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Guidance and counseling

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Hi this is chetan MSc nursing student, i had took a class on G and C for 2nd year BSc nursing students at SDMnursing collage.

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Guidance and counseling

  1. 1. PRESENTED BY Mr. CHETAN.R. SANGATI FIRST YEAR MSC (N) DEPT OF MEDICAL SURGICAL NURSING
  2. 2. GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING
  3. 3. “When we turn to one another for counsel we reduce the number of our enemies” - Kahlil gibran. • INTRODUCTION- Guidance and counseling have, in all places, been a vital aspect of higher education.one of the purpose of education is to help the individual in becoming a useful member of society. If an individual receives education with out proper guidance and counseling ,he is not able to develop his personality fully and thus is unable to serve his society in terms of his abilities and talents.
  4. 4. Definition's of guidance and counseling • Guidance is the process of helping individuals to understand themselves and their world - shertzer and stone • Guidance is process through which an individual is able to solve their problem and pursue a path suited to their abilities. -IM Brewer
  5. 5. Definition of counseling • Counseling is defined as face to face relationship in which growth takes place in the counselor as well as counselee. -Strang. • Counseling is an interaction process that facilitates meaningful understanding of self and environment and result in the establishment of goals and values for future behavior. -Stone and shertzer.
  6. 6. PRINCIPLES OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING • Guidance and counseling is universal requirement:- It is required by all individuals at all stages of his development irrespective of age ,sex , caste , and status etc. • Goal oriented:- it is one of the planned activity which is carried out by the counselor and counselee to attain the goal.
  7. 7. • Continuous process:- It cannot be restricted to problem solving situation only . the services are not just problem oriented .it is given for the normal student too as it aims for all around development of the student. • Student – centeredness:- it should be organized while keeping in view the needs , interests and purposes of the students in the college.
  8. 8. • Evidence:- it based on the reliable data ,therefore ,have adequate evidence before starting the process . there are several important psychological and non psychological test are used for gatherer information about an individual. • Growth and development:- the counselor has to take into consideration of the individual stages when they plan for services and it is also not restricted to any particular developmental stage.
  9. 9. • Professional activity:- It should not be carried out by anybody but should be rendered by the trained professional only . which requires trained on the part of the counselor. • Prevention as well as cure:- Guidance should be organized to deal not only with serious problem after they arise , but also with causes of such problems , in order to prevent them from arising or to prepare the student better to solve the problem.
  10. 10. • Flexibility:- there is no rigid procedure , techniques and approaches used in this service since it takes into consideration of principle of individual difference. • Cause and effect:- it accepts that problems have causes and inter-related , so a deep knowledge of causes is essential. Counseling services aims at identifying the cause which leads to the present problem so that services can be rendered to the student to alleviate the problem. • Development of insight:- By accurate guide for his problems.
  11. 11. TYPES/ AREAS OF GUIDENCE AND COUNSELING TYPES EDUCATION VOCATIONAL P E R S O N A L A V O C AT IO N
  12. 12. • EDUCATION:- Guidance and counseling is an important in education.it will provide assistance to perform satisfactorily in the academic works and also helps for the chose appropriate course for the study . helps in overcoming learning difficulties. expert assistance is also required for enabling the student in making proper adjustment in relation to general academic life adjustment to effect maximum intellectual, emotional and physical development.
  13. 13.  Types of educational guidance  pre –admission guidance needs  post – admission guidance needs • VOCATIONAL:-in which student need guidance for assistance provided for selection of a vocation and preparation for same, and concerned with enabling clients to acquire information about career opportunities.
  14. 14. • AVOCATIONAL:- The assistances to be provided to clients to spend their available leisure time profitably such as game ,drama ,fine arts which have recreational value.
  15. 15. • HEALTH:- Health guidance is integral part of society for the preventive , promotive ,curative and restorative measures has to be provided to ensure the achievements of this objective.
  16. 16. • MORAL GUIDANCE:- For the student who are having undesirable practices, moral guidance has to be provided to keep them in track and lead noble lives.
  17. 17. • PERSONAL GUIDANCE Students face many health problems related to themselves ,their friends ,family , teachers, educational achievements and social adjustment feeling of disappointment ,unfavorable atmosphere at home for studies , strained and unhappy interpersonal relationship progress in study is hampered. Expert guidance has to be provided to those students to face the situations with confidence.
