piece, dirt or impurity which may hinder in the quality procedure. Ambient Temperature- 50-55° C Pressure – 0.8-1.5 kg/cm2 Spray Time – 30 seconds Conveyor Speed- 3-3.5 m/min  Cleaner Coater 1: Cleaning and Coating is a two way process which has two stages. First stage comprises of further cleaning with water to remove the oil left on the metal. Two jet water pumps to throw water with high velocity to reject the minute oil particles on the piece.  First stage of coating: It includes coating of an amorphous compound FeZn (PO4) by means of a conveyor belt suspended with hooks on which the metal pieces are hanged. This is done to coat the metal uniformly to avoid any kind of oxidation process that can harm the metal surface in form of rust etc. Ambient Temperature- 50-55° C Pressure – 0.8-1.5 kg/cm2 Spray Time – 90 seconds Conveyor Speed- 3-3.5 m/min  Cleaner Coater2: This process is repeated in the second stage also to ensure that every piece has been coated properly All other condition same as in cleaner coater 1.  Water Rinse 1: This process is done to discard the extra chemical that might be present and is flowed down with the solvent. Ambient Temperature- 50-55° C Pressure – 0.8-1.5 kg/cm2 Spray Time – 40 seconds Conveyor Speed- 3-3.5 m/min  Water Rinse 2: The process is repeated to ensure maximum efficiency. All other condition are same as in Water Rinse 1.  Passivation: After the coating stage the surface is not totally smooth and becomes porous Passivation process acts as sealing process for the porous surface developed.
  29. 29. The substance contains few carbonates and phosphates which cements the cracks on the surface. PH- 4-6 Ambient Temperature- 30-35° C Pressure – 0.8-1.5 kg/cm2 Spray Time – 30 seconds Conveyor Speed- 3-3.5 m/min  Flash OFF Zone: This process includes rejection of extra chemicals from the previous process using electrostatic charge.  Dry off Zone: Housing is dried in the ovens.  Powder Coating Booth: The painting booth is provided with powder guns containing positively charged powder paint particles which sticks on negatively charged housing. This principle work on FARADAY’S PRINCIPLE. Voltage- 70-100 kV Air Pressure – 3.5-5 kg/cm2 Paint material- epoxy polyester powder  Powder Curing Oven: This process is also called baking.  Air temperature of 195 C is maintained in the powder curing oven through properly designed vents at each junction.  Unloading: Unloading the material from the conveyor & taking them for inspection  Each housing spends around 13 min in the curing oven to complete the process.  Housing is cured at a temperature of 185 C which is maintained with the help of SCADA  Temperature rise in the curing process:  100°C within 5 minutes  180°C in next 8 minutes
  30. 30. PAINT SHOP PROCESS FLOW v REJECT Ok Accept Material Received from CNC SHOP & PRESS SHOP Loading of material on conveyor belt Hot water rinse Cleaner coater 1 & Cleaner Coater 2 Normal water rinse 1 & normal water rinse 2 Passivation Flash off zone Dry Off zone Powder coating booth Powder curing oven Quality Inspection REWORK Material Unloading MOVED TO ASSEMBLY LINE
  31. 31. QUALITY IN HAVELLS Quality is first priority in Havells. Havells ensures quality of its product at each stage of production right from raw material to finish goods. Before product reaches to customer it passes a whole bunch of test to confirm that customers get best. Quality department of Havells uses latest instruments in its lab & takes proper steps to meet expectations of their customers. Quality department at Havells have a no. of Labs each checking product on a definite parameter. Company Policy-: It is the policy of our company to design & produce products and services that meet or exceed our customer’s requirements and comply with all statutory and regulatory requirements. We accomplish this by adhering to our management system and operational methods that recognize customer satisfaction as a primary goal. Quality Policy: Quality Objectives  Quality of products should need to be confirmed according to the requirements of ISO 9001:2008.  Production of products should be internationally accepted.  Reduction of wastage & variation within the organisation and increase productivity on continual basis.  To monitor, investigate and analyse customer complains for continual improvement in product quality on continual basis  To maintain transparency in management function and to encourage involvement of all employees in the process of decision making for improvement in working environment product quality and productivity Our Quality Policy is building customer confidence by providing wide range of quality products and services through continual improvement of quality management system.
