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Managing People
   Lecture week 3
     Motivation
Professor Christine Coupland
Agenda
• Definitions
• Theories
  – Content theories
  – Process theories
• Criticisms of the theories
• Usefulness of the...
Definitions

• “Work motivation is a set of internal and
  external forces that initiate work related
  behaviour and dete...
Motivation theory built around
          two principles

• People have fixed needs which are only,
  largely, satisfied th...
Content theories
• Try to identify specific things that motivate
  people
• 3 theories to be examined:
  – Maslow’s hierar...
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
•  
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

• Some problems with the theory:
   – Assumes that satisfaction is the main motivational driv...
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
• In defence of the theory:
   – Maslow did not intend his theory to be an explanation of
    ...
Alderfer’s existence, relatedness
        and growth (ERG)
• Similar to Maslow but with 3 levels
• Existence needs
  – (co...
Alderfer’s existence, relatedness and
             growth (ERG)
• Distinct from Maslow as expects people to experience
  n...
Herzberg’s two factor theory

• Hygiene factors
  – to do with work context, e.g. salary, conditions – their
    absence c...
Herzberg’s two factor theory

• Some problems with the theory:
  – Used accountants and engineers initially, middle-
    c...
Content theories - summary


• Despite criticisms these ideas have had
  influence on management theory and practice
Process theories
• Concerned with developing models relating
  needs, motives and behaviour
• Seek to explain the dynamics...
Expectancy based theories
• If you expect to get more money for working hard, you
  need more money, you will work hard
• ...
Expectancy based theories
• Some problems with the theories:
  – Do we actually engage in cost-benefit analysis
    before...
Equity theory
• Based on social comparison
• Perception of unfairness in a situation leads to tension,
  motivates us to r...
Equity theory
• Some problems with the theory:
  – It is actually quite a robust theory and has been
    found to have pre...
Process theories - summary


• Process theorists think of the individual as a
  thinking rational actor who cognitively
  ...
Usefulness of the theories
• Content theories are vague, can’t predict behaviour, but have
  been very influential in job ...
Usefulness of the theories
•   Herzberg’s ideas have led to the job enrichment redesign principles
    (Hackman & Oldham, ...
• Motivation is still a very popular topic for managers
  and management scholars
• We need to understand the theories of ...
Summary
• Motivation theories aim to help managers to improve work
  output and satisfaction assuming that a happy worker ...
Reading and resources list
•   Other text books, various chapters
•   Buchanan, D.A. and Huczynski, A.A. (2001; 2004; 2010...
Reading and resources list
• The listed books are all available in the library. Also search the
  library for specific top...
Don’t forget:
download and print handouts for
     lecture and tutorials


       • Next week
       • Leadership
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Motivation

