All species of animals at present as well as those that have become
extinct are relatives of the first species of animals created by God in a
The process by which organisms can change from simple one-celled
organism to a complex organism.
The lengthy process of change by which people originated from
9. CHARLES DARWIN
Developed the Theory of Natural Selection which
became the foundation of modern evolutionary
English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best
known for his contributions to the science of
His proposition that all species of life have
descended over time from common ancestors is
now widely accepted, and considered a foundational
concept in science.
17. Human evolution is the evolutionary process leading to the appearance
of modern day humans. It is characterized by a number of morphological,
developmental, physiological, and behavioural changes that have taken
place since the split between the last common ancestor of humans and
In human evolution, the term Homo is used to determine the species of
human beings. According to anthropologists, the direct ancestors of the
Homo species are the hominids.
According to Ember (2011), the first definite hominids are the
Australopithecus. They were fully bipedal which means they could walk
using their two legs. The Australopithecus is divided into two groups, the
gracile australopithecines, and the robust australopithecines.
19. AUSTRALOPITHECUS ANAMENSIS
Earliest australopithecine species
Found in some locations in Northern Kenya.
It is small in built with teeth similar to the later A. afarensis.
Most represented australopithecine.
Its remains were discovered in Tanzania and Ethiopia.
It is a small hominid.
Its teeth were somewhat large compared to its body size. It
has a small brain, about 400 cubic centimeters.
Its arms and legs were about the same length.
It is the model most used in the Australopithecine species but
it was not the first one to be discovered.
20. AUSTRALOPITHECUS AFRICANUS It was the first gracile australopithecine that was
The name Australopithecus africanus was coined by
Professor Raymond Dart which means “Southern ape
It has a small built.
The adult Australopithecus africanus were three and a
half to four and a half feet tall.
It lived between 3 million to 2 million years ago.
22. AUSTRALOPITHECUS BOISEI It was discovered by a paleoanthropologist named
Louis Leakey in western Tanzania.
It is named after a benefactor named Charles Boise.
It has enormous molar teeth and expanded
premolars, a thick and deep jaw, and thick cheek
It lived between about 2.3 and 1.3 million years
It is not ancestral to the human genus or Homo.
The earliest and somewhat the least known of the robust
Some of its fossils were found in northern Kenya and
Ethiopia dating between 2.3 million and 2.7 million years
It has larger dentition and huge cheek bones
AUSTRALOPITHECUS ROBUSTUS It was a new australopithecine discovered by Robert
It has a larger teeth, massive jaw, and a flatter face than
It is not ancestral to the human genus, Homo.
24. Homo Species
Hominids have a brain larger compared to that of the Australopithecus
species which appeared about 2.3 million years ago. It is classified to
our genus, Homo.
It is divided into two species, the Homo Habilis and the Homo
These two species were found in parts of Kenya and Tanzania.
Both lived at the same time as the Australopithecus Boisei.
25. HOMO HABILIS
Appeared around 2.3 million years ago.
It has a larger brain and a reduced size of molars
and premolars compared to the Australopithecus.
It has long arms just like the Australopithecus.
It is somehow the same as the features of Homo
Many paleoanthropologists make no distinctions
between the two species.
Some say that the difference lies in their cheek
teeth and face.
26. HOMO ERECTUS
First hominid species that was distributed in the “old world.”
It was seen in parts of Africa and in Asia.
It was discovered by Eugene Dubois and called it Pithecanthropus
erectus at first which means erect ape man.
Had smaller teeth.
The brain averages 895 to 1040 cc in size larger than the fossils found
Have the capacity to control fire.
With the discovery of fire, the Homo erectus survived the cold.
Lower Paleolithic tools and other artifacts were probably produced
by Homo erectus.
HOMO SAPIENS They have been found in many parts of the Old world.
Lived earlier than the Neanderthals.
They lived 50,000 years ago.
It was characterized as the modern human.
They have a domed skull, chin, small eyebrows, and a rather puny
27. Theistic Evolution
God created the first organism but it mutated, adapted to the
changing environment, and so it evolved.
28. Other theories
Raëlism (also known as Raëlianism)
Life was created by the ALIENS alone.
Does not believe in eternal life but in
life in another planet.
29. THEORIES OF THE ORIGIN OF STATE
State was formed during the early civilizations.
Each civilization had first or primary states.
For Egypt, Abydos;
Indus Valley, Harrapa;
North China, Shang;
Peru, Moche; Mesoamerica, Monte Alban.
These first states tend to focus on processes that create and
institutionalize a state in a situation where a state did not exist before.
31. The Theory of Divine Origin
The divine right theory holds that God created the state.
God gave certain individuals of royal birth the divine right to rule.
Since God divinely ordained its rulers and they were accountable to
God, the population obeyed the ruler as they were required to obey
This theory existed in many countries such as England and Europe
throughout the Middle Ages.
The Theory of Force This theory proposes that the origin of the state is developed through
the use of force.
One person or a small group of people claim control over the
population in a specific area by force.
Once the rule is well established, the state is established.
This theory is generally a result of war.
One example is Adolf Hitler and his control over Germany that led to
the attempted control of Europe, as well as the mass genocide of the
32. The Theory of Social Contract In the social contract theory, a specific population within a given designated
area gave up as much power to a government as needed to promote the
well-being of all. The community and the leader have contract.
The State has power and authority over the territory.
The community receives certain services such as a safe, crime-free area in
which to live and keep their rights protected.
This theory was developed in the 17th and 18th centuries by philosophers
such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean Jacques Rousseau.
The Patriarchal vs. Matriarchal Theories
The Patriarchal Theory That states stem from the growth and sustained existence of the family
under a father-like control and leadership.
A leader is always seen as a potential provider for the needs of the people.
This is rather a socio-anthropological perspective of formal association of
men in a community on which they regard leader as the protector of their
causes to champion their welfare and well-being.
33. The Matriarchal Theory
Mc Lennan, Jenks and Morgan are the notable exponents of the Matriarchal
They reject outright the preposition that the patriarchal family was the earliest
form of society. Kinship could only be traced through the mother, the
In the earliest periods there were more than one husband and in this system
the children belonged to the clan of the mother without regard to the clan of
the chief of the family.
After the mother’s death the eldest daughter inherited the property.
A few examples of such system of family are available in Australia, Malaya, and
The Historical or Evolutionary Theory
It explains that the State is the product of growth, a slow and steady
evolution extending over a long period of time and shaping itself into
the complex structure of a modern State.
34. Important Factors of Rising and Growth of
3. Property and Defense
5. Political Consciousness