Skeletal Structure

PROJECT 1 :
RYAN SAK KAR WAI 0326525 | LINDSAY LIM SIEW CHENG 0326844 | CHEVALLY LO ZHAO SHYEN
0326497 | PEH ELLYN 0326812 | AHMAD NABIL BIN JIMI 0327780
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION II (BLD60703)
SKELETAL CONSTRUCTION
A TEMPORARY BUS SHELTER | TUTOR: AR EDWIN
STESEN BAS RLNCE
Jalan Klang Lama, Batu 8 1/2, 46000 Petaling Jaya, Selangor
INTRODUCTION
DESIGN CONSIDERATION
DESIGN DEVELOPMENT
CONSTRUCTION PROCESS
CONSTRUCTION DETAILS
DESIGN ANALYSIS
MATERIALITY
LOAD TEST
ORTHOGRAPHIC DRAWINGS
CONCLUSION
REFERENCE
INDEX
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
01INTRODUCTION
The objective of this project is to understand and apply skeletal
construction, joints and its components, besides understanding how
skeletal construction works under the pressure of a load.
In a group of 6, we’re required to choose 2 forms to design a bus
shelter using skeletal construction by applying knowledge on forces,
construction methods and creative thinking to solve an oblique
design problem.
02DESIGN
CONSIDERATION
Materials and Construction
Building materials are carefully chosen for their strength,
durability, and attainability at the same time, with minimal
impact to the environment.
Weather Resistance
The bus stop is designed to withstand Malaysia’s hot and
humid tropical climate with the choice of materials. Natural
ventilation is maximised to provide comfort to the users,
Safety
Openness of the space within the bus stop provides visibility
in and out of the structure, allowing users to see oncoming
vehicles from a distance. Human ergonomics and
anthropometry are taken into consideration when designing
the bus stop to provide convenience to the users.
Maintenance
Types of joints used are easily assembled and disassembled
to allow ease of maintenance when structural components
are needed to be repaired or replaced. This also provides
convenience when a change in bus route occurred which
requires reallocation.
Stability
The skeletal structures are designed to resist external forces
such as wind load, live load and dead load.
03DESIGN
DEVELOPMENT
Design of the bus stop have been improvised and changed in order to achieve better stability and buildability of the
structure.
0 1 0 30 2 0 4
The thickness of the columns
have been increased from
10mm to 20mm for better
support.
The joist for the roof and timber
decking have changed into a
20mm x 30mm rectangle
instead of a 20mm x 20mm
square to increase the tensile
strength of the joist.
Roof rise using different
height have been added to
create a slope in order to
accommodate the Malaysia’s
climate.
The height of the concrete
foundation footings have been
increased to 80mm for better
stability.
DESIGN DEVELOPMENT3.0
04CONSTRUCTION
PROCESS
Planning & design
Detailed drawings with accurate scaled
measurement is done using sketchup
software:
Foundation
Foundation footings are concrete casted
around the steel foundations.
Foundation
Ground beam is are screwed onto the
footing with a steel plate in between.
Assembling materials
Both RHS and SHS are cut to the
specific sizes required for the
superstructure of the bus stop.
Measuring
Measuring tape and ruler are used
to measure the length of the steel
needed to cut or modify.
.
Marking
White marker and welder’s chalk are
used to mark the points need to cut or
drill.
Drilling
Drills and driver bits of various
sizes are used to bore holes for
fastening RHS and SHS to form the
superstructure.
.
Connections
Both cordless screwdriver and hand
screwdriver are used to connect screws
and L-brackets to the steel structures.
1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8
Connections
Spanner is used for better grip to tighten
nuts and bolts connections.
Timber preparation
Timber are cut and assembled according
to the required measurements.
Timber preparation
The timbers are then sanded to
smoothen surface and strengthening the
edges by removing any rough edges.
Coating
A layer of shellac is coated on the
timber structures for extra
protection.
Connections
L-brackets are drilled into the timber
structure and tightened with nuts and
bolts.
Connections
Timber seating is screwed directly to the
steel framing with a screwdriver.
Roofing
Polycarbonate roof sheet is screwed onto
the roof structure after being spray painted
for the extra coating of protection.
Finishing and Beautification
Steel structures are spray painted for
aesthetic purpose as well as an extra
coating to protect the steel.
9 10 11 12
13 14 15 16
POLYCARBONATE ROOF
Screw
ROOF RISER
L-Bracket
ROOF JOIST
L-Bracket
COLUMNS
L-Bracket, Nuts and bolts
TIMBER SEATING
Nuts and bolts
TIMBER DECKING
L-Bracket and Screws
FLOOR STRUCTURE FRAME
Welding and L-Brackets
PAD FOUNDATION -
Steel Bearing Plate, Nuts and bolts
05CONSTRUCTION
DETAILS
BASE STRUCTURE5.1
A B
PERSPECTIVE VIEW:
BASE STRUCTURE A: JOIST
LENGTH: 1800 mm
WIDTH: 125 mm
THICKNESS: 60 mm
B, C: BEAM
LENGTH: B:1800 mm, C: 4000mm
WIDTH: 200 mm
THICKNESS: 100 mm
C
The base structure is made of RHS (rectangular hollow
section) for the beams and SHS (square hollow section) for the
joists. The joist is used to as horizontal structure member for
extra support for the timber decking and structural columns
MATERIALITY
JOIST BEAM
LENGTH x HEIGHT x WIDTH: 60mm
THICKNESS: 6mm
BASE STRUCTURE5.1
CONNECTION
The beams and joist are connected through L-brackets and
screws. The structure is connected to the foundation through a
steel plate and screw and is then connected to the columns
through L-brackets and screws.
