• From the available information it is presumed that tree loom is the first weaving
machine on which the mankind start the weaving.
• Weaving in India was known about 8000 BC years ago as historians has found
• Archeological surveys and studies on Mohenjo-Daro -Harappa civilization reveals
that people at that time knew weaving and spinning of cotton 4000 years ago.
finely woven madder dyed cotton fabrics and shuttles were found in excavations.
• It is a matter of controversy whether wool, linen, silk or cotton was developed as
raw material for weaving.
• The well known “Arthashasthra” of Kautilya who was the minister under Mourya
dynasty [BC 321-298], its second Adhikaranam was about textile production
control and administration about cotton and wool fabrics.
• But one thing is sure that it may be started with the advent of various crafts
developed as a part of agricultural practices.
• Handcrafted fabrics production and craft guilds were found to be started during
the period BC 200 TO AD 800 as part of socio – economical –cultural formation of
• Loom is a machine in which warp and weft is
interlaced to form fabrics through weaving.
• From tree loom it has developed and
transformed much with human society as a
tool for hand crafted fabric production.
• The loom technology development was in
pace with social, economical, cultural
developments happened in the whole human
society with history of science and technology.
• Kancheepuram is now a town 74 km away from Chennai, in
• It is famous for the pure silk saree with golden zari designs.
• The specialty of the sarees are the solid borders, solid body,
solid pallav or munthani.
• Solid colour means that the colour of warp and weft in the
respective area should be of same colour.
• The saree is woven on 2 or 3 ply 20/22 denier silk yarn in
warp and 3 or 4 ply 20/22 denier silk weft.
• Elaborate designs in extra warp and extra weft butta
designs are used that also with golden or silver zari thread.
• Banaras otherwise known as kasi or Varanasi is famous for silk sarees , the
special occasion sarees from Banaras are called brocades.
• During Mughal Dyanasty [Muhammad bin Tuglak period] Hazrat shish
paijender ali , a weaving expert from persia is said to have started the
weaving school by producing “kingkhab” using the famous jala technique
which was then called” nakshabandhan”.
• Later this becomes the basis for the production of banarasi brocades.
• This Sarees are woven in 13/15 denier pure silk warp and weft.
• Sarees are also decorated with elaborate designs in border , body and
• Body Designs are all over patterns woven with extra weft material of
golden or silver zari.
• Solid colour weft border is woven with 2 or 3 cut throw shuttles in
interlocking by hand ,.[2 weavers].
• It is the art of hand embroidery practiced in
Punjab and some parts of rajasthan.
• Mostly applied on sarees and dress materials
• Beautiful designs are stitched over the cloth by
hand using embroidery needle.
• Multi colour and mostly twisted art silk, silver or
golden zari threads used for the surface
• This art is applied over all variety of clothes like
cotton, silk, nylon, polyester etc:
• The specialty of balaramapuram saree is its extra warp
and extra weft design on fine or superfine natural grey
• Saree is woven with 100’s cotton warp and weft in 88’s
reed in 84-88 ppi, width 48” and length varies from 5.5
metre to 6.25 metre.
• Extra warp and weft threads are mostly half fine or fine
zari thread for designing with sometimes decorated
with coloured cotton yarn.
• The peculiar interlacement structure gives designs in
face and back equal appearance. that is the uniqueness
of balaramapuram sarees in the design world.
• Jamdani is the wedding saree of people of west
bengal.it is derived originally from famous dacca
• It is mostly woven in cotton fine yarn and rarely
in silk materials also used.
• The special feature of design is the plain weave
woven extra weft motifs in body and pallav.[extra
weft is inserted in plain weave shed itself].
• So even when very elaborate designs are woven
covering the entire pallav the cloth gets more
weight and strength.
• Kasooti in kannada means needle. the hand
embroidery designs created over the sarees and other
dress materials are called kasooti work as needles are
used to stitch this typical style of designs.
• 60’s and 80’s cotton coloured yarn woven using 72’s or
80’s reed are used for making this sarees.
• This art of surface ornamentation is practiced in hubli,
dharwad, and gadag districts of Karnataka.
• This decorative designed sarees are once famous as
ilkal sarees from the village where it is originated.
• Bandhani,shibori,laharia and mothra are basically designs
produced over plain cloth using the tie and dye technique.
• The specialty of bandhani is the design formation on multy
coloured round spots.
• The cloth meant for bandhani is scoured, bleached for
having good white ground and to have better penetration
• The cloth is laid over the table and designs are imprinted
over by using wooden blocks and washable colour.
• The lady on work will first tie spots all around the circle line
and then put the required spots inside the circle.
• The cloth after putting the knots is taken for dyeing, mostly
cold brand of dyes.
• This is the sarees made in the villages of
Nalgonda district in Andhrapradesh.
• Bhoodan pochampalli is a handloom cluster
having 80 villages covering 10000 traditional
looms whose design is more than a centuary
• Pochampalli sarees has received intellectual
property rights under geographical indication
registry during 2005.
• Sarees are popular for their traditional geometric
patterns in ikat style of dyeing.