  18. 18. • MARITAL GUIDENCE Students may need guidance for the right choice of a life partner or for happy marital life.
  19. 19. TYPES OF COUNSELLING TYPES DIRECTI VE NON DIRECTIV E SHORT TERM LONG TERM ELECTIVE CLINICAL PSYCH OLOGI CAL PSYCHO THERAP EUTIC STUDENT
  20. 20. TYPES PLACE MENT VOCATI ONAL INDIVIDU AL GROU P BEHAVIO RAL DIETARY MOTI VATIO NAL INTERP ERSON AL PROBLEM SOLVING
  21. 21. Directive counseling:- This counseling also known as prescriptive or counselor –centered counseling because in which counselor have an important role on solving the problem by giving emphasis on the problem. counselor is supposed to be an authoritative person and he have to identifies, defines, diagnoses and provides a solution to the problem.
  22. 22. Nondirective counseling:- This type of counseling is also known as client centered counseling.in which counselee is the active participant and counselor is the passive participant. The counselee is the pivot, he takes an active part in the process of therapy he gains insight into his problem with the help of the counselor .he only decides and takes necessary action.
  23. 23. Short-term counseling:- This kind of counseling is used in situational crisis which can lead disruption of life. which concern of the client or family of community it can be relatively minor concern or major crisis, but whatever the situation ,it needs immediate attention. counselors will assist the client and guides problem-solving in a systematic way or decision making in logical way.
  24. 24. Long term counseling:- It extends over a prolonged period of time , it may varies ,daily ,weekly or monthly basis. It is focused for the client who experiences developmental crisis may need long –term counseling.( which can occurs during person can passes through the developmental stages) like women with menopause ,women with breast feeding
  25. 25. Electic counseling:- The counselor will use both directive and non directive counseling methods for the purpose of modifying the ides and attitude of the counselee to know the clients emotional expression. the techniques are elective in nature because they have been derived from all sources of counseling.
  26. 26. Clinical counseling:- It is used for the diagnosis and treatment of mind functional maladjustments and to find better adjustment and self – expression. a relationship primarily individual, face to face between counselor and client.it describes the problem and also suggests the solution or remedies for the problem.
  27. 27. Psychological counseling:- In which simply on conversation between client and therapist. This may take in the form of questions and answer s, reconstruction of past history or discussion of current difficulties.it consists of catharsis by the patient or the therapist make an initiative in making the patient to speak out his repressed felling's and emotions.
  28. 28. Psychotherapeutic counseling:- Psychologically trained individual consciously attempts verbally to assists the other persons to modify emotional attitudes which the subject is aware of the personality recognition through which he is undergoing.
  29. 29. Student counseling:- It is concerned with helping the student to solving his problem pertaining to the choice of educational institute ,courses, methods of study, adjustment, vocational choice, etc. Placement counseling:- In which counselee in regard to job and posts which are suitable to the client depend upon his abilities , attitude and interests.
  30. 30. IMPORTANT QUESTIONS • Type of counseling approaches • Basic principles of counseling. • Characteristics of counseling. • Define guidance and counseling
  31. 31. THANK YOU
  32. 32. CONDECTING COUNSELING SESSION IN NURSING PURPOSES  To help adolescent with normal developmental problems.  To help for prevention of temporary crisis.  To identify sign of disturbed behavior at the earliest.  To refer cases to specialist (if it is needed)for treatment.
  33. 33.  To facilitate communication with in and nursing school ,home and communities and the resources  To support tutors by giving intimation regarding the student and help him with accurate guidance and reassurance. A well organized structure covering the three major functions of the program. Adjustment, oriental, developmental.
  34. 34. ORGANIZATIONAL SETUP For constituent collages on the campus, • For 1000 students.  A counseling officer will assisted by guidance committee for make plan regarding needs of the students ,how to implement the program and even deputy chief and academic adviser also will co-operate.
  35. 35. For more then 1000 students • Hear students assisted by counseling officer and may be appointed to assist the counseling officer. • For less then 1000 students A liaison officer will look after.
  36. 36. At affiliated collage at distance • For 1000 students:- A counseling officer assisted by guidance committee for implement the activities with help of vocational officer. • For less then 1000 students:- liaison officer look after. AT UNIVERSITY LAVEL A dean assisted by HOD of psychology and education – guidance committee , counseling officer for make plan.