HEX HEAD BOLT
A: 11mm
B: 16mm
LENGTH: 20mm
HEAD: 70mm
A B
MATERIALITY
ANGLE BRACKET
RHS STRUCTURE
ANGLE BRACKET
PAD FOOTING
WIDTH & LENGTH: 500mm
HEIGHT: 600mm
ANCHOR BOLT WASHER
LENGTH: 600mm
WASHER DIAMETER: 30mm
NUT DIAMETER: 28mm
ANCHOR BOLT DIAMETER:
19mm
Anchor
Bolt
10mm
Bearing
Plate
Bearing plates are required to distribute the load
imposed by the beam above so that resultant unit
bearing pressure does not exceed allowable unit stress
for the supporting material.
CONCRETE PAD FOOTING DETAIL STEEL BEAM & FOUNDATION CONNECTION
FOUNDATION AND FOOTING5.2
STEEL RHS BEAM
STEEL SHS FLOOR JOIST
BEARING PLATE
CONCRETE PAD FOOTING
H
L W
MATERIALITY
D=Nut
D=AnchorBolt
L
D=Washer
BEARING PLATE
ANCHOR BOLT
WASHER
L, W
THICKNESS
BEARING PLATES
LENGTH & WIDTH: 200mm
DIAMETER: 28mm
CONNECTIONS
TIMBER DECKINGSKELETAL STRUCTURE5.3
DIMENSION OF
SKELETAL STRUCTURE
HEX HEAD SCREW
HEX HEAD BOLT & NUT
TIMBER DECKINGSTEEL SKELETAL STRUCTURE5.3.1
MATERIALITY
SQUARE HOLLOW STEEL
(SHS)
W
H
W: 100 mm
H: 100 mm
ANGLE BRACKETHEX HEAD BOLT SCREW
DIAMETER: 11mm
HEAD : 16mm
LENGTH: 20mm
D H
LENGTH x HEIGHT x WIDTH: 100mm x
130mm x 55mm
THICKNESS: 6mm
D H
L L
DIAMETER: 20mm
HEAD : 40mm
LENGTH: 200mm
PERSPECTIVE VIEW:
STEEL STRUCTURE
RHS STRUCTURE
HEX HEAD
BOLT & NUT
ANGLE BRACKET
Skeletal structure of the bu stop is constructed by RHS (rectangular hollow
section) and SHS (square hollow section steel). The columns are connected to
the beam via hex head screw as well as hex head bolt and nuts. Hex head bolt
and nuts are used as it is convenient for maintenance works.
SHS STRUCTURE
TIMBER DECKINGK-BRACING STRUCTURE5.3.1
PERSPECTIVE VIEW:
K-BRACING STRUCTURE
ANGLE BRACKET
T-PLATE
GUSSET PLATE B
MATERIALITY
K bracing is used for stabilizing the roof structure and distributing the
loads. The K-bracing utilizes three different joints to connect to the
main columns which include angle bracket, gusset plate and T-plate.
GUSSET PLATE B
L
W
T
LENGTH: 150mm
WIDTH : 100mm
THICKNESS: 15mm
ANGLE BRACKET
LENGTH x HEIGHT x WIDTH:
130MM x 55mm x 55mm
THICKNESS: 15mm
GUSSET PLATE A
GUSSET PLATE A
W
L
T
LENGTH: 185mm
WIDTH : 100mm
THICKNESS: 15mm
T-PLATE
L
W
T
LENGTH: 150mm
WIDTH : 100mm
THICKNESS: 15mm
HEX HEAD BOLT SCREW
DIAMETER: 11mm
HEAD : 16mm
LENGTH: 20mm
D
H
L
TIMBER DECKINGTIMBER SKELETAL STRUCTURE5.3.1
PERSPECTIVE VIEW:
TIMBER STRUCTURE
METAL PLATE
MATERIALITY
LENGTH:750mm WIDTH : 90mm
THICKNESS: 13mm X:135mm
L
W
T
HEX HEAD BOLT SCREW
DIAMETER: 11mm
HEAD : 16mm
LENGTH: 20mm
D H
L
TIMBER
(A) (B)
TIMBER A
LENGTH: 90mm
WIDTH: 90mm
TIMBER B
LENGTH: 50mm
WIDTH: 90mm
L L
W
A
A
A
B
B
Timber is screwed on
the metal plate
Metal plate with screw holes
Metal plate is
screwed on the beam
x x x x
TIMBER DECKINGTIMBER DECKING5.2.3
SECTIONAL PERSPECTIVE:
TIMBER DECKING STRUCTURE
TIMBER DECK
STEEL JOIST
4000 mm
2000 mm
350 mm
MATERIALITY
CONNECTIONPERSPECTIVE VIEW:
TIMBER DECKING STRUCTURE
The timber planks are placed above the steels joints as a supplementary
support for users to step on. It is carefully measure by strips and placed
horizontally to fit the base structure. Self tapping screws are used to attach
the timber planks on to the steel joist of three points: left edge, middle, and
right edge. This is to secure the timber planks tightly to avoid any
detachment while in use.
TIMBER PLANKS
TYPE: Balau wood
LENGTH: 4000 mm
WIDTH: 2000 mm
THICKNESS: 15 mm
SELF TAPPING SCREWS
A: 10 mm
B: 5 mm
LENGTH: 50 mm
HEAD: 10 mm
BA
SELF TAPPING SCREW
STEEL BASE
TIMBER PLANKS
TIMBER DECKINGTIMBER DECKING5.2.3
MATERIALITY
CONNECTION
SEAT DECKING
TIMBER STRIPS
TYPE: Balau
LENGTH: 1600 (LFT), 1700 (RHT)
mm
WIDTH: 50 mm
THICKNESS: 30 mm
PERSPECTIVE VIEW:
TIMBER SEATING STRUCTURE
A
A
The timber strips are placed perpendicular to the H columns by the side, this
timber strips serve to provide users comfortable backrest on the bench. The
timber strips are attached to the steel columns by using an L bracket and
self tapping screws to secure it tightly.