• Pochampalli ikat has uniqueness in their transfer
of intricate design and colouring.
• Application of colouring is done onto warp and
weft threads first and weave them together
• The fabric is made up of cotton ,silk and
sometimes of silk cotton mix also.
• The fabrics are marketed through the HWCS and
• Venketagiri is a municipality in Nellore district
• It is famous for its handloom cotton sarees.
• It is made up of 80’s cotton yarn for warp and
weft with designs in both borders and body of
dark coloured threads and zary threads.
• Its uniqueness is in weaving excellence using
street warp sized material in creating softness
and durable finish properties.
• It is an all climate comfort fabric to wear.
• Laharia means waves. The wave effect is brought on the cloth by
the art of tie and dye.
• Laharia work is applied on sarees and churidarh set.
• The cloth is scoured and bleached for getting whiteness and good
absorbency. the cloth is then made into a rope form.
• One end of the roped cloth is provided with a rotating handle and
the other end a hook.
• In The tightened rope cloth , thick twine rope is tied with knots at
frequent intervals without cutting twine in between the knots.
• then tied cloth rope is taken for dyeing and on completion of
dyeing process, coloured wavy lines are formed as a design all over
• Shibori is the beautiful tie and dye fabric produced in
jodhpur , rajasthan.this art of tie and dye is applied
over dress materials particularly churidarhs.
• Bed sheets ,bedspreads, table covers are also produced
• Multy colours are dyed over the cloth mostly in round
form and the colours are bright red, yellow and green.
Nowadays dark blue is also used to dye .
• Rajasthani people can never avoid these colours
because of their environment and so in our market it is
known as rajasthani prints.
• Durry is a heavy plain woven fabric, generally used for floor
• Durries are produced on coarse count warp and weft….2/10’s warp
and 2or3 plies of 10’s weft. 4/6’s warp and 20 plies of 20’s yarn weft
is also used in some parts . The count of warp and weft being
depend upon the weight required.
• In durries weft predominates in much more than warp and designs
are appearing on the surface of the cloth by weft.
• Natural grey yarn is used for warp and multy coloured weft stripes
forms the designs.
• Various sized durries are used as floor coverings, table mats, door
mats, table runners, namaz mats, and panthi roll.
• Tamilnadu ,particularly bhavani area is famous for its durry weaving.
• Sonpur , butapalli, navpatna are handloom weaving centres
in the state of orissa.
• Weavers of these area weaves beautiful multy coloured
extra weft designed sarees.
• 2/120’s mercerised cotton warp and weft is common on
80’s reed and 64 ppi.
• The lay out of the pallav is well planned with repeated
floral and butta designs of natural and geometric concepts.
• The colour concept for both body and pallav are mostly
subdued and pastel.
• Simple extra warp designs are woven in both borders but
body portion is mainly plain woven.
• Patola is the famous Guajarati wedding saree.
• Patola or paithani sarees are woven in pure silk
both in warp and weft using tie and dye
technique in designs.
• This sarees are otherwise known as double ikat
sarees. The fineness and quality in designs are
the special feature of patolas.
• Motifs used are stylized animals, like elephant
camels,tigers,birds and flowers in symmetrical
• Colours used are deep red,blue yellow and white.
• Colorful sarees with attractive borders and
pallav, that stands in the forefront of
• Unique manufacturing process in weaving
warp sizing method.
• Designs are by forming thin stripes and checks
in the body and borders with solid colour
pallav using tie and dye techniques.
• Traditionally producing unique coloured
stripes and check shirting's.
• Using high quality vat dyes in shade matching
method vibrant colour patterns are produced.
• Structure wise, the flexibility of Malabar frame
looms are utilized to weave multy treadles
• As a result of foreign missionary work and the
renaissance movement around the last century the
traditional handlooms have started producing towels,
bed sheets, table linens , rugs and other home
• Multy treadle designs in attractive checks and stripes ,
ecofriendly colours using vat dyes matched with
customized colour palette is the uniqueness of kannur
• Kannur furnishings meets international standards and
registered under geographical indication registry.
• Using fine cotton natural grey yarn for warp
and weft with colour threads in both borders
palakkad traditional weavers produces the
elegant Kerala sets.
• It is the Kerala special contribution to the
whole dress world.
• Design weaving technique is the unique by
using a special looping system for making shed
to introduce extra weft material.
• By weaving extra warp designs in borders and
extra weft designs in body and pallav, this typical
Kerala saree is the contribution of traditional
weavers of kuthampilly handloom cluster.
• Fine cotton natural grey yarn with half fine zari
threads for design work is used to manufacture
sarees in this area.
• Dobby and jacquards are used in weaving such
• The tradition of handlooms in chendamangalam
area is to produce fine cotton dhoties.100’s or
80’s cotton warp and weft yarn is used in natural
grey in colour..
• The warping method synchronized with special
warp sizing given imparts the unique character of
chendamangalam dhoties to the effect that it
becomes more supple in repeated washings.
• Weave structure used is plain weave only. dhoty
border may be of coloured cotton threads or half