  1. 1. Managing People Lecture week 3 Motivation Professor Christine Coupland
  2. 2. Agenda • Definitions • Theories – Content theories – Process theories • Criticisms of the theories • Usefulness of the theories • Summary
  3. 3. Definitions • “Work motivation is a set of internal and external forces that initiate work related behaviour and determine its form, direction, intensity and duration (Pinder, 1998) • is the outcome of a psychological process, can’t be directly observed
  4. 4. Motivation theory built around two principles • People have fixed needs which are only, largely, satisfied through work • Management can influence motivation and the performance of work through the design of jobs and work processes
  5. 5. Content theories • Try to identify specific things that motivate people • 3 theories to be examined: – Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory – Alderfer’s existence, relatedness and growth (ERG) theory – Herzberg’s two factor theory
  6. 6. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs •  
  7. 7. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs • Some problems with the theory: – Assumes that satisfaction is the main motivational driver which will filter through to higher productivity – It lacks empirical support (Lowry, 1982) – It is occupationally biased, male biased (Cullen, 1994) – The needs hierarchy legitimates exploitation (Knights & Wilmott, 1974) – Do people only seek out others once they have enough to eat? (Watson, 1996) – It is based on a Westernised ideal of self-actualization
  8. 8. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs • In defence of the theory: – Maslow did not intend his theory to be an explanation of motivation in the workplace – It has been uncritically adopted ‘as if it were true’ rather than as an interesting set of observations about what motivates us (Fincham & Rhodes, 2005) – It probably works better in conditions of relatively full employment – It does allow for finding imagination and creativity in people. – Influential theory but can not predict behaviour
  9. 9. Alderfer’s existence, relatedness and growth (ERG) • Similar to Maslow but with 3 levels • Existence needs – (comparable to Maslow’s safety needs) • Relatedness needs – (comparable to Maslow’s social needs) • Growth needs – (comparable to Maslow’s self-actualization needs)
  10. 10. Alderfer’s existence, relatedness and growth (ERG) • Distinct from Maslow as expects people to experience needs simultaneously • The environment is given a role in that it may prevent needs being met • Differs from Maslow in that when needs are met they become more important not less (e.g. relatedness needs of a team) • Some problems with the theory – Little empirical support (Rauschenberger et al 1980) – Resonates with management writers but less well known than Maslow
  11. 11. Herzberg’s two factor theory • Hygiene factors – to do with work context, e.g. salary, conditions – their absence caused job dissatisfaction • Motivating factors – to do with content of task, e.g. recognition, advancement – their presence caused satisfaction • Predicts managers can motivate with motivators, not hygiene factors
  12. 12. Herzberg’s two factor theory • Some problems with the theory: – Used accountants and engineers initially, middle- class bias in the research – Wider sample may have produced different results – Using critical incidence technique with self report – people may say one thing motivates them when it may be something else
  13. 13. Content theories - summary • Despite criticisms these ideas have had influence on management theory and practice
  14. 14. Process theories • Concerned with developing models relating needs, motives and behaviour • Seek to explain the dynamics of the motivation process • 2 theories to be examined: – Expectancy based theories – Equity theory
  15. 15. Expectancy based theories • If you expect to get more money for working hard, you need more money, you will work hard • An instrumental approach • Recognises individual differences • Useful for individuals, less useful for groups • Assumes rational decision making • Example theorists: – (Vroom, 1964, Porter & Lawler, 1968)
  16. 16. Expectancy based theories • Some problems with the theories: – Do we actually engage in cost-benefit analysis before thinking about working harder? – The theorists differ: – Porter and Lawler developed the theory to argue that improved performance leads to greater satisfaction this contrasts directly with Herzberg who argued that satisfaction leads to improved performance
  17. 17. Equity theory • Based on social comparison • Perception of unfairness in a situation leads to tension, motivates us to resolve unfairness • Being applied to situations outside work • Solves problems in group inequity situation • But can’t explain content i.e. why do some people desire money and others status? • Example theorist: – (Adams, 1965)
  18. 18. Equity theory • Some problems with the theory: – It is actually quite a robust theory and has been found to have predictive potential – Can not predict how someone will react to inequity – just that they will react – Very useful for understanding why people become dissatisfied at work – Some people are more ‘equity sensitive’ than others
  19. 19. Process theories - summary • Process theorists think of the individual as a thinking rational actor who cognitively assesses whether extra effort will be rewarded • They assume that a rational, cognitive, process takes place that then directs behaviour
  20. 20. Usefulness of the theories • Content theories are vague, can’t predict behaviour, but have been very influential in job redesign and fashions of management e.g. TQM – They assume that everyone wants enriched work to the same intensity • Process theories are more complex • Taken together do they have something useful to offer? • After years of motivation theory the view of the worker is as a self-conscious individual much like a manager. • This leads us to consider that motivation is not what a manager does to a worker- people motivate themselves. The role of a manager may be in providing a suitable environment for this (Knights & Willmott, 2007)
  21. 21. Usefulness of the theories • Herzberg’s ideas have led to the job enrichment redesign principles (Hackman & Oldham, 1975; 1980) – Still criticised by management scholars but influential at work • The hierarchy of needs has been adopted to include social influences and differences between individuals (McClelland, 1961 need to achieve, for power and to affiliate) • More recent job re-design - Total Quality Management (TQM) aimed to improve loyalty, trust and commitment with continuous improvement. – Although likened to Taylorist principles workers are expected to share knowledge (not park their brains at the door). – Middle managers seen as problematic ‘functional silos’. • Team system as surveillance. • Resisted as a new management fashion
  22. 22. • Motivation is still a very popular topic for managers and management scholars • We need to understand the theories of the past in order to make a comment on their usefulness to today’s managers • Critics say managing motivation implies manipulation and is a remnant of the factory system (Jacques, 1996) • McKenna (1999) says the topic of motivation has lost its relevance and needs to be replaced with concepts like; sense-making and identity
  23. 23. Summary • Motivation theories aim to help managers to improve work output and satisfaction assuming that a happy worker is a productive worker • Theories are usually divided into content theories and process theories – Content theories interested in needs, drives, goals – Process theories interested in how we think (cognitive explanations) about motives e.g. expectations, comparison with others. • Motivation difficult to study, having a critical approach helps us to understand and explain why there are no easy answers for managers
  24. 24. Reading and resources list • Other text books, various chapters • Buchanan, D.A. and Huczynski, A.A. (2001; 2004; 2010) Organizational Behaviour. Harlow: Pearson. • Dick, P. and Ellis, S. (2006) Introduction to Organizational Behaviour, London: McGraw- Hill. • Fincham, R. and Rhodes, P. (1999; 2005) Principles of Organizational Behaviour , Oxford: Oxford University Press. • Knights, D. and Willmott, H. (2007) Introducing organizational behaviour and management, London: Thomson. • Linstead, S., Fulop, L. and Lilley, S. (2004) (Eds.) Management and organization: A critical text, Basingstoke: Palgrave. • Mullins, L. (2006; 2008) Management and Organizational Behaviour. (9th edition) Harlow: Prentice Hall. • Robbins, S.P. (2007; 2008; 2010) Organizational Behaviour. Prentice Hall.  • Thompson, P. and McHugh, D. (1990; 1995; 2002) Work organizations , Houndmills: Palgrave. • Wilson, F.M. (1999; 2004; 2010) Organizational Behaviour and Work: A Critical Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press. •
  25. 25. Reading and resources list • The listed books are all available in the library. Also search the library for specific topic-related books, other organizational behaviour books, and journal articles. • Suggested journal articles • Herzberg F. (2003) One more time: how do you motivate employees? Harvard Business Review, January (special issue on motivating people). • Steers, R.M., Mowday, R.T. and Shapiro, D.L. (2004) The future of work motivation theory. Academy of Management Review, 29(3): 379-387.
  26. 26. Don’t forget: download and print handouts for lecture and tutorials • Next week • Leadership
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