SELF
TAPPING
SCREW
STEEL
COLUMN
TIMBER
STRIPS
L BRACKET
LENGTH: 3400 mm
WIDTH: 390 mm
THICKNESS: 30 mm
5.2.4
MATERIALITY
CONNECTION
TIMBER STRIPS
TYPE: Balau
LENGTH: 3400 mm
WIDTH: 390 mm
THICKNESS: 30 mm
SELF TAPPING SCREWS
A: 10 mm
B: 5 mm
LENGTH: 50 mm
HEAD: 10 mm
BA
PERSPECTIVE VIEW:
TIMBER SEATING STRUCTURE
B
B
The timber strips are placed parallel to the steel joist for a comfortable finish to
a bench. It is secured by using self tapping screw, attaching it to the 3 points:
left edge, middle, and right edge. This helps to secure the timber strip strongly
to the steel joist avoiding any detachment while in use.
SELF
TAPPING
SCREW
TIMBER
STRIPS
STEEL
STRUCTURE
SEAT DECKING5.2.4
MATERIALITY
EXPLODED ISOMETRIC VIEW:
ROOF STRUCTURE
ROOF STRUCTURE5.2.5
GLAZING BARS
TYPE: Aluminium
LENGTH: 2250 mm
WIDTH: 58 mm
THICKNESS: 15 mm
TIMBER RISERS
TYPE: Balau
LENGTH: 4000 mm
WIDTH: 60 mm
THICKNESS: Varies
STEEL STRUCTURE
TYPE: Steel
LENGTH: 4000 mm
WIDTH: 1900 mm
THICKNESS: 200 mm
GREY POLYCARBONATE
TYPE: Solid
LENGTH: 4200 mm
WIDTH: 2250 mm
THICKNESS: 25 mm
ROOF PLAN
SELF TAPPING SCREWS
A: 10 mm
B: 5 mm
LENGTH: 50 mm
HEAD: 10 mm
BA
PERSPECTIVE VIEW:
ROOF STRUCTURE
ROOF STRUCTURE5.2.5
CONNECTION
Polycarbonate is placed above the steel structure to protect occupants from
any climatic changes. It is tilted according to the height of the risers for
drainage of water and easy maintenances. Above the polycarbonate lies 4
aluminium glazing bars that helps attach the polycarbonate securely to the
risers, self tapping screws are again used to ensure the attachment process.
4200 mm
2250 mm
POLYCARBONATE
STEEL STRUCTURE
SELF TAPPING SCREWS
GLAZING BAR
LENGTH OF GLAZING BAR:
PERSPECTIVE VIEW:
ROOF STRUCTURE
ROOF STRUCTURE5.2.5
ROOF STRUCTURE
STEEL STRUCTURE
SELF TAPPING SCREWS
L-BRACKET
CONNECTION
The roof structure frame and ceiling joist are used to support the polycarbonate
roof and stabilise the whole structure. The roof frame uses RHS (rectangular
hollow section) and is connected through L-bracket with self tapping screws.
The roof structure is then connected to the columns through L-brackets and
screws.
L-BRACKET
ROOF RISER
A: 25mm
B: 41mm
C: 58mm
D: 74mm
ROOF STRUCTURE5.2.5
PERSPECTIVE VIEW:
ROOF STRUCTURE
BA C D
LENGTH : 4000 mm
WIDTH : 30 mm
HEIGHT :
CONNECTION
Roof riser is placed above the roof structure to create a slope for the the
polycarbonate roof. The roof is tilted in order to accommodate the Malaysia’s
tropical climate as well as to simplify maintenance works. The riser connects the
polycarbonate roof to the steel structure with the help of self tapping screw.
06DESIGN ANALYSIS
HORIZONTAL STRUCTURES VERTICAL STRUCTURES
Horizontal structures are designed to
support loads that act vertically on them.
Vertical structures are mainly designed to
support compression forces from the
horizontal beams.
RHS Roof Beam
RHS Roof Joist
RHS Bracing
RHS Beam
RHS Floor Beam
RHS Floor Joist
Timber Columns
RHS Columns
HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL STRUCTURES6.0
2°
RAIN
The bus stop is designed to suit
Malaysia’s tropical climate by tilting to
roof backwards at a 2° angle to
ensure the efficiency of rainwater
drainage and protect the users from
rain.
VENTILATION
The skeletal structure of the bus
stop maximises natural ventilation
and allows smooth air flow in and
out of the bus stop, providing
thermal comfort to the users.
SUNLIGHT
Polycarbonate is a thermoplastic
polymer that is resistant to extreme
temperature. It also allows sunlight to
penetrate through the structure but
blocks out UV rays. This allows diffused
sunlight to penetrate into the interior of
the bus stop
CORROSION
Anti-corrosion painting treatments
are applied on the steel to prevent
corrosion. The coating acts as a
barrier that prevent the contact
between corrosive chemical
compounds with the structure.
NON-STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS6.1
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS6.2
PLAN VIEW OF STEEL BASE FRAME AXONOMETRIC: DIRECTION OF LOAD
6.2.1 FLOOR SYSTEM : TWO WAY SYSTEM
In the two way floor system, the timber decking is supported on all four sides of the slab. The main reinforcement of the slab is provided by both direction of the
two way floor system. The ratio of the longer span to shorter span is equal/less than 2.
lx =
ly=
4000
2000
2
lx
ly
=
Formula:
LEFT ELEVATION RIGHT ELEVATION
6.2.2 STATIC LOAD (DEAD LOAD)
Dead load is the weight of the permanent structures of the bus stop,
such as the roof structure acting on the structure. The force acting on
the structure is constant, and is transferred to the vertical columns and
k-bracing, then to the floor and foundatIon of the bus stop.