  37. 37. ESSENTIAL ACTIVITIES FORMATION OF GUIDANCE NAD COUNSELING COMMITTEE. 1. To policy making body for the pregame. 2. The committee can list out problems requiring group solution 3. Coordinate guidance activities and assess the work done.
  38. 38. MEMBERS IN COMMITTEE  Dean  Counseling officer or liaison officer  Teachers from different specialties and academic disciplines  Student representatives  Parents  Vocational guidance officer  Peer group  Librarian  Warden medical staff The principal has to specify the roles of each faculty member.
  39. 39. COUNSELING CENTER Every university and large collage should have a counseling center headed by a counseling officer ,with Ph.D or master’s degree in psychology and counseling with considerable experience. FUNCTIONS • To assistance to group of students or individual ,staff members with special educational, vocational and personal problem.
  40. 40. • Provides psychological testing facility both for individual and group • Carryout research activities on testing procedures and experimental programs. • Help in training of P.G students in counseling and testing • Conducts special clinics for developing study skills and reading improvement • Orientation talks to students and parents to give information regarding:
  41. 41. The course of studies • facilities available in the institution like library,workshops,labs,playground,fee concessions , etc. • CARREER TALKS: Information about a particular job. Like govt job private job ,abroad jobs. • CAREER CONFERENCES: providing occupational information for the group of students.
  42. 42. PLAN TOURS: visits to research institutes, professional collages etc. provide the students with direct and first hand experience of the work done and the physical ,social environment in which it is done. • Arranging personality counseling for low achievers and students with other problems or sending them specialists.
  43. 43. Tools for collecting information • There are two way to collect information. 1) non- testing tools 2) psychological test
  44. 44. NON –TESTING TOOLS NON TESTIN TOOL INTERVI EW OBSERVA TION ANECDO TAL RECORD CUMULATI VE RECORED CARD SOCIOME TRY
  45. 45. INTERVIEW:- Is basic tools of counselling.it is described as a conversation with a defiant purpose.infromation with the help of interview can be collected from the individual student herself or family member or friends or teachers. Interview permits flexibility ,clarity and an opportunity to understand the counselee better.
  46. 46. OBSERVATION:- • Is care full study of a counselee with a specific purpose . counselor makes the observation either by participating observations . • EX- As an non –participative observations. Non participative observations can be made interview or testing or in the class room , in the community/ ward . sometimes one –way screens are used to make these observation.
  47. 47. ANECDOTAL RECORDS:- Which consist recording important incidents.it is verbal snapshot of an incident. case should be taken to record the incident as it has happened. Tutors should be encouraged to participate in it. Decisions should not be made on the basis of a single anecdote.
  48. 48. Cumulative record card:- Is a method of recording and providing meaningful, significant and comprehensive information about the individual over the years. Cumulative record card can be maintained either in folder or file form or card form.
  49. 49. Sociometry:- • is used to measures sociability or social distance amongst the members of a group.
  50. 50. PSYCHOLOGICAL TEST • Psychological tests provides information about an individuals psychological characteristics such as intelligenc,aptitudes,intrestes,abilities and personality etc.the choice of test should be made by looking at their validity, reliability ,usability, and practicability aspect.
  51. 51. PURPOSES • To identify bright and poor students • To identify the area of weakness • To serve as the basis of counseling • To serve the basis of vocational guidance. • To serve as the basis of conference with the parents and teachers • To select the individual form a group of applicants
  52. 52. ROLE OF COUNSELING TEAM MEMBERS /COUNSELING PERSONNEL • THE ROLE OF PRINCIPAL:- The principal plays an important role in organizing guidance and counseling services. she or he is the leader, director and coordinate of this program. A. Recommend to the authorities for the appointment of counselor. B. Provide necessary facilities to the guidance worker and staff connected with guidance. C. Provide assistance in planning guidance program in the collages. D. Encourage teachers to attend special guidance courses and seminars. E. Inform the parents about the guidance activities available in the collage.
  53. 53. ROLE OF TEACHER:- • Collect information and maintain cumulative record. • Observe pupils in various situation like in the class room ,in the library, in the clinical area. • Detect maladjustment of pupils. • Prepare case history of problematic students. • Help the pupils to secure better educational, personal and social adjustment. • Send information about pupils to parents and the principal. • Help the student in evaluating their own growth.