  32. 32. Testing Laboratories At Havells-: PHOTOMETRY LAB-: Photometry lab at Havells India Ltd. (Luminaires fixture) checks photometric parameters of Luminaires manufactured. Beside that it also checks various types of lamps and LED from IQC department. It is well equipped with photometric parameter determining Machines Like-: 1. Integrating Sphere 2.0 with Spectroradiometer It is suited for total luminous flux & colour measurement of integrated LED lamps and relatively small size LED luminaires. This has advantages of fast measurement, does not require a dark room, minimized air movement.it has diameter of 2m and can be easily used for measurement of light sources of 500W or larger. It has an interior coating with non-selective & high diffusive reflectance of 0.8 throughout the visible spectrum of 380 to 780 nm to obtain higher signal and to reduce intensity distribution variations of products. Tested light via integrating sphere comes into main light by optical fibre and is translated into electrical signal by high quality array detector after going through the array optics. This is connected to computer by connection cable which deliver the data and control signal. It has 4 terminal lamp holders, 2 for power supply and other two for voltage measurement and monitoring at the lamp terminals. A small screen baffles is placed at a distance of d/4 or d/6( d = sphere diameter).It measures photometric parameters like-: 1. Chromaticity co-ordinates (x, y, z)- It is ratios of each of the tristimulus values of the light to the sum of the tristimulus values.
  33. 33. 2. Chromaticity Diagram- It is a plane diagram formed by plotting one of three chromaticity co-ordinates against another. 3. Red Ratio- It is defined as % of individual colour i.e. Red, Blue, Green in light. 4. Colour temperature- It is a temperature of the blackbody in kelvin at which a colour match is obtained. It is the absolute temperature of a blackbody radiator having a chromaticity equal to the light source. 5. Luminous Efficacy – The quotient of the total luminous flux emitted by the total lamp power input expressed in lumen/watt. 6. Luminous flux- It is rate of emission of light derived from the radiant flux by weighing the radiation with respect to the sensitivity of the human eye. 7. Electrical Parameters- It includes electrical parameters like voltage, current, power, power factor. 2. GMS 2000 ROTATING MIRROR Goniophotometer- : GMS-2000 Goniophotometer is a professional test device for the measurement of photometric parameters of various luminaires such as projecting lighting, road lighting and room lighting and its spatial luminous intensity distribution. The measurement parameters include spatial iso-intensity curve, intensity distribution curve of each section (shown with rectangular coordinate system or polar coordinate system), plane iso-illuminance distribution curve, luminance limitation curve, lamp efficiency, glare grade, effective luminous angle, upward luminous flux ratio, downward luminous flux ratio, total luminous flux, effective luminous flux, utilization factor and electric parameters (power, power factor, voltage and current) etc. Specifications-:  Luminous accuracy: national first-grade standard  Angle accuracy: 0.2 degree  principal axis goniometer resolution: 0.02 degree  Dimension of elliptical mirror: 1.5m×2.0m
  34. 34.  Largest specifications of measurement lamp: current: 20A  Weight: 50kg  Lamp radius: R80cm  Measurement distance: can be adjusted freely upon the luminous intensity of lamp  Weight: about 1000kg Working Principle Diagram Of GMS 2000
  35. 35. Electrical and Mechanical Lab-: For testing Electrical Parameters: Electronic Ballast Analyser (HB-6B)-: HB-6B is professionally designed to analyse the electrical characteristics of electronic ballast of Fluorescent Lamp. It adopts 12 bit 10MHZ A/D Sampling technique and advanced high frequency signal process. It is capable of spreading the high-frequency enveloping waveform of lamp tube. HB-6B is also equipped with 5 inch high resolution color LCD display which can show the parameters and waveforms directly LED DRIVER TESTER: This intrument is used to check the electrical parameters of LED Drivers. It is specially designed for LED driver to monitor its Input & output characteristics. It is a multifunctional & high accuracy instrument Leakage Current Tester- Leakage current test voltage, leakage current and test time can be displayed simultaneously; True RMS AC/DC conversion; Alarm value can be set continuously, freely Phase automatic switching, Audible and visual alarm with out of limits,Compliant with GB4706.1-2005/IEC60335 standard requirements
  36. 36. High Voltage Tester (CS2672C)- The purpose of this test is to ensure that electric strength of the luminaire is as per specifications. This test is done to ensure that the earth is working properly , and ]the earth is working properly , and The luminaire should withstand 1.5 KV for 60 sec. Switching Lab-: In this lab luminaires are tested on their switching characteristic.In this switching lab luminaires are switched on for 30s and then off for another 30s automatically with the help of R.B. switching panel.This test duration is of generally 16 hours.