6.2.3 IMPOSED LOAD (LIVE LOAD)
Live loads are acted by non-permanent objects such as human and
precipitation on the roof. The intensity of the force acting on the bus
stop depends on the number and weight of an object.
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS6.2
6.2.4 WIND LOAD
The load bearing columns and k-bracing, together with the foundation
firmly anchors the bus stop to the ground to prevent lateral load.
The skeletal structure of the bus stop allows wind to flow through it freely to
prevent the occurence of shear load.
The low pitch polycarbonate roof prevents uplift load.
Shear Load
Shear Load
Lateral Load
K-bracing
Timber Column
Concrete Pad Footing
Steel Base Frame
2°
Uplift Low Pitch
Polycarbonate
Roof
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS6.2
07MATERIALITY
SUSTAINABILITY
Polycarbonate sheet has lower carbon
emissions than other materials which is
environmentally friendly.
TIMBER
Timber decking is used for the floors as
well as the seating areas and part of the
column. Timber is used due to its strength,
durability and biodegradable feature
making it suitable for temporary structures.
It has a long-life span that can withstand
various climatic temperature which is
appropriate in Malaysia’s tropical climate.
STEEL STRUCTURE
Steel is one of the main material
component used for building structure.
It is used as the main beams and
columns because it can withstand
extreme forces and harsh weather
conditions. It is very strong and highly
durable due to it’s resistant to rusting
and are not affected by termites and
insects like timber.
POLYCARBONATE ROOFING
The roof is made out of a solid
polycarbonate sheet, it is a lightweight
material that can withstand force and are
unbreakable due to its high tensile strength.
Polycarbonate sheets are resistant to heat
and rain, which enables them to have a long
life span. In Malaysia’s harsh climate, the
material doesn’t cause any discolouration
and can provide protection and comfort by
blocking UV rays.
SUSTAINABILITY
Timber is an environmentally friendly
material as it a naturally renewable
material as well as it embodies low energy
during processing and production.
SUSTAINABILITY
Steel is a material that is recyclable
without the loss it’s properties. It is a
good investment because steel can
be used multiple times with a
consistent level of quality.
SUSTAINABILITY
Concrete’s sustainability to the environment
appears from the start of production to the
stages of demolition. It’s long lasting feature
and its capability to be recycled and reused
for other purposes allows the material to be
used conventionally.
CONCRETE FOUNDATION
6 concrete pad foundations are being used to
carry and spread the loads to the ground
from the superstructure. Concrete is used
due to its high durability and strength to
sustain heavy loads.
Concrete also allows the flexibility of size and
design to be casted based on the force and
load it carries.
JOINTS
The joints that are used for this model
are all steel brackets and plates to
connect different components
together. Steel joints are used
because it is known to withstand
forces and is strong.
ALUMINIUM GLAZING BARS
Aluminium glazing bars are used to secure
the polycarbonate roofing in place.
Aluminium is used dues to its lightweight
material that can be easily transported and
its resistant to corrosion.
SUSTAINABILITY
Aluminium can be recycled without losing
it’s inherent properties. Through the
process of recycling, it uses only 5% of the
original energy input whilst avoiding
emitting greenhouse gases.
SUSTAINABILITY
Steel is a material that is recyclable
without the loss it’s properties. It is a
good investment because steel can
be used multiple times with a
consistent level of quality.
08LOAD TEST
Test 1 : 3 kg
Results : Successfully withstand the load
Test 3 : 9 kg
Results : Successfully withstand the load
Test 2 : 6 kg
Results : Successfully withstand the load
Test 4 : 15 kg
Results : Successfully withstand the load
Loads of different weight were added on the bus stop to test its ability to carry weight.
Through observation, the structure remain upright and stable while forces are acted and applied on it.
LOAD TEST8.0
09ORTHOGRAPHIC
DRAWINGS
FLOOR PLAN
SCALE 1:20
ROOF PLAN
SCALE 1:20
LEFT ELEVATION
SCALE 1:20
FRONT ELEVATION
SCALE 1:20
BACK ELEVATION
SCALE 1:20
RIGHT ELEVATION
SCALE 1:20
10CONCLUSION
The bus stop is built to accommodate 4 to 8 users, with considerations of safety, weather, comfort level and sustainability aspects.
The structure is mostly built with RHS (rectangular hollow structural section) and SHS (square hollow structural section). Timber is also used for seating, floor
decking as well as structural support column.
In order to meet the requirements to ensure the buildability of the bus stop, designs are improvised and finalized after researching and understanding the building
constructions through tutorials and lectures.
Loads of all types are also taken into consideration in order to ensure the structure is able to withstand forces.
In a nutshell, all joints and structures plays important part to ensure the efficiency in terms of stability and strength.
11REFERENCE
babunaveen (2018). Steel connections. [online] Slideshare.net. Available at:
https://www.slideshare.net/babunaveen/steel-connections [Accessed 15 May 2018].
Cadbull.com. (2018). Steel structure detail of connection beam, column drawing with isometric view..
[online] Available at:
https://cadbull.com/detail/18987/Steel-structure-detail-of-connection-beam-and-column-detail-dr
awing-with-isometric-view. [Accessed 15 May 2018].
