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“When we turn to one another for counsel we reduce the number of
- Kahlil gibran.
Guidance and counseling have, in all places, been
a vital aspect of higher education.one of the purpose of education is to help
the individual in becoming a useful member of society. If an individual
receives education with out proper guidance and counseling ,he is not able to
develop his personality fully and thus is unable to serve his society in terms
of his abilities and talents.
Definition's of guidance and counseling
• Guidance is the process of helping individuals to
understand themselves and their world
- shertzer and stone
• Guidance is process through which an individual is able
to solve their problem and pursue a path suited to
Definition of counseling
• Counseling is defined as face to face relationship in
which growth takes place in the counselor as well as
• Counseling is an interaction process that facilitates
meaningful understanding of self and environment and
result in the establishment of goals and values for
future behavior. -Stone and shertzer.
PRINCIPLES OF GUIDANCE AND
• Guidance and counseling is universal
requirement:- It is required by all individuals at
all stages of his development irrespective of age
,sex , caste , and status etc.
• Goal oriented:- it is one of the planned activity
which is carried out by the counselor and
counselee to attain the goal.
• Continuous process:-
It cannot be restricted to problem
solving situation only . the services are not just problem
oriented .it is given for the normal student too as it aims
for all around development of the student.
• Student – centeredness:- it should be organized while
keeping in view the needs , interests and purposes of
the students in the college.
it based on the reliable data ,therefore
,have adequate evidence before starting the process . there
are several important psychological and non psychological test
are used for gatherer information about an individual.
• Growth and development:- the counselor has to take into
consideration of the individual stages when they plan for
services and it is also not restricted to any particular
• Professional activity:-
It should not be carried out by anybody but
should be rendered by the trained professional only . which
requires trained on the part of the counselor.
• Prevention as well as cure:-
Guidance should be organized to deal not
only with serious problem after they arise , but also with
causes of such problems , in order to prevent them from
arising or to prepare the student better to solve the problem.
• Flexibility:- there is no rigid procedure , techniques and
approaches used in this service since it takes into
consideration of principle of individual difference.
• Cause and effect:- it accepts that problems have causes and
inter-related , so a deep knowledge of causes is essential.
Counseling services aims at identifying the cause which leads
to the present problem so that services can be rendered to
the student to alleviate the problem.
• Development of insight:- By accurate guide for his problems.
TYPES/ AREAS OF GUIDENCE AND COUNSELING
Guidance and counseling is an important in
education.it will provide assistance to perform satisfactorily in
the academic works and also helps for the chose appropriate
course for the study . helps in overcoming learning difficulties.
expert assistance is also required for enabling the student in
making proper adjustment in relation to general academic life
adjustment to effect maximum intellectual, emotional and
Types of educational guidance
pre –admission guidance needs
post – admission guidance needs
• VOCATIONAL:-in which student need guidance for assistance
provided for selection of a vocation and preparation for same,
and concerned with enabling clients to acquire information
about career opportunities.
The assistances to be provided to
clients to spend their available leisure time
profitably such as game ,drama ,fine arts which
have recreational value.
Health guidance is integral part of
society for the preventive , promotive ,curative
and restorative measures has to be provided to
ensure the achievements of this objective.
• MORAL GUIDANCE:-
For the student who are
having undesirable practices, moral guidance
has to be provided to keep them in track and
lead noble lives.
• PERSONAL GUIDANCE
Students face many health problems related to
themselves ,their friends ,family , teachers, educational
achievements and social adjustment feeling of
disappointment ,unfavorable atmosphere at home for
studies , strained and unhappy interpersonal relationship
progress in study is hampered. Expert guidance has to be
provided to those students to face the situations with
• MARITAL GUIDENCE
Students may need guidance
for the right choice of a life partner or for happy
TYPES OF COUNSELLING
TERM ELECTIVE CLINICAL
This counseling also known as prescriptive or
counselor –centered counseling because in which
counselor have an important role on solving the
problem by giving emphasis on the problem. counselor
is supposed to be an authoritative person and he have
to identifies, defines, diagnoses and provides a solution
to the problem.
This type of counseling is also known as client
centered counseling.in which counselee is the active
participant and counselor is the passive participant.
The counselee is the pivot, he takes an active part in
the process of therapy he gains insight into his
problem with the help of the counselor .he only
decides and takes necessary action.
This kind of counseling is used in situational crisis which can lead
disruption of life. which concern of the client or family of
community it can be relatively minor concern or major crisis, but
whatever the situation ,it needs immediate attention. counselors
will assist the client and guides problem-solving in a systematic
way or decision making in logical way.