  54. 54. ROLE OF MEDICAL STAFF:- • To make arrangement for medical examination of each student after a suitable interval. • To report physical handicaps of students to parents, teachers and to the principal. • To maintain complete record pertaining to the health of students. • To tack up fallow up work.
  55. 55. Qualifications of a counselor:- • MA in psychology with course in guidance and counseling. • Diploma course in guidance and counseling • Counselor must have knowledge about personality problems. testing mental hygiene and counseling techniques.
  56. 56. FUNCTIONS OF COUNSELOR:- • Scheduling and conducting interview. • Group guidance. • Individual counseling. • Orientation services. • Data collection. • Placement and fallow –up work. • Providing liaison between school, home ,and community. • Remedial work.
  57. 57. SKILLS REQUIRED OF A COUNSELOR:- • SKILL IN COUNDECTING INTERVIEW A. Greeting B. Maintaining eye contact and proper body posture C. Encourage participation D. Arrangement of physical environment E. Problem focus F. Identifying an important theme and theme focus G. Goal setting
  58. 58. Phases of counseling • Establishing relationship • Assessment • Setting goals • Interventions • Termination and follow-up
  59. 59. TECHNIQUES OR APPROCHS TO COUNCELING Based on the nature of the counselling process we can see several important techniques. These are namely • Directive, • Non directive • Eclectic counselling • Short term counselling • Long term counselling
  60. 60. • Clinical counselling • Psychological counselling • Psychotherapeutic counselling • Student counselling • Placement counselling • Marriage counselling • Vocational counselling • Individual counselling
  61. 61. • Group counselling • Behavioural counselling • Dietary counselling • Motivational counselling • Interpersonal counselling • Bereavement counselling • Problem solving counselling • Case study
  62. 62. • Educational counselling • Vocational counselling • Counselling in health and living conditions • Personal counselling • Moral ,religious and social counselling • Counselling in leisure time • Self-help group counselling • Peer group counselling
  63. 63. • Orientation service counselling • Appraisal service counselling • Information service counselling • Counselling service
  64. 64. DIRECTIVE OR PRESCRIPITIVE OR COUNSELOR CENTRED COUNSELING • It is an approach in which counsellor uses a variety of techniques to suggest appropriate solution to the problem of the counselee. In this approach counsellor will play a leading role.
  65. 65. •The directive counselling advocated by EG Williamson is that counselling is possible only when an individual is able to accumulate adequate dada to form for the an analytic diagnosis of the problem. • The counsellors role in this type of counselling is to assist his students in getting such data and to suggest suitable solutions. • He tries to direct the thinking of the counselee by informing ,explaining, interpreting and advising.
  66. 66. STAGES OF COUNSELING • The counselee seeks the help of the counsellor • The counselee gives free expression to the emotionalized attitudes • The counselee gain insight • The counselee formulate plans • The counselee terminates the counselling contract
  67. 67. STEPS IN COUNSELLING • ANALYSIS:-Collecting from a variety sources ,the data needed for an adequate understanding of the student. • Synthesis:-summarizing and organizing the data so that they reveal the student status .liabilities ,adjustment and maladjustments • Diagnosis:-formulating conclusion regarding the nature and the causes of the problems exhibited by the students.
  68. 68. • PROGNOSIS:-preceding the future development of the student problems. • COUNSELLING:-the counsellor takes measurements and readjustment for the student • FOLLOW-UP:-helping the student with new problems of with recurrence of the counselling provided to them
  69. 69. ROLE OF COUNSELLOR • Assists the student to understand their physical and psychological needs. • Help them to accept their aptitudes , abilities ,interests, opportunities for self- fulfilment • Assist them to develop decision making competency • Help the others staff members to understand individual students by providing material information and evaluation.
  70. 70. NONDIRECTIVE OR PERMISSIVE OR CLIENT – CENTERED COUNSELING • It is an counselee centred approach in which he is guided to use his own inner resources to solve the problem. in this approach the counselee plays a predominant role. • CARL R ROGERS is the exponent of the nondirective technique of the counselling.
  71. 71. ECLECTIC COUNSELING • IN elective counselling ,the strategy arises out of the appropriate knowledge of student behaviour and a combination of directive ,nondirective and other approaches. • Irrespective of the differences ,all approaches should have developmental ,preventive and remedial values.