Cti-timber.org. (2018). [online] Available at:
http://www.cti-timber.org/sites/default/files/STA_Timber_as_structural_material.pdf [Accessed
15 May 2018].
DIY. (2018). The Basics of Cast Concrete and Molded Accents. [online] Available at:
https://www.diynetwork.com/how-to/skills-and-know-how/masonry-and-tiling/the-basics-of-cast-c
oncrete-and-molded-accents [Accessed 15 May 2018].
Don Vandervort, H. (2018). Floor Framing & Structure. [online] HomeTips. Available at:
https://www.hometips.com/how-it-works/floor-subflooring.html [Accessed 15 May 2018].
En.wikipedia.org. (2018). Column. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Column
[Accessed 15 May 2018].
En.wikipedia.org. (2018). Floor. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floor [Accessed 15
May 2018].
Makeitwood.org. (2018). [online] Available at:
http://makeitwood.org/documents/doc-692-timber-as-a-sustainable-material.pdf [Accessed 15
May 2018].
Metalcorp. (2018). Structural Steel Tube (RHS, CHS, SHS). [online] Available at:
http://www.metalcorpsteel.com.au/products/rhs-steel-pipe-tube/structural-steel-tube-rhs-chs-shs
/ [Accessed 15 May 2018].
En.wikipedia.org. (2018). Joist. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joist [Accessed 15
May 2018].
En.wikipedia.org. (2018). Rafter. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rafter [Accessed
15 May 2018].
En.wikipedia.org. (2018). Steel frame. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steel_frame
[Accessed 15 May 2018].
Flash.org. (2018). [online] Available at:
http://www.melfast.com/blog/2015/06/the-advantages-of-bolts-and-nuts-over-welds/
Slideshare.net. (2018). Timber - A Construction Material. [online] Available at:
https://www.slideshare.net/aadilkihan/timber-a-construction-material [Accessed 15 May 2018].
Steelconstruction.info. (2018). Simple connections. [online] Available at:
https://www.steelconstruction.info/Simple_connections [Accessed 15 May 2018].
En.wikipedia.org. (2018). Hollow structural section. [online] Available at:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hollow_structural_section [Accessed 15 May 2018].
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Skeletal Structure

  • 1. PROJECT 1 : RYAN SAK KAR WAI 0326525 | LINDSAY LIM SIEW CHENG 0326844 | CHEVALLY LO ZHAO SHYEN 0326497 | PEH ELLYN 0326812 | AHMAD NABIL BIN JIMI 0327780 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION II (BLD60703) SKELETAL CONSTRUCTION A TEMPORARY BUS SHELTER | TUTOR: AR EDWIN
  • 2. STESEN BAS RLNCE Jalan Klang Lama, Batu 8 1/2, 46000 Petaling Jaya, Selangor
  • 3. INTRODUCTION DESIGN CONSIDERATION DESIGN DEVELOPMENT CONSTRUCTION PROCESS CONSTRUCTION DETAILS DESIGN ANALYSIS MATERIALITY LOAD TEST ORTHOGRAPHIC DRAWINGS CONCLUSION REFERENCE INDEX 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11
  • 4. 01INTRODUCTION The objective of this project is to understand and apply skeletal construction, joints and its components, besides understanding how skeletal construction works under the pressure of a load. In a group of 6, we’re required to choose 2 forms to design a bus shelter using skeletal construction by applying knowledge on forces, construction methods and creative thinking to solve an oblique design problem.
  • 5. 02DESIGN CONSIDERATION Materials and Construction Building materials are carefully chosen for their strength, durability, and attainability at the same time, with minimal impact to the environment. Weather Resistance The bus stop is designed to withstand Malaysia’s hot and humid tropical climate with the choice of materials. Natural ventilation is maximised to provide comfort to the users, Safety Openness of the space within the bus stop provides visibility in and out of the structure, allowing users to see oncoming vehicles from a distance. Human ergonomics and anthropometry are taken into consideration when designing the bus stop to provide convenience to the users. Maintenance Types of joints used are easily assembled and disassembled to allow ease of maintenance when structural components are needed to be repaired or replaced. This also provides convenience when a change in bus route occurred which requires reallocation. Stability The skeletal structures are designed to resist external forces such as wind load, live load and dead load.