Long term counseling:-
It extends over a prolonged period of time , it
may varies ,daily ,weekly or monthly basis. It is
focused for the client who experiences
developmental crisis may need long –term
counseling.( which can occurs during person can
passes through the developmental stages) like
women with menopause ,women with breast
The counselor will use both directive and non
directive counseling methods for the purpose of
modifying the ides and attitude of the counselee
to know the clients emotional expression. the
techniques are elective in nature because they
have been derived from all sources of
It is used for the diagnosis and treatment of
mind functional maladjustments and to find better
adjustment and self – expression. a relationship
primarily individual, face to face between counselor
and client.it describes the problem and also suggests
the solution or remedies for the problem.
In which simply on conversation between client and
therapist. This may take in the form of questions and
answer s, reconstruction of past history or discussion of
current difficulties.it consists of catharsis by the patient
or the therapist make an initiative in making the patient
to speak out his repressed felling's and emotions.
Psychologically trained individual
consciously attempts verbally to assists the
other persons to modify emotional attitudes
which the subject is aware of the personality
recognition through which he is undergoing.
It is concerned with helping the student to
solving his problem pertaining to the choice of
educational institute ,courses, methods of study,
adjustment, vocational choice, etc.
Placement counseling:- In which counselee in
regard to job and posts which are suitable to the
client depend upon his abilities , attitude and
• Type of counseling approaches
• Basic principles of counseling.
• Characteristics of counseling.
• Define guidance and counseling
CONDECTING COUNSELING SESSION
To help adolescent with normal developmental problems.
To help for prevention of temporary crisis.
To identify sign of disturbed behavior at the earliest.
To refer cases to specialist (if it is needed)for treatment.
To facilitate communication with in and
nursing school ,home and communities
and the resources
To support tutors by giving intimation
regarding the student and help him with
accurate guidance and reassurance.
A well organized structure covering the three major
functions of the program.
Adjustment, oriental, developmental.
For constituent collages on the campus,
• For 1000 students.
A counseling officer will assisted by guidance
committee for make plan regarding needs of
the students ,how to implement the program
and even deputy chief and academic adviser
also will co-operate.
For more then 1000 students
• Hear students assisted by counseling officer
and may be appointed to assist the counseling
• For less then 1000 students
A liaison officer will look after.
At affiliated collage at distance
• For 1000 students:- A counseling officer assisted by guidance
committee for implement the activities with help of
• For less then 1000 students:- liaison officer look after.
AT UNIVERSITY LAVEL
A dean assisted by HOD of psychology and education
– guidance committee , counseling officer for make
FORMATION OF GUIDANCE NAD
1. To policy making body for the pregame.
2. The committee can list out problems
requiring group solution
3. Coordinate guidance activities and
assess the work done.
MEMBERS IN COMMITTEE
Counseling officer or liaison officer
Teachers from different specialties and academic
Vocational guidance officer
Warden medical staff
The principal has to specify the roles of each faculty
Every university and large collage should have a
counseling center headed by a counseling officer
,with Ph.D or master’s degree in psychology and
counseling with considerable experience.
• To assistance to group of students or
individual ,staff members with special
educational, vocational and personal problem.
• Provides psychological testing facility both
for individual and group
• Carryout research activities on testing
procedures and experimental programs.
• Help in training of P.G students in counseling
• Conducts special clinics for developing study
skills and reading improvement
• Orientation talks to students and parents to
give information regarding:
The course of studies
• facilities available in the institution like
concessions , etc.
• CARREER TALKS: Information about a
particular job. Like govt job private job
• CAREER CONFERENCES: providing
occupational information for the group of
visits to research institutes, professional
collages etc. provide the students with direct
and first hand experience of the work done and
the physical ,social environment in which it is
• Arranging personality counseling for low
achievers and students with other problems
or sending them specialists.
Tools for collecting information
• There are two way to collect information.
1) non- testing tools
2) psychological test
NON –TESTING TOOLS
Is basic tools of counselling.it is described as a
conversation with a defiant purpose.infromation with
the help of interview can be collected from the
individual student herself or family member or friends
or teachers. Interview permits flexibility ,clarity and an
opportunity to understand the counselee better.
• Is care full study of a counselee with a specific purpose .
counselor makes the observation either by participating
• EX- As an non –participative observations. Non participative
observations can be made interview or testing or in the class
room , in the community/ ward . sometimes one –way screens
are used to make these observation.
