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MVA Presentation 3

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On representation, abstraction and the performative, by Ula, Carol and Rachel

Publié dans : Formation
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MVA Presentation 3

  3. 3. From childhood men have an instinct for representation, and in this respect man differs from the other animals that he is far more imitative and learns his first lessons by representing things. -ARISTOTLE
  4. 4. Lascaux cave paintings c 30,000 BC Venus of Willendorf c 28,000 - 25,000 BC
  5. 5. • Aristotle defined all the arts—verbal, visual, and musical—as modes of representation, and went even further to make representation the definitively human activity. • Representation refers to images that are clearly recognizable for what they purport to be. “Non-representational art” consists of images that have no clear identity, and must be interpreted by the viewer • Art is a representational practice and its products are representations • E.g. portraits, traditional landscapes, paintings of everyday life, historical or mythological scenes, still lifes and various types of figurative… • Representational painters typically act as observers and try to reproduce what they see • Viewers and readers engage with representations
  7. 7. CHUCK CLOSE Big Self Portrait Chuck Close, 1967-1968 Self Portrait Chuck Close, 2002
  8. 8. “Representation is the use of signs that stand in for and take the place of something else.” - W. J . T. MITCHELL
  9. 9. SURREALISM Metamorphosis of Narcissus. Salvador Dali, 1937
  10. 10. Tree, David Diao, 1988
  11. 11. • In Book X of the Republic, Plato argued that art copies particular things. He gives the example of a bed. There is the perfect Form of a bed; then, as a kind of copy of that, a carpenter makes a bed; a painting of a bed is a copy of the carpenter’s bed. • Plato’s postulation of an Ideal world of Forms states that Ideal Form pre-exists any actually. Representation can only ever be an imperfect copy of an Ideal Form. Aristotles interest in mimesis, rather than Platos Ideal Forms has come to inform the debate on models and copies.
  12. 12. One and Three Chairs Joseph Kosuth, 1965
  13. 13. • In the modern world, representation has come to be understood as the structure that enables representationalism to dominate our contemporary way of thinking. Representationalism is a system of thought that fixes the world as an object and resource for human subjects. “Set out before oneself and to set forth in relation to oneself. Through this, whatever is comes to a stand as object and in that way alone receives the seal of Being. That the world becomes picture is one and the same event with the event of mans becoming subiectum in the midst of that which is.” – “MAN AS REPRESENTING SUBJECT” MARTIN HEIDEGGER
  15. 15. • In the visual arts, art theorists and historians continue to ground their discussions of art on the unquestioned assumption that art is representational. Representation provides a standard by which artistic merit can be judged. “Among the problems raised by representational practices the most fundamental are surely those arising in connection with representations that might as well in the unassuming terms of ordinary language be called non-verbal. Of these, visible (or visual) representations are prominent, and have always served the purposes of discussion in an exemplary way.” - “On Non-verbal Representation” (1997) by Donald Brook • An important foundation for all visual art, because it depends upon an artist's proficiency and skills which underpin numerous forms of visual art • Helps to make art accessible to the general public
  16. 16. • Art in modern times has been devoted to overcoming the limits of representation. “A question of extending representation as far as the too large and the too small of difference; of adding a hitherto unsuspected perspective to representation it is a question of causing a little Dionysian blood to flow in the organic veins of Apollo.” - Gilles Deleuze
  18. 18. ABSTRACTION • N O N - R E P R E S E N T A T I O N A L ?
  19. 19. W H AT I S R E P R E S E N T A T I O N ? ! • To replace the human activities, thoughts and logic of them by the means of art, in other words, representation is the imitation of the reality and so as to reflect it. • To reflect and re-present the “truth” • To imitate the nature !
  20. 20. Aristotle discusses representation in three ways— The object: The symbol being represented. Manner: The way the symbol is represented. Means: The material that is used to represent it.
  21. 21. IMPRESSIONISM Berthe Morisot Eugene Manet on the Isle of Wight, , 1875 Alfred Sisley Boat in the Flood at Port Marly, 1986
  22. 22. IMPRESSIONISM - CLAUDE MONET Claude Monet Water Lily Pond, Evening, 1926
  23. 23. IMPRESSIONISM - CLAUDE MONET Claude Monet Nymphéas, 1920-1926
  24. 24. CUBISM Albert Gleizes l'Homme au Balcon, 1912 Juan Gris Portrait of Picasso, 1912