  • 7. Design of the bus stop have been improvised and changed in order to achieve better stability and buildability of the structure. 0 1 0 30 2 0 4 The thickness of the columns have been increased from 10mm to 20mm for better support. The joist for the roof and timber decking have changed into a 20mm x 30mm rectangle instead of a 20mm x 20mm square to increase the tensile strength of the joist. Roof rise using different height have been added to create a slope in order to accommodate the Malaysia’s climate. The height of the concrete foundation footings have been increased to 80mm for better stability. DESIGN DEVELOPMENT3.0
  • 9. Planning & design Detailed drawings with accurate scaled measurement is done using sketchup software: Foundation Foundation footings are concrete casted around the steel foundations. Foundation Ground beam is are screwed onto the footing with a steel plate in between. Assembling materials Both RHS and SHS are cut to the specific sizes required for the superstructure of the bus stop. Measuring Measuring tape and ruler are used to measure the length of the steel needed to cut or modify. . Marking White marker and welder’s chalk are used to mark the points need to cut or drill. Drilling Drills and driver bits of various sizes are used to bore holes for fastening RHS and SHS to form the superstructure. . Connections Both cordless screwdriver and hand screwdriver are used to connect screws and L-brackets to the steel structures. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
  • 10. Connections Spanner is used for better grip to tighten nuts and bolts connections. Timber preparation Timber are cut and assembled according to the required measurements. Timber preparation The timbers are then sanded to smoothen surface and strengthening the edges by removing any rough edges. Coating A layer of shellac is coated on the timber structures for extra protection. Connections L-brackets are drilled into the timber structure and tightened with nuts and bolts. Connections Timber seating is screwed directly to the steel framing with a screwdriver. Roofing Polycarbonate roof sheet is screwed onto the roof structure after being spray painted for the extra coating of protection. Finishing and Beautification Steel structures are spray painted for aesthetic purpose as well as an extra coating to protect the steel. 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
  • 11. POLYCARBONATE ROOF Screw ROOF RISER L-Bracket ROOF JOIST L-Bracket COLUMNS L-Bracket, Nuts and bolts TIMBER SEATING Nuts and bolts TIMBER DECKING L-Bracket and Screws FLOOR STRUCTURE FRAME Welding and L-Brackets PAD FOUNDATION - Steel Bearing Plate, Nuts and bolts 05CONSTRUCTION DETAILS
  • 12. BASE STRUCTURE5.1 A B PERSPECTIVE VIEW: BASE STRUCTURE A: JOIST LENGTH: 1800 mm WIDTH: 125 mm THICKNESS: 60 mm B, C: BEAM LENGTH: B:1800 mm, C: 4000mm WIDTH: 200 mm THICKNESS: 100 mm C The base structure is made of RHS (rectangular hollow section) for the beams and SHS (square hollow section) for the joists. The joist is used to as horizontal structure member for extra support for the timber decking and structural columns MATERIALITY JOIST BEAM
  • 13. LENGTH x HEIGHT x WIDTH: 60mm THICKNESS: 6mm BASE STRUCTURE5.1 CONNECTION The beams and joist are connected through L-brackets and screws. The structure is connected to the foundation through a steel plate and screw and is then connected to the columns through L-brackets and screws. HEX HEAD BOLT A: 11mm B: 16mm LENGTH: 20mm HEAD: 70mm A B MATERIALITY ANGLE BRACKET RHS STRUCTURE ANGLE BRACKET
  • 14. PAD FOOTING WIDTH & LENGTH: 500mm HEIGHT: 600mm ANCHOR BOLT WASHER LENGTH: 600mm WASHER DIAMETER: 30mm NUT DIAMETER: 28mm ANCHOR BOLT DIAMETER: 19mm Anchor Bolt 10mm Bearing Plate Bearing plates are required to distribute the load imposed by the beam above so that resultant unit bearing pressure does not exceed allowable unit stress for the supporting material. CONCRETE PAD FOOTING DETAIL STEEL BEAM & FOUNDATION CONNECTION FOUNDATION AND FOOTING5.2 STEEL RHS BEAM STEEL SHS FLOOR JOIST BEARING PLATE CONCRETE PAD FOOTING H L W MATERIALITY D=Nut D=AnchorBolt L D=Washer BEARING PLATE ANCHOR BOLT WASHER L, W THICKNESS BEARING PLATES LENGTH & WIDTH: 200mm DIAMETER: 28mm CONNECTIONS
  • 16. HEX HEAD SCREW HEX HEAD BOLT & NUT TIMBER DECKINGSTEEL SKELETAL STRUCTURE5.3.1 MATERIALITY SQUARE HOLLOW STEEL (SHS) W H W: 100 mm H: 100 mm ANGLE BRACKETHEX HEAD BOLT SCREW DIAMETER: 11mm HEAD : 16mm LENGTH: 20mm D H LENGTH x HEIGHT x WIDTH: 100mm x 130mm x 55mm THICKNESS: 6mm D H L L DIAMETER: 20mm HEAD : 40mm LENGTH: 200mm PERSPECTIVE VIEW: STEEL STRUCTURE RHS STRUCTURE HEX HEAD BOLT & NUT ANGLE BRACKET Skeletal structure of the bu stop is constructed by RHS (rectangular hollow section) and SHS (square hollow section steel). The columns are connected to the beam via hex head screw as well as hex head bolt and nuts. Hex head bolt and nuts are used as it is convenient for maintenance works.