  72. 72. STEPES • INTERVIEW • RAPPORT • HISTORY COLLECTION • FORMULATE DIAGNOSIS • NEED BASED INFORMATION • INSIGHT ALERT • FALLOW-UP
  73. 73. Short term counselling • Used in situational crisis in which disruption of life occurred. It focuses on the client or family. it can relatively minor or major crisis, but whatever the situation it needs immediate solution. Counsellor will assist the client in guiding the problem solving techniques in a systematic way.
  74. 74. Long term counselling • It extent over the prolong period of timed. It is needed for the client who experiences the developmental crises may need long term counselling. • Ex- women with menopause women with breast feeding.
  75. 75. Clinical counselling • The diagnosis and treatment of mind functional maladjustment and to find better adjustment and self expression. • A primary relationship between the client and counsellor is an important aspect to establish positive relationship. • In the phase both counselee and counsellor will discuss and they will come for the conclusion.
  76. 76. Psychological counselling • It is conversation between client and the therapist. this may tack in the form of questions and answer, reconstruction of past history or discussion of current difficulties. • In which therapist will tack an initiation for make the client to speak out the his or her repressed feeling and emotions. The therapist will give an advise to the client for over come with his problems.
  77. 77. Student counselling • It deals with students problems regarding the educational institution , course , adjustment, vocational chance, etc .which heals the student for overall development.
  78. 78. Placement counselling • In which counsellor will the counselee reading the job ,placement based on the his abilities ,qualification ,and interest. Marriage counselling: Advise and help which will help full for the selecting the suitable spouse. This can heals to solve the problem related to their to their marital problems and marital relationship.
  79. 79. Vocational counselling • Procedure cantered about the problem of selecting a vocational and preparing for it. If nay problems arise within the specified vocation, necessary steps or advise will carryout for the solving the problems. By this kind of advise from the counsellor, the counselee can improve his necessary over all development.
  80. 80. Individual counselling • Counselling may be preceded by an interview ,the counsellor will try to establish rapport and structure has to be done that the client understand what to except at counselling.
  81. 81. Group counselling • New way of working to people ,where peer group valve are more important , Ex- adolescence ,sometimes it is successful with student who have not respond the individual counselling .the individual may gain an insight and understanding into his/her own problems through listening to others.
  82. 82. Behavioural counselling • To change the specific behaviour and to treat the behavioural disorders.behavioral counselling is effective it is based on principal learning by conditioning
  83. 83. Dietary counselling • Healing the individual more about the diet and meeting the nutritional needs. • MOTIVATIONAL COUNSELLING: this kind of counselling help the to motivate the counselee by the advising through motivational thought and videos ,motivational books, etc
  84. 84. Bereavement counselling • It focus on working through the stages of grief. It combines an opportunity for emotional release including the expression of despair and anger. • develop a therapeutic relationship • Client or families including persons who must adjust to change in life style body images as the disease progress. • During life treating conditions client and family need counselling to cope with possibility of death.
  85. 85. Problem solving counselling • Suitable for the reaction to stress and with minor affective disorder. the patient is helped to identify and list problems that are causing distress. Case study It is nonstanderdised techniques for collecting information about client in all aspects of life. case study is defined as collection of all available information regarding social ,psychological ,psychosocial ,physiological, biographical , environmental, vocation that promises to the signal individual or single social unit.
  86. 86. Type of case study • Formal case study • Informal case study • Descriptive case study • Historical case study
  87. 87. Educational counselling • To help the learner to get benefit out of education and solve their problems related to education. • Asset the learner to identify the need of the educational planning. • To make the student develop the study habit related to the appropriate to the study of nursing. • To orient the learner to the clinical filed and clinical methods of learning.
  88. 88. Information service counselling • To serve the individual and society .hear occupational information is given to the individual. • Counselling service: it can help the learner to become self-understanding, self-acceptance and self confidence. it is a process by which an individual learns to be independent, to make decision to live with a problem situation and to face any crisis situation.
