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  1. 1. Over-the-Counter (OTC) and Prescription Drugs
  2. 2. DRUG <ul><li>It is a chemical substance that alters the way </li></ul><ul><li>cells and tissues work. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>When you swallow aspirin, it can reduce the pain of a pulled muscle by changing the way in which some nerves send pain impulses to the brain. Aspirin prevents these impulses from reaching your brain, thus it acts as pain reliever. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Prescription & OTC Drugs <ul><li>Prescription drugs that usually strong, safe and available only by recommendation of an authorized health professional, such as a physician. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonprescription (over-the-counter, or OTC) drugs are available on request, do not require approval by a health professional and can be purchased y anyone. Which potentially more dangerous when abused. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Prescription & OTC Drugs <ul><li>Prescription and OTC drugs have been viewed differently by the public since the classifications were established by the Durham-Humphrey Amendment of 1951. </li></ul><ul><li>In general, the public views OTC drugs as minimally effective and safe and prescription drugs as more potent and frequently dangerous </li></ul><ul><li>However, these distinctions are not always accurate </li></ul>
  5. 5. Abuse of OTC products <ul><li>Physical dependence </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological dependence </li></ul><ul><li>Nonprescription products that can be severely habit-forming: decongestants, laxatives, antihistamines, sleep aids, antacids and ephedrine. </li></ul><ul><li>The active ingredients in OTC drugs have been classified and placed in category I (considered safe and effective) </li></ul><ul><li>However, as recently as 1992, the FDA has banned over 400 ingredients from 7 categories of OTC products. </li></ul>
  6. 6. “ Switching” policy of the FDA <ul><li>The FDA is attempting to make more drugs </li></ul><ul><li>available to the general public by switching </li></ul><ul><li>some frequently used and safe prescription </li></ul><ul><li>medications to OTC status. </li></ul><ul><li>This policy is in response to public demand </li></ul><ul><li>to have access to effective drugs for self </li></ul><ul><li>medication and has resulted in over 63 switched </li></ul><ul><li>ingredients, such as ulcer and hair-growing </li></ul><ul><li>medications </li></ul>
  7. 7. Are Medications Safe? <ul><li>Life saving remedies when used correctly </li></ul><ul><li>Very dangerous if used incorrectly </li></ul>
  8. 8. OTC Labels <ul><li>Required label information includes : </li></ul><ul><li>Approved uses of the product </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed instructions on safe and effective use </li></ul><ul><li>Cautions or warnings to those at greatest risk when taking the medication </li></ul>
  9. 9. WHAT TO LOOK FOR ON THE LABEL <ul><li>ACTIVE INGREDIENTS is the chemical compound in the medicine that works to relieve the symptoms. It shows the purpose of each ingredient. </li></ul><ul><li>USES are sometimes called indications. </li></ul><ul><li>WARNING are safety information which indicates the side effects. For example, a certain medicine may not be recommended for pregnant women. </li></ul>
  10. 10. WHAT TO LOOK FOR ON THE LABEL <ul><li>DIRECTIONS will tell you how often you should take the medicine and directions may be different for children and for adults. </li></ul><ul><li>QUESTIONS OR COMMENTS will show you the contact information of the manufacturer in case you have any questions or comments. </li></ul><ul><li>MANUFACTURING DATE AND EXPIRATON DATE. Date  on which a product becomes the item it is supposed to be . An expiration date is the point at which a manufacturer can no longer guarantee the strength or safety of a medication. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Label information controlled by the FDA Product name Identity Active ingredients Quantity Manufacturer When to use How to use What to watch for Possible drug interactions When drug should no longer be used OTC Antacids Ingredients: 12 fl. oz. GOTCHA, INC. Indications Directions: Warnings: Precautions: Expiration date:
  12. 12. Rules for proper OTC drug use <ul><li>Always know what you are taking. </li></ul><ul><li>Know the effects. </li></ul><ul><li>Read and heed the warnings and cautions. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t use anything for more than 1 to 2 wks. </li></ul><ul><li>Be particularly cautious if also taking prescription drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>If you have questions, ask a pharmacist. </li></ul><ul><li>If you don’t need it, don’t use it! </li></ul>
  13. 13. Types of OTC drugs <ul><li>Internal analgesics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analgesics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salicylates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Therapeutic considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analgesic actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-inflammatory effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antipyretic effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Side effects </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Types of OTC drugs <ul><li>Cold, allergy and cough remedies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decongestants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antitussives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectorants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin C </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sleep aids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Melatonin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stimulants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Look-alike” and “act-alike” drugs </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Types of OTC drugs <ul><li>Gastrointestinal medication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antacids and anti-heartburn medication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diet aids </li></ul><ul><li>Skin products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acne medications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Skin first-aid products </li></ul><ul><li>OTC herbal products </li></ul>
  16. 16. Common over-the-counter drugs <ul><li>1. Cough remedies </li></ul><ul><li>Dextromethorphan (DXM) is a cold suppressant present in many OTC cold remedies. DXM is usually mixed with other drugs like antihistamines and acetaminophen. When children take these combined drugs </li></ul><ul><li>without the prescription of a doctor. </li></ul><ul><li>It may develop more serious health </li></ul><ul><li>problems. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Acetaminophen is also known as paracetamol. It is very popular drug for the relief of hangovers or headaches. </li></ul><ul><li>Aspirin- It is a type of drug classified as nom steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs, used as a pain reliever. Taking too much aspirin it may damage your brain and respiratory tract. </li></ul><ul><li>Diet pills most women are body figure conscious. To achieve their ideal figure, diet pills may be abused for fast results. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Prescription drugs <ul><li>According to the Durham-Humphrey Amendment of 1951, drugs are controlled with prescription if they are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Habit-forming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not safe for self-medication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intended to treat ailments that require the supervisions of a health professional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New and without an established safe track record </li></ul></ul>Zantac
  19. 19. Doctor-patient communication <ul><li>When a physician prescribes a drug, a patient should insist on answers to the following questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What is the desired outcome? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the possible side effects of the drug? </li></ul><ul><li>How should the drug be taken to minimize problems and maximize benefits? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Generic and proprietary drugs <ul><li>Generic is the official, nonpatented, nonproprietary name of a drug. The term generic is used by the public to refer to the common name of a drug that is not subject to trademark rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Proprietary a brand or trademark name that is registered with the U.S. Patent Office. Proprietary denoted medications marketed under specific brand names, i.e., Valium. </li></ul>