Which consist recording important incidents.it is
verbal snapshot of an incident. case should be taken to
record the incident as it has happened. Tutors should
be encouraged to participate in it. Decisions should not
be made on the basis of a single anecdote.
Cumulative record card:-
Is a method of recording and providing meaningful,
significant and comprehensive information about the
individual over the years.
Cumulative record card can be maintained either in
folder or file form or card form.
• is used to measures sociability or social
distance amongst the members of a group.
• Psychological tests provides information about
an individuals psychological characteristics
such as intelligenc,aptitudes,intrestes,abilities
and personality etc.the choice of test should be
made by looking at their validity, reliability
,usability, and practicability aspect.
• To identify bright and poor students
• To identify the area of weakness
• To serve as the basis of counseling
• To serve the basis of vocational guidance.
• To serve as the basis of conference with the
parents and teachers
• To select the individual form a group of
ROLE OF COUNSELING TEAM
MEMBERS /COUNSELING PERSONNEL
• THE ROLE OF PRINCIPAL:- The principal plays an
important role in organizing guidance and counseling services.
she or he is the leader, director and coordinate of this program.
A. Recommend to the authorities for the appointment of
B. Provide necessary facilities to the guidance worker and staff
connected with guidance.
C. Provide assistance in planning guidance program in the
D. Encourage teachers to attend special guidance courses and
E. Inform the parents about the guidance activities available in
ROLE OF TEACHER:-
• Collect information and maintain cumulative record.
• Observe pupils in various situation like in the class
room ,in the library, in the clinical area.
• Detect maladjustment of pupils.
• Prepare case history of problematic students.
• Help the pupils to secure better educational, personal
and social adjustment.
• Send information about pupils to parents and the
• Help the student in evaluating their own growth.
ROLE OF MEDICAL STAFF:-
• To make arrangement for medical examination
of each student after a suitable interval.
• To report physical handicaps of students to
parents, teachers and to the principal.
• To maintain complete record pertaining to the
health of students.
• To tack up fallow up work.
Qualifications of a counselor:-
• MA in psychology with course in guidance and
• Diploma course in guidance and counseling
• Counselor must have knowledge about
personality problems. testing mental hygiene
and counseling techniques.
FUNCTIONS OF COUNSELOR:-
• Scheduling and conducting interview.
• Group guidance.
• Individual counseling.
• Orientation services.
• Data collection.
• Placement and fallow –up work.
• Providing liaison between school, home ,and
• Remedial work.
SKILLS REQUIRED OF A COUNSELOR:-
• SKILL IN COUNDECTING INTERVIEW
B. Maintaining eye contact and proper body posture
C. Encourage participation
D. Arrangement of physical environment
E. Problem focus
F. Identifying an important theme and theme focus
G. Goal setting
Phases of counseling
• Establishing relationship
• Setting goals
• Termination and follow-up
TECHNIQUES OR APPROCHS TO
Based on the nature of the counselling process
we can see several important techniques.
These are namely
• Non directive
• Eclectic counselling
• Short term counselling
• Long term counselling
• Group counselling
• Behavioural counselling
• Dietary counselling
• Motivational counselling
• Interpersonal counselling
• Bereavement counselling
• Problem solving counselling
• Case study
• Educational counselling
• Vocational counselling
• Counselling in health and living conditions
• Personal counselling
• Moral ,religious and social counselling
• Counselling in leisure time
• Self-help group counselling
• Peer group counselling
• Orientation service counselling
• Appraisal service counselling
• Information service counselling
• Counselling service
DIRECTIVE OR PRESCRIPITIVE OR
COUNSELOR CENTRED COUNSELING
• It is an approach in which counsellor uses a
variety of techniques to suggest appropriate
solution to the problem of the counselee. In
this approach counsellor will play a leading
•The directive counselling advocated by EG
Williamson is that counselling is possible only
when an individual is able to accumulate
adequate dada to form for the an analytic
diagnosis of the problem.
• The counsellors role in this type of counselling
is to assist his students in getting such data and
to suggest suitable solutions.
• He tries to direct the thinking of the counselee
by informing ,explaining, interpreting and
STAGES OF COUNSELING
• The counselee seeks the help of the counsellor
• The counselee gives free expression to the
• The counselee gain insight
• The counselee formulate plans
• The counselee terminates the counselling
STEPS IN COUNSELLING
• ANALYSIS:-Collecting from a variety sources ,the
data needed for an adequate understanding of the
• Synthesis:-summarizing and organizing the data so
that they reveal the student status .liabilities
,adjustment and maladjustments
• Diagnosis:-formulating conclusion regarding the
nature and the causes of the problems exhibited by
• PROGNOSIS:-preceding the future
development of the student problems.