  37. 37. Endurance Lab-: The motive of endurance lab is to check the behavior of product when subjected to thermal and electrical stress simultaneously. In endurance lab luminaires are checked for their tolerance to withstand continuous long burning hours. It does not require any particular machine for this purpose except a temperature controller to maintain ambient temperature .Endurance test is performed over luminaire in following manner.  Luminaire is mounted in a thermal enclosure with means for controlling the ambient temperature within the thermal enclosure. It can also be positioned on a supporting surface as for normal operation.  The ambient temperature is maintained within ±2°C of (25±10) °C unless otherwise marked on the luminaire. During the test. The initial heating period of luminaire is included as part of test duration.  Luminaire is tested for a total duration of 168 hours, made up of seven successive cycles of 24 hours. Supply voltage is applied to luminaire during each cycle.  Luminaire is switched off for a continuous period of 3 hours at same point in each 24 hours cycle  The circuit conditio0n for the luminaire is normal operation for first six cycles and abnormal operation for the seventh cycle  During operating periods supply voltage for filaments lamps must be 1.05±0.015 time’s voltage at which rated wattage of lamp is obtained and 1.10 ± 0.015 times (the rated voltage or the maximum of the rated voltage range) for tubular fluorescent and other discharge lamp luminaires  After the above mentioned test luminaire is visually inspected. No part shall have become unserviceable and luminaire shall not have become unsafe. It must be free from any cracks, scorches and deformation. Plastic ES lamp holders shall not be deformed. The luminaire shall not have become unsafe and shall not have caused damage to the track system.
  38. 38. THERMAL LAB-: Thermal Test-: To check temperatures of critical components in a luminaire when subjected to voltage.  Draught proof enclosure (Ambient within can be from 10°C to 30°C) is used for the luminaire; variation not more than (±1°C)  Thermocouple wire of low conductivity. 80/20 Ni-Cr paired with 40/60 Ni-Cu are used for measurement of temperature Thermocouples on the critical components / as per the customer’s request are attached..  Mount the luminaire as per MI Sheet.  Switch on the luminaire at 100% of the rated voltage and wait for thermal stabilization.  Measure winding temp. Of the ballast @ 100% of nominal voltage.  Repeat the test @ 105% of rated voltage (for halogen, GLS Lamp) / 106% of rated voltage (for other lamps) tom measure component temperatures.  Measure winding temp. Of ballast and case temp. Of capacitor @ 110% of rated voltage.) For TL based luminaire the starter is to be shorted to measure abnormal condition temp.  Reading are taken down when thermal stabilization is obtained i.e. less than 1’C variation over 1hr period.  During the test and immediately before a measurement the supply voltage should be maintained between ± 1% and preferably within ±0.5% of the test voltage.  If the luminaire ceases to operate because of a defective part of the luminaire (including the lamp), the part should be replaced and the test continued.  Measurements already made need not be repeated but the luminaire shall be stabilized before further measurements are made. If, however, a hazardous condition has arisen, or if any part becomes unserviceable as a type defect, then the luminaire is deemed to have failed the test. The temperature shall not exceed the standard values by more than 5’C.This allowance is made to take into account the inevitable variability of temperature measurement in luminaires.  Stability is said to be achieved when the rate of rise of temperature is 1°C/hr  For determination of case temperature of a component with Tc marking the test voltage shall be times the rated voltage