  • 17. SHS STRUCTURE TIMBER DECKINGK-BRACING STRUCTURE5.3.1 PERSPECTIVE VIEW: K-BRACING STRUCTURE ANGLE BRACKET T-PLATE GUSSET PLATE B MATERIALITY K bracing is used for stabilizing the roof structure and distributing the loads. The K-bracing utilizes three different joints to connect to the main columns which include angle bracket, gusset plate and T-plate. GUSSET PLATE B L W T LENGTH: 150mm WIDTH : 100mm THICKNESS: 15mm ANGLE BRACKET LENGTH x HEIGHT x WIDTH: 130MM x 55mm x 55mm THICKNESS: 15mm GUSSET PLATE A GUSSET PLATE A W L T LENGTH: 185mm WIDTH : 100mm THICKNESS: 15mm T-PLATE L W T LENGTH: 150mm WIDTH : 100mm THICKNESS: 15mm HEX HEAD BOLT SCREW DIAMETER: 11mm HEAD : 16mm LENGTH: 20mm D H L
  • 18. TIMBER DECKINGTIMBER SKELETAL STRUCTURE5.3.1 PERSPECTIVE VIEW: TIMBER STRUCTURE METAL PLATE MATERIALITY LENGTH:750mm WIDTH : 90mm THICKNESS: 13mm X:135mm L W T HEX HEAD BOLT SCREW DIAMETER: 11mm HEAD : 16mm LENGTH: 20mm D H L TIMBER (A) (B) TIMBER A LENGTH: 90mm WIDTH: 90mm TIMBER B LENGTH: 50mm WIDTH: 90mm L L W A A A B B Timber is screwed on the metal plate Metal plate with screw holes Metal plate is screwed on the beam x x x x
  • 19. TIMBER DECKINGTIMBER DECKING5.2.3 SECTIONAL PERSPECTIVE: TIMBER DECKING STRUCTURE TIMBER DECK STEEL JOIST 4000 mm 2000 mm 350 mm
  • 20. MATERIALITY CONNECTIONPERSPECTIVE VIEW: TIMBER DECKING STRUCTURE The timber planks are placed above the steels joints as a supplementary support for users to step on. It is carefully measure by strips and placed horizontally to fit the base structure. Self tapping screws are used to attach the timber planks on to the steel joist of three points: left edge, middle, and right edge. This is to secure the timber planks tightly to avoid any detachment while in use. TIMBER PLANKS TYPE: Balau wood LENGTH: 4000 mm WIDTH: 2000 mm THICKNESS: 15 mm SELF TAPPING SCREWS A: 10 mm B: 5 mm LENGTH: 50 mm HEAD: 10 mm BA SELF TAPPING SCREW STEEL BASE TIMBER PLANKS TIMBER DECKINGTIMBER DECKING5.2.3
  • 21. MATERIALITY CONNECTION SEAT DECKING TIMBER STRIPS TYPE: Balau LENGTH: 1600 (LFT), 1700 (RHT) mm WIDTH: 50 mm THICKNESS: 30 mm PERSPECTIVE VIEW: TIMBER SEATING STRUCTURE A A The timber strips are placed perpendicular to the H columns by the side, this timber strips serve to provide users comfortable backrest on the bench. The timber strips are attached to the steel columns by using an L bracket and self tapping screws to secure it tightly. SELF TAPPING SCREW STEEL COLUMN TIMBER STRIPS L BRACKET LENGTH: 3400 mm WIDTH: 390 mm THICKNESS: 30 mm 5.2.4
  • 22. MATERIALITY CONNECTION TIMBER STRIPS TYPE: Balau LENGTH: 3400 mm WIDTH: 390 mm THICKNESS: 30 mm SELF TAPPING SCREWS A: 10 mm B: 5 mm LENGTH: 50 mm HEAD: 10 mm BA PERSPECTIVE VIEW: TIMBER SEATING STRUCTURE B B The timber strips are placed parallel to the steel joist for a comfortable finish to a bench. It is secured by using self tapping screw, attaching it to the 3 points: left edge, middle, and right edge. This helps to secure the timber strip strongly to the steel joist avoiding any detachment while in use. SELF TAPPING SCREW TIMBER STRIPS STEEL STRUCTURE SEAT DECKING5.2.4
  • 23. MATERIALITY EXPLODED ISOMETRIC VIEW: ROOF STRUCTURE ROOF STRUCTURE5.2.5 GLAZING BARS TYPE: Aluminium LENGTH: 2250 mm WIDTH: 58 mm THICKNESS: 15 mm TIMBER RISERS TYPE: Balau LENGTH: 4000 mm WIDTH: 60 mm THICKNESS: Varies STEEL STRUCTURE TYPE: Steel LENGTH: 4000 mm WIDTH: 1900 mm THICKNESS: 200 mm GREY POLYCARBONATE TYPE: Solid LENGTH: 4200 mm WIDTH: 2250 mm THICKNESS: 25 mm
  • 24. ROOF PLAN SELF TAPPING SCREWS A: 10 mm B: 5 mm LENGTH: 50 mm HEAD: 10 mm BA PERSPECTIVE VIEW: ROOF STRUCTURE ROOF STRUCTURE5.2.5 CONNECTION Polycarbonate is placed above the steel structure to protect occupants from any climatic changes. It is tilted according to the height of the risers for drainage of water and easy maintenances. Above the polycarbonate lies 4 aluminium glazing bars that helps attach the polycarbonate securely to the risers, self tapping screws are again used to ensure the attachment process. 4200 mm 2250 mm POLYCARBONATE STEEL STRUCTURE SELF TAPPING SCREWS GLAZING BAR LENGTH OF GLAZING BAR:
  • 25. PERSPECTIVE VIEW: ROOF STRUCTURE ROOF STRUCTURE5.2.5 ROOF STRUCTURE STEEL STRUCTURE SELF TAPPING SCREWS L-BRACKET CONNECTION The roof structure frame and ceiling joist are used to support the polycarbonate roof and stabilise the whole structure. The roof frame uses RHS (rectangular hollow section) and is connected through L-bracket with self tapping screws. The roof structure is then connected to the columns through L-brackets and screws. L-BRACKET
  • 26. ROOF RISER A: 25mm B: 41mm C: 58mm D: 74mm ROOF STRUCTURE5.2.5 PERSPECTIVE VIEW: ROOF STRUCTURE BA C D LENGTH : 4000 mm WIDTH : 30 mm HEIGHT : CONNECTION Roof riser is placed above the roof structure to create a slope for the the polycarbonate roof. The roof is tilted in order to accommodate the Malaysia’s tropical climate as well as to simplify maintenance works. The riser connects the polycarbonate roof to the steel structure with the help of self tapping screw.
