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Passive VoiceThere are two special forms for verbs called voice: Active voice Passive voicePassive voice makes sense when the agent performing the action is obvious, unimportant, or unknown.The passive voice is effective in such circumstances because it highlights the action and what is acted upon rather than the agent performing the action.2
To create a passive sentence, youmust know: Who is the person (the "agent") of the action? (the "doer") Who is the object (the "receiver) of the action? 3
RECEIVER (coin)ACTIVE Somebody flipped a coin to decide who would go first. (He is unimportant.) AGENT (person doing the flip)PASSIVE A coin was flipped to decide who would go first. (Focus on the coin flip.) 4
AGENT (aggressor)ACTIVE John was shaking his little brother, Jimmy. (Focus on aggressor .) RECEIVER (victim)PASSIVE Jimmy was being shaken by John. (Focus on victim.) 5
The Passive is formed: Passive Subject + To Be + Past ParticipleIt is often used in business and in other areas wherethe object of the action is more important than thosewho perform the action. For Example: We have produced over 20 different models in the past two years. Changes to: Over 20 different models have been produced in the past two years. 6
The object of the active verb becomesthe subject of the passive verb: subject Verb ObjectActive Cats eat fish. subject Verb ObjectPassive are Fish by cats eaten 7
If the agent (the performer of theaction) is important, use "by“.For Example: Tim Wilson wrote "The Flight to Brunnswick" in 1987.Changes to: "The Flight to Brunnswick" was written in 1987 by Tim Wilson. 8
Time Active Passive ReferenceThey make Fords in Fords are made in Cologne. Present SimpleCologne. Dinner is being cooked by PresentSusan is cooking dinner. Susan ContinuousJames Joyce wrote "Dubliners" was written Past Simple"Dubliners". by James Joyces.They were painting the The house was being Pasthouse when I arrived. painted when I arrived. ContinuousThey have produced over Over 20 models have been20 models in the past two produced in the past two Present Perfectyears. years.They are going to build a A new factory is going to Future Intentionnew factory in Portland. be built in Portland. with Going to It will be finished tomorrow. 9 Future SimpleI will finish it tomorrow.