  39. 39. Safety Lab- Checks Luminaire/part of luminaire on safety issues. It checks luminaires performance in abnormal conditions or in a particular situation. It Checks physical strength of a luminaire and its parts. The various equipment and methods used for this purpose are discussed below. 1. Climate Chamber Test-:  This test is conducted on luminaires for the Humidity check to ensure proof against humid conditions which may occur in normal use. In this test Luminaire or parts of luminaire are subjected to various type of climate mode such as heating mode, cooling mode. Various weather condition and temperature are set.  Relative humidity of the chamber is maintained between 91 % to 95 %  The temperature of the air in chamber is maintained within 1 ˚C of any convenient value “t” between 20 ˚C and 30 ˚C.  The testing duration is of 48 h.  Constant air circulation should be there. 2. SALT SPRAY TEST  In salt spray test luminaire is checked against any type of corrosion on its metal parts. It consist of a chamber in which salt solution is sprayed.  The temperature of chamber is set around 50°C. The part of luminaire is suspended in the chamber with the help of a wire.  As the temperature of chamber rises salt solution converts into vapor and act on metal part.  This test duration is of 500 hours. After 500 hours parts are taken out and inspection is done.
  40. 40.  Their surfaces shall show no signs of rust. However Traces of rust on sharp edges and any yellowish film removable by rubbing are ignored. Then the luminaire is pass otherwise it is fail. Proof Tracking Test-:  To check formation of conducting paths on surface and/or within a solid insulating material due to combined effects of electric stress and electrolyte contamination.  Surface between the electrodes is subjected to a succession of drops of electrolyte either until the over current device operates or until the test period has elapsed.  50-100 drops of about 20mg of electrolyte falls at 30 sec interval between platinum electrodes 4mm apart.  An AC voltage of 175V is applied to the electrodes during the test.  An approximately flat surface is used (at least 20mm X 20mm X 3mm).  .A failure has occurred if a current of 0.5 A or more flows for at least 2s by a conducting path between the electrodes on the surface of the specimen, thus operating the over current relay, or if the specimen burns without releasing the over current relay. Glow Wire Test-:  To Test Parts of insulating material which do not retain live parts in position, but which provide protection against electric shock, and parts of insulating material retaining SELV.  The test specimen is shall be mounted or clamped Planar area of surface is vertical. Tip of the glow-wire is applied to the centre of the planar area. Glow-wire is heated to the specified 650’C temp
  41. 41.  The tip of the glow-wire is then bought slowly into contact with the test specimen for 30±1s  An approximate rate of approach and withdrawal of 10 min/s to 25 mm/s is to be maintained.  Contact forces should not exceed 1.0±0.2 N.  The penetration of the tip of the glow wire into the material shall be limited to 7.0±0.5 mm.  Any flame or glowing of the sample shall extinguish within 30 s of withdrawing the glow-wire, and any burning or molten drop shall not ignite a single layer of tissue paper. Needle Flame Test-:  To check Parts of insulating material retaining current-carrying parts or SELV parts in position, and external parts of insulating material providing protection against electric shock shall be resistant to flame and ignition.  The parts to be tested are subjected to the needle-flame test.The test flame being applied to the sample for 10 s at the point where the highest temperatures are likely to occur, measured if necessary during the thermal tests  The duration of burning shall not exceed 30 s after removal of the test flame, and any burning drop from the sample shall not ignite the underlying parts or tissue paper.

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