  • 28. HORIZONTAL STRUCTURES VERTICAL STRUCTURES Horizontal structures are designed to support loads that act vertically on them. Vertical structures are mainly designed to support compression forces from the horizontal beams. RHS Roof Beam RHS Roof Joist RHS Bracing RHS Beam RHS Floor Beam RHS Floor Joist Timber Columns RHS Columns HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL STRUCTURES6.0
  • 29. 2° RAIN The bus stop is designed to suit Malaysia’s tropical climate by tilting to roof backwards at a 2° angle to ensure the efficiency of rainwater drainage and protect the users from rain. VENTILATION The skeletal structure of the bus stop maximises natural ventilation and allows smooth air flow in and out of the bus stop, providing thermal comfort to the users. SUNLIGHT Polycarbonate is a thermoplastic polymer that is resistant to extreme temperature. It also allows sunlight to penetrate through the structure but blocks out UV rays. This allows diffused sunlight to penetrate into the interior of the bus stop CORROSION Anti-corrosion painting treatments are applied on the steel to prevent corrosion. The coating acts as a barrier that prevent the contact between corrosive chemical compounds with the structure. NON-STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS6.1
  • 30. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS6.2 PLAN VIEW OF STEEL BASE FRAME AXONOMETRIC: DIRECTION OF LOAD 6.2.1 FLOOR SYSTEM : TWO WAY SYSTEM In the two way floor system, the timber decking is supported on all four sides of the slab. The main reinforcement of the slab is provided by both direction of the two way floor system. The ratio of the longer span to shorter span is equal/less than 2. lx = ly= 4000 2000 2 lx ly = Formula:
  • 31. LEFT ELEVATION RIGHT ELEVATION 6.2.2 STATIC LOAD (DEAD LOAD) Dead load is the weight of the permanent structures of the bus stop, such as the roof structure acting on the structure. The force acting on the structure is constant, and is transferred to the vertical columns and k-bracing, then to the floor and foundatIon of the bus stop. 6.2.3 IMPOSED LOAD (LIVE LOAD) Live loads are acted by non-permanent objects such as human and precipitation on the roof. The intensity of the force acting on the bus stop depends on the number and weight of an object. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS6.2
  • 32. 6.2.4 WIND LOAD The load bearing columns and k-bracing, together with the foundation firmly anchors the bus stop to the ground to prevent lateral load. The skeletal structure of the bus stop allows wind to flow through it freely to prevent the occurence of shear load. The low pitch polycarbonate roof prevents uplift load. Shear Load Shear Load Lateral Load K-bracing Timber Column Concrete Pad Footing Steel Base Frame 2° Uplift Low Pitch Polycarbonate Roof STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS6.2
  • 34. SUSTAINABILITY Polycarbonate sheet has lower carbon emissions than other materials which is environmentally friendly. TIMBER Timber decking is used for the floors as well as the seating areas and part of the column. Timber is used due to its strength, durability and biodegradable feature making it suitable for temporary structures. It has a long-life span that can withstand various climatic temperature which is appropriate in Malaysia’s tropical climate. STEEL STRUCTURE Steel is one of the main material component used for building structure. It is used as the main beams and columns because it can withstand extreme forces and harsh weather conditions. It is very strong and highly durable due to it’s resistant to rusting and are not affected by termites and insects like timber. POLYCARBONATE ROOFING The roof is made out of a solid polycarbonate sheet, it is a lightweight material that can withstand force and are unbreakable due to its high tensile strength. Polycarbonate sheets are resistant to heat and rain, which enables them to have a long life span. In Malaysia’s harsh climate, the material doesn’t cause any discolouration and can provide protection and comfort by blocking UV rays. SUSTAINABILITY Timber is an environmentally friendly material as it a naturally renewable material as well as it embodies low energy during processing and production. SUSTAINABILITY Steel is a material that is recyclable without the loss it’s properties. It is a good investment because steel can be used multiple times with a consistent level of quality.
  • 35. SUSTAINABILITY Concrete’s sustainability to the environment appears from the start of production to the stages of demolition. It’s long lasting feature and its capability to be recycled and reused for other purposes allows the material to be used conventionally. CONCRETE FOUNDATION 6 concrete pad foundations are being used to carry and spread the loads to the ground from the superstructure. Concrete is used due to its high durability and strength to sustain heavy loads. Concrete also allows the flexibility of size and design to be casted based on the force and load it carries. JOINTS The joints that are used for this model are all steel brackets and plates to connect different components together. Steel joints are used because it is known to withstand forces and is strong. ALUMINIUM GLAZING BARS Aluminium glazing bars are used to secure the polycarbonate roofing in place. Aluminium is used dues to its lightweight material that can be easily transported and its resistant to corrosion. SUSTAINABILITY Aluminium can be recycled without losing it’s inherent properties. Through the process of recycling, it uses only 5% of the original energy input whilst avoiding emitting greenhouse gases. SUSTAINABILITY Steel is a material that is recyclable without the loss it’s properties. It is a good investment because steel can be used multiple times with a consistent level of quality.
  • 37. Test 1 : 3 kg Results : Successfully withstand the load Test 3 : 9 kg Results : Successfully withstand the load Test 2 : 6 kg Results : Successfully withstand the load Test 4 : 15 kg Results : Successfully withstand the load Loads of different weight were added on the bus stop to test its ability to carry weight. Through observation, the structure remain upright and stable while forces are acted and applied on it. LOAD TEST8.0
  • 39. FLOOR PLAN SCALE 1:20 ROOF PLAN SCALE 1:20
  • 40. LEFT ELEVATION SCALE 1:20 FRONT ELEVATION SCALE 1:20
  • 41. BACK ELEVATION SCALE 1:20 RIGHT ELEVATION SCALE 1:20
  • 42. 10CONCLUSION The bus stop is built to accommodate 4 to 8 users, with considerations of safety, weather, comfort level and sustainability aspects. The structure is mostly built with RHS (rectangular hollow structural section) and SHS (square hollow structural section). Timber is also used for seating, floor decking as well as structural support column. In order to meet the requirements to ensure the buildability of the bus stop, designs are improvised and finalized after researching and understanding the building constructions through tutorials and lectures. Loads of all types are also taken into consideration in order to ensure the structure is able to withstand forces. In a nutshell, all joints and structures plays important part to ensure the efficiency in terms of stability and strength.
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