  89. 89. Problems in guidance and counselling • Resistance to counselling –either by counselee or by faculty • Counselee with different culture- the nursing student will come from different culture back grounds, they will have their own set of values and expectations. The counsellor should be very care full in dealing counselees with different cultures. • Counsellor burn out the symptoms such as restlessness, boredom, irritability, lethargy, fatigue, negativity feelings etc. Can be managed by changing work environment, play therapy ,music therapy art therapy. • Inadequate administrative set-up • Lack of physical facilities, non –availability of time and tools, death of training facilities for counsellors.
  90. 90. COUNSELLING PROCESS
  91. 91. • The counseling process is a planned, structured dialogue between a counselor and a client. •It is a cooperative process in which a trained professional helps a person called the client to identify sources of difficulties or concerns that he or she is experiencing. •Together they develop ways to deal with and overcome these problems so that person has new skills and increased understanding of themselves and others.
  92. 92. • For example students in a college or university may be anxious about how to study in university. • lack of clarity on educational or career direction. • Have difficulty living with a room-mate of another race or religion. • Have concerns with self-esteem. • Feelings with being “stressed out”, difficulties in romantic relationships and so forth.
  93. 93. COUNSELLING PROCESS STEPES/ PHASES • Step 1: Relationship Building Or Establishing relationship: The first step involves building a relationship and focuses on engaging clients to explore issue that directly affect them. The first interview is important because the client is reading the verbal and nonverbal messages and make inferences about the counselor and the counseling situation. Being the phase with adequate social skills: 1. Introduce your self 2. Listen attentively and remember the client name.
  94. 94. 3. Always address the client with the name. 4. Ensure the physical comfort. 5. Do not interrupt the individual while talking. 6. Observe non- verbal communication. The relationship is not established in just a single session but may required several session before client become comfortable with you and accepts you into his or her inner world.
  95. 95. Step 2: Problem Assessment • While the counselor and the client are in the process of establishing a relationship, a second process is taking place, i.e. problem assessment. This step involves the collection and classification of information about the client’s life situation and reasons for seeking counseling. Which includes several specific skills such as: • Observations • Enquiry • Making association among facts • Recording • Recording of information should be done systematically and promptly.
  96. 96. Step 3: GOAL SETTING • Like any other activity, counseling must have a focus. • Goals are the results or outcomes that client wants to achieve at the end of counseling. • Sometimes, you hear both counselor and client complain that the counseling session is going nowhere. • This is where goals play an important role in giving direction.
  97. 97. Step 4: INTERVENTION • There are different points of view concerning what a good counselor should do with clients depending on the theoretical positions that the counselor subscribes to. For example, the person-centred approach suggests that the counselor gets involved rather than intervenes by placing emphasis on the relationship. The behavioral approach attempts to initiate.
  98. 98. EVALUATION, FOLLOW-UP, TERMINATION 0R REFERAL • For the beginning counselor, it is difficult to think of terminating the counseling process, as they are more concerned with beginning the counseling process. However, all counseling successful termination. aims towards Terminating the counseling process will have to be conducted with sensitivity with the client knowing that it will have to end.
  99. 99. • Counselor always mindful of avoiding fostering dependency and is aware of own needs. • Preparation for termination begins long before. • Open door / plan for possibility of future need. • Termination considered not just at end of successful relationship, but also is considered when it seems counseling is not being helpful. • Think of this as a means of empowering client Role to review progress, create closure in client counselor.
  100. 100. ISSUES OF COUNSELLING IN NURSING • Scarcity of qualified & competent counselors. • Lack of awareness about needs & resources of counseling. • Minimal pro counseling environment. • Lack of counseling training for nurse/nursing faculty. • Poor organizational set-up for counseling services. • Lack of interest & initiatives for counseling services. • Poor counselor-counselee ratio. • Lack of funds for counseling services. • Noncompliance with counseling interventions Ethical & moral Issues.
  101. 101. MANAGING DISCIPLINARY PROBLEMS • Common disciplinary problems seen in Indian students are • Absenteeism • No submission or late submission of assignments • Disturbing classroom atmosphere • Threatening strike • Damaging or spoiling institutional property • Picking quarrels over small matters • Using mobiles phones in the classroom & so on
  102. 102. Strategies for management of disciplinary problems • Appropriate training of faculty & teachers • Adequate practice of co curricular & extra curricular activities • Appropriate selection & use of disciplinary standards • Use reward & punishment • Promoting better teacher-student relationship • Cultivation of ethical, moral & spiritual values • A close teacher-parent-student contact • Effective use guidance & counseling programmes

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