3. Perception refers to the way sensory information is organized,
interpreted, and consciously experienced.
The lines appear to be different lengths, but they are actually the same length.
4. Perception involves both bottom-up and top-down processing
Bottom-up processing refers to the fact that perceptions are built
from sensory input.
On the other hand, how we interpret those sensations is influenced
by our available knowledge, our experiences, and our thoughts.
This is called top-down processing.
7. Steps in the Perceptual Process
The Environmental Stimulus
The Attended Stimulus
The Image on the Retina
9. Application of Perception
Employment Interview: A major input into who is hired
and who is rejected in any organization is the employment
interview. The employment interview is an important input into
the hiring decision and a manager must recognize that perceptual
factors influence who is hired. Therefore, eventually the quality
of an organization's Labour force depends on the perception of
10. Performance Evaluation:
The performance appraisal represents an assessment of an
What the evaluator perceives to be "good" or "bad" employee
characteristics will, significantly influences the appraisal
An employee's future is closely tied to his or her appraisal :
promotions, pay raises and continuation of employment are
among the most obvious outcomes.
11. Performance Expectations:
A manager's expectations of an individual affect both the
manager's behaviour towards the individual and the individual's
An impressive amount of evidence demonstrates that people will
attempt to validate their perceptions of reality, even when these
perceptions are faulty.
12. Employee Loyalty:
Another important judgment that managers make about
employees is whether they are loyal to the organization. Few
organizations appreciate employees, especially those in the
managerial ranks openly disparaging the firm.
15. Classical Conditioning
Classical conditioning is a type of conditioning in which an
individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily
produce such as response.
It is the process of learning to associate a particular thing in our
environment with a prediction of what will happen next.
Classical conditioning, the association of such an event with
another desired event resulting in a behavior, is one of the easiest
to understand processes of learning.
17. Operant conditioning
Actually, operant conditioning argues that one’s behavior will
depend on different situations. People will repeatedly behave in a
specific way from where they will get benefits.
On the other hand, they will try to avoid a behavior from where
they will get nothing. Skinner argued that creating pleasing
consequences to specific forms of behavior would increase the
frequency of that behavior.
19. Cognitive Theory
Cognition refers to an individual’s thoughts, knowledge of
interpretations, understandings, or ideas about himself, and his
environment. This is a process of learning through active and
constructive thought processes, such as a practice or using our
One example might be that you were taught how to tell time by
looking at a clock. Someone taught you the meaning of the big
hand and little hand, and you might have had to practice telling
time when you were first learning it.
21. Social Learning Theory
The social learning theory also called observational learning,
stresses upon the ability of an” individual to learn by observing
what happens to other people and just by being told about
One can learn things by observing models, parents, teachers,
peers, motion pictures, TV artists, bosses, and others. Many
patterns of behavior are learned by watching the behaviors of
others and observing its consequences for them.
23. The components of learning process are:
25. Drive: Learning frequently occurs in the presence of drive –
any strong stimulus that impels action.
Drives are basically of two types -primary (or physiological); and
secondary (or psychological). These two categories of drives
often interact with each other. Individuals operate under many
drives at the same time.
To predict a behavior, it is necessary to establish which drives are
stimulating the most.
26. Cue Stimuli: Cue stimuli are those factors that exist in the
environment as perceived by the individual. The idea is to
discover the conditions under which stimulus will increase the
probability of eliciting a specific response. There may be two
types of stimuli with respect to their results in terms of response
concerned: stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination.
27. Responses: The stimulus results in responses. Responses may be
in the physical form or may be in terms of attitudes, familiarity,
perception or other complex phenomena.
When the supervisor discriminates between the worker producing
low quality products and the worker producing high quality
products, and positively responds only to the quality conscious
28. Reinforcement: Reinforcement is a fundamental condition of
learning. Without reinforcement, no measurable modification of
behavior takes place.
Reinforcement may be defined as the environmental event’s
affecting the probability of occurrence of responses with which
they are associated.
29. Retention: The stability of learned behavior over time is defined
as retention and its contrary is known as forgetting. Some of the
learning is retained over a period of time while others may be
31. Reinforcement is the process by which certain types of behaviors are
strengthened. It is the attempt to develop or strengthen desirable behaviour by
either bestowing positive consequences or with holding negative
consequences. Thus, a "reinforcer" is any stimulus that causes certain
behaviour to be repeated or inhibited. By introducing some rein forcers, the
organizations can maintain or increase the probability of such behavior's as
quality oriented performance, decision-making, high level of attendance and
punctuality and so on. There are four basic reinforcement strategies:
34. Positive Reinforcement
A positive reinforcement is a reward for a desired behaviour. The
reward should be sufficiently powerful and durable so that it
increases the probability of occurrence of desirable behaviour.
Positive reinforcement results from the application of a positive
consequence following a desirable behaviour.
Bonuses paid at the end of a successful business year
Employees will work hard for a raise or a promotion
Salesmen will increase their efforts to get rewards and bonuses
Students will study to get good grades
36. Negative Reinforcers: Negative reinforcement also known as
"escape conditioning" or "avoidance learning" it is also a method
of strengthening desired behaviour. Negative reinforcement
results from with holding a threatened negative consequence
when a desired behaviour occurs.
For example students study hard, write term papers and do their
homework on time to avoid the consequences of failure in the
38. Extinction (with holding Reinforcers) –
We have seen that responses followed by reinforces tend to be
repeated and that responses no longer followed by reinforces will
occur less and less frequently and eventually die out. In humans,
extinction can lead to frustration or even rage. Consider a child
having a temper tantrum. If whining and loud demands do not
bring the reinforcer, the child may progress to kicking and
screaming. It is what we expect and don't get that makes us angry.
Punishment is the opposite of reinforcement. Punishment tends to
lower the probability of a response by following it with an
aversive or unpleasant consequence. And punishment can be
accomplished either adding an unpleasant stimulus or removing a