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1. Unusual or infrequent
2. Socially unacceptable or in
violation of social norms
3. Fraught with misperceptions
or misinterpretations of
4. Associated with states of
severe personal distress
5. Maladaptive or selfdefeating
Ancient societies attributed abnormal
behavior to divine or supernatural forces.
Exorcists were used to rid people who
Greek Physicians Hippocrates and Galen
believed that abnormal behavior reflected
In the 19th Century, German Physician
Wilhelm Griesinger argued that abnormal
behavior was caused by diseases of the brain.
Griesinger, along with another German
Physician Emil Kraepin, was ininfluential in
the development of the modern medical model
Asylums or “madhouses” began to crop up
throughout Europe in the late 15th century and
early 16th century.
The Biological Perspective
-biological perspective incorporate the medical model but
refer more broadly to approaches that relate abnormal
behavior to biological process and apply biologically
The Psychological Perspective
o Psychodynamic Models
o Learning Theory
o Humanists Theory
o Cognitive Theory
- theorists believe that abnormal behavior is rooted in
social ills, such as poverty, discrimination, and social
stressors, not in individuals
- The leading interactionist model, the diathesis-stress model,
posits that some people have predispositions (diathesis) for
particular disorders, but whether these disorders actually
develop depends upon the type and severity of the stressors
A. Degenerative Disease
- also called neurodegenerative disease, is a
disease in which the function or structure of the
affected tissues or organs will progressively
deteriorate over time, whether due to normal bodily
wear or lifestyle choices such as exercise or eating
EXAMPLES OF DEGENERATIVE DISEASES:
1. Huntington Disease – Huntington's
disease, chorea, or disorder (HD), is
a neurodegenerative genetic disorder that affects
muscle coordination and leads to cognitive decline
and dementia. It typically becomes noticeable in
2. Multiple Sclerosis
-is an inflammatory disease in which the fatty
myelin sheaths around the axons of
the brain and spinal cord are damaged, leading
to demyelination and scarring as well as a broad
spectrum of signs and symptoms.
3. Senile Dementia
- also called Alzheimer disease, senile
dementia of the Alzheimer type, primary
degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer's type, or
simply Alzheimer's, is the most common form
of dementia. This incurable, degenerative,
and terminal disease
4. Parkinson’s Disease
-is a degenerative disorder of the central
nervous system. It results from the death
of dopamine-containing cells in the substanti
nigra, a region of themidbrain; the cause of celldeath is unknown. Early in the course of the
disease, the most obvious symptoms
including shaking,rigidity, slowness of
movement and difficulty with walking and gait.
B. Cardiovascular Disorders
- These are disorders related to the heart.
C. Trauma Induced
- These are all related to brain injury,
hemorrhages and concussions.
D. Drug and Alcohol related
- Intoxication, drug and alcohol withdrawal
Some of the major disorders in this category
are: Depression, Phobias, ObsessiveCompulsive Disorders, Bipolar-Affective
Disorder, PTSD, Panic Disorders
-is a state of low mood and aversion to
activity that can affect a person's thoughts,
behaviour, feelings and physical well-being
- are periods of
intense fear or apprehension that are of
sudden onset and of relatively brief
duration. Panic attacks usually begin
abruptly, reach a peak within 10 minutes,
and subside over the next several hours.
It may lead to other anxiety disorders,
such as agoraphobia (avoiding going out
- Obsessions are persistent thoughts or fears that
preoccupy your mind and are difficult to remove. In
contrast, compulsions are specific actions that you do over
and over, often to deal with an obsessions.
- A person with bipolar disorder will go through
episodes of mania (highs) and at other times experience
episode s of depression (lows).
Symptoms of mania include:
Racing speech and thoughts
Decrease need for sleep
Elevated mood and exaggerated optimism
Increased physical and mental activity
Excessive irritability, aggressive behavior, and impatience,
Inflated sense of self-importance
Symptoms of depression include:
Loss of interest in usual activities
Prolonged sad or irritable mood
Loss of energy