• COUNSELLING:-the counsellor takes
measurements and readjustment for the student
• FOLLOW-UP:-helping the student with new
problems of with recurrence of the counselling
provided to them
ROLE OF COUNSELLOR
• Assists the student to understand their physical
and psychological needs.
• Help them to accept their aptitudes , abilities
,interests, opportunities for self- fulfilment
• Assist them to develop decision making
• Help the others staff members to understand
individual students by providing material
information and evaluation.
NONDIRECTIVE OR PERMISSIVE OR CLIENT –
• It is an counselee centred approach in which he is guided to
use his own inner resources to solve the problem. in this
approach the counselee plays a predominant role.
• CARL R ROGERS is the exponent of the nondirective
technique of the counselling.
• IN elective counselling ,the strategy arises out
of the appropriate knowledge of student
behaviour and a combination of directive
,nondirective and other approaches.
• Irrespective of the differences ,all approaches
should have developmental ,preventive and
• HISTORY COLLECTION
• FORMULATE DIAGNOSIS
• NEED BASED INFORMATION
• INSIGHT ALERT
Short term counselling
• Used in situational crisis in which disruption
of life occurred. It focuses on the client or
family. it can relatively minor or major crisis,
but whatever the situation it needs immediate
solution. Counsellor will assist the client in
guiding the problem solving techniques in a
Long term counselling
• It extent over the prolong period of timed. It is
needed for the client who experiences the
developmental crises may need long term
• Ex- women with menopause
women with breast feeding.
• The diagnosis and treatment of mind
functional maladjustment and to find better
adjustment and self expression.
• A primary relationship between the client and
counsellor is an important aspect to establish
• In the phase both counselee and counsellor
will discuss and they will come for the
• It is conversation between client and the
therapist. this may tack in the form of questions
and answer, reconstruction of past history or
discussion of current difficulties.
• In which therapist will tack an initiation for
make the client to speak out the his or her
repressed feeling and emotions. The therapist
will give an advise to the client for over come
with his problems.
• It deals with students problems regarding the
educational institution , course , adjustment,
vocational chance, etc .which heals the student
for overall development.
• In which counsellor will the counselee reading
the job ,placement based on the his abilities
,qualification ,and interest.
Advise and help which will help full for the
selecting the suitable spouse. This can heals to
solve the problem related to their to their
marital problems and marital relationship.
• Procedure cantered about the problem of
selecting a vocational and preparing for it. If
nay problems arise within the specified
vocation, necessary steps or advise will
carryout for the solving the problems. By this
kind of advise from the counsellor, the
counselee can improve his necessary over all
• Counselling may be preceded by an interview
,the counsellor will try to establish rapport and
structure has to be done that the client
understand what to except at counselling.
• New way of working to people ,where peer
group valve are more important ,
Ex- adolescence ,sometimes it is successful with
student who have not respond the individual
counselling .the individual may gain an insight
and understanding into his/her own problems
through listening to others.
• To change the specific behaviour and to treat
the behavioural disorders.behavioral
counselling is effective it is based on principal
learning by conditioning
• Healing the individual more about the diet and
meeting the nutritional needs.
• MOTIVATIONAL COUNSELLING:
this kind of counselling help the to motivate
the counselee by the advising through
motivational thought and videos ,motivational
• It focus on working through the stages of grief. It
combines an opportunity for emotional release
including the expression of despair and anger.
• develop a therapeutic relationship
• Client or families including persons who must
adjust to change in life style body images as the
• During life treating conditions client and family
need counselling to cope with possibility of death.
Problem solving counselling
• Suitable for the reaction to stress and with minor affective disorder. the
patient is helped to identify and list problems that are causing distress.
It is nonstanderdised techniques for collecting information about client in all
aspects of life.
case study is defined as collection of all available information regarding
social ,psychological ,psychosocial ,physiological, biographical ,
environmental, vocation that promises to the signal individual or single
Type of case study
• Formal case study
• Informal case study
• Descriptive case study
• Historical case study
• To help the learner to get benefit out of
education and solve their problems related to
• Asset the learner to identify the need of the
• To make the student develop the study habit
related to the appropriate to the study of
• To orient the learner to the clinical filed and
clinical methods of learning.
Information service counselling
• To serve the individual and society .hear
occupational information is given to the
• Counselling service: it can help the learner to
become self-understanding, self-acceptance
and self confidence. it is a process by which an
individual learns to be independent, to make
decision to live with a problem situation and to
face any crisis situation.