  25. 25. CUBISM Pablo Picasso Still Life with Cane Chair (1907)
  26. 26. ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM Willem de Kooning Woman V 1952-53 Arshile Gorky The Liver is the Cock's Comb, 1944
  27. 27. ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM Piet Mondrian Gray Tree, 1911 Piet Mondrian Composition II in Red, Blue, and Yellow, 1930
  28. 28. ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM Richard Diebenkorn Ocean Park No.129, 1984
  30. 30. SIMULACRA AND SIMULATION According to baudrillard: What has happened in postmodern culture is that our society has become so reliant on models and maps that we have lost all contact with the real world that preceded the map. Reality itself has begun merely to imitate the model, which now precedes and determines the real world.
  31. 31. ⾒見⼭山不是⼭山, ⾒見⽔水不是⽔水 -《指⽉月錄》卷⼆二⼗十⼋八。
  32. 32. FIONA RAE Fiona Rae Maybe You Can Live on the Moon in the Next Century, 2009
  33. 33. FIONA RAE Fiona Rae Gloomy feelings, 2013
  34. 34. ROSS BLECKNER Ross Bleckner TIME (evicted), 2009-2010 Ross Bleckner The Substitution of Time for Eternity, 2008-2009
  35. 35. PHILLIP ALLEN Phillip Allen Beezerspline (Studio Version) (2002) Phillip Allen Beezerspline (Dark Version), 2002
  36. 36. JULIAN SCHNABEL Philosophy in the boudoir Rene Magritte, 1947
  37. 37. Portrait of Tina Chow Julian Schnabel, 1987
  39. 39. ART BEYOND REPRESENTAT I O N : T H E PERFORMATIVE POWER OF THE IMAGE Bolt, Barber: art is performative, rather than merely a representational practice. Through creative practice, a dynamic material exchange can occur between objects, bodies and images. In the dynamic productivity of material practice, reality can get into images. Imaging can produce real material effects in the world. The mutual reflection between objects, images and bodies, forms the deformational and transformative potential of images.
  40. 40. PERFORMATIVE ART 1 9 4 0 S - 1 9 5 0 S Art critic Harold Rosenberg: • In the 1940s and 1950s, Action painting gave artists the freedom to perform. • “What was to go on canvas was not a picture but an event. Pollock’s work, in particular, looked forward to the performance art and happenings of the 1960s. Look at a Pollock and you have a record of his performance.” “
  41. 41. PERFORMATIVE ART 1 9 6 0 S - 1 9 7 0 S • Performative art often derived from concepts of visual art, with respect to Antonin Artaud, Dada, the Situationists, Fluxus, installation art and conceptual art, performance art tended to challenge orthodox art forms and cultural norms. • Adrian Parr, in “The Deleuze Dictionary” gave a postmodern philosophical interpretation of Performance art: “An authentic experience for performer and audience in an event that could not be repeated, captured or purchased.” “
  42. 42. LOUISE BOURGEOIS Avenza, a sculpture consisting of a plaster base supporting a latex cast.
  43. 43. Bourgeois used an additional latex cast from the same mould to make the multiple-breasted garment she wore in a famous photograph taken in 1975 by Peter Moore
  44. 44. The Destruction of the Father, 1974 Plaster, latex, wood & fabric 93 5/8 x 142 5/8 x 97 7/8 inches 237.8 x 362.3 x 248.6 cm © Louise
  45. 45. LOUISE BOURGEOIS The same piece was used in The Confrontation 1978, an installation and event (Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York). http://www.guggenheim.org/video/louise-bourgeois
  47. 47. • Academic style of figural painting • 1989 increased exposure to Western contemporary art, experiment with performance and installation art. • Performance in the Lhasa River, Tibet 1996 • explores the impact of transcribed words that leave no semantic trace. • Site specific performance recorded in set of 36 photos showing artist repeatedly stamping water with large wood seal carved with ⽔水. • Annual ritual, statue is in the water, the river bears the image of the Buddha; when removed, the essence of Buddha remains. • Stamping the river with this symbol, became a way of ritually purifying it as it made its way from the Tibetan highlands to Beijing, where it arrives much polluted owing to man’s intrusions. • It represented the headwaters of China’s great rivers that, figuratively at least, flowed to Beijing – from whence political control flowed back to Tibet.
  48. 48. COLLECTING PERFORMATIVE AT THE TATE MUSEUM • A Research Network Examining Emerging Practice for Collecting and Conserving Performance-based Art • Challenging the museum’s remit • Identify concept of a work and related notions of authorship, authenticity, autonomy, documentation, memory, continuity and liveness. • Public and private collections are rapidly beginning to acquire significant performance artworks from 1960s and 1970s as well as works by contemporary artists. • Changing traditional approaches • Museum object is materially bound and fixed. But performance art is non-material. Re-perform at the museum through video and internet.