Problems in guidance and
• Resistance to counselling –either by counselee or by faculty
• Counselee with different culture- the nursing student will come from different
culture back grounds, they will have their own set of values and expectations. The
counsellor should be very care full in dealing counselees with different cultures.
• Counsellor burn out the symptoms such as restlessness, boredom, irritability,
lethargy, fatigue, negativity feelings etc. Can be managed by changing work
environment, play therapy ,music therapy art therapy.
• Inadequate administrative set-up
• Lack of physical facilities, non –availability of time and tools, death of training
facilities for counsellors.
• The counseling process is a planned, structured
dialogue between a counselor and a client.
•It is a cooperative process in which a trained
professional helps a person called the client to
identify sources of difficulties or concerns that
he or she is experiencing.
•Together they develop ways to deal with and
overcome these problems so that person has
new skills and increased understanding of
themselves and others.
• For example students in a college or university
may be anxious about how to study in
• lack of clarity on educational or career
• Have difficulty living with a room-mate of
another race or religion.
• Have concerns with self-esteem.
• Feelings with being “stressed out”, difficulties
in romantic relationships and so forth.
COUNSELLING PROCESS STEPES/ PHASES
• Step 1: Relationship Building Or Establishing
The first step involves building a relationship and
focuses on engaging clients to explore issue that directly
affect them. The first interview is important because the
client is reading the verbal and nonverbal messages and
make inferences about the counselor and the counseling
Being the phase with adequate social skills:
1. Introduce your self
2. Listen attentively and remember the client name.
3. Always address the client with the name.
4. Ensure the physical comfort.
5. Do not interrupt the individual while talking.
6. Observe non- verbal communication.
The relationship is not established in just a
single session but may required several session
before client become comfortable with you and
accepts you into his or her inner world.
Step 2: Problem Assessment
• While the counselor and the client are in the process of
establishing a relationship, a second process is taking
place, i.e. problem assessment. This step involves the
collection and classification of information about the
client’s life situation and reasons for seeking
counseling. Which includes several specific skills such
• Making association among facts
• Recording of information should be done
systematically and promptly.
Step 3: GOAL SETTING
• Like any other activity, counseling must have
• Goals are the results or outcomes that client
wants to achieve at the end of counseling.
• Sometimes, you hear both counselor and
client complain that the counseling session is
• This is where goals play an important role in
Step 4: INTERVENTION
• There are different points of view concerning
what a good counselor should do with clients
depending on the theoretical positions that the
counselor subscribes to. For example, the
person-centred approach suggests that the
counselor gets involved rather than intervenes
by placing emphasis on the relationship. The
behavioral approach attempts to initiate.
EVALUATION, FOLLOW-UP, TERMINATION 0R REFERAL
• For the beginning counselor, it is difficult to
think of terminating the counseling process, as
they are more concerned with beginning the
counseling process. However, all counseling
successful termination. aims towards
Terminating the counseling process will have
to be conducted with sensitivity with the client
knowing that it will have to end.
• Counselor always mindful of avoiding
fostering dependency and is aware of own
• Preparation for termination begins long before.
• Open door / plan for possibility of future need.
• Termination considered not just at end of
successful relationship, but also is considered
when it seems counseling is not being helpful.
• Think of this as a means of empowering client
Role to review progress, create closure in
ISSUES OF COUNSELLING IN NURSING
• Scarcity of qualified & competent counselors.
• Lack of awareness about needs & resources of
• Minimal pro counseling environment.
• Lack of counseling training for nurse/nursing faculty.
• Poor organizational set-up for counseling services.
• Lack of interest & initiatives for counseling services.
• Poor counselor-counselee ratio.
• Lack of funds for counseling services.
• Noncompliance with counseling interventions Ethical
& moral Issues.
MANAGING DISCIPLINARY PROBLEMS
• Common disciplinary problems seen in Indian
• No submission or late submission of assignments
• Disturbing classroom atmosphere
• Threatening strike
• Damaging or spoiling institutional property
• Picking quarrels over small matters
• Using mobiles phones in the classroom & so on
Strategies for management of disciplinary problems
• Appropriate training of faculty & teachers
• Adequate practice of co curricular & extra
• Appropriate selection & use of disciplinary
• Use reward & punishment
• Promoting better teacher-student relationship
• Cultivation of ethical, moral & spiritual values
• A close teacher-parent-student contact
• Effective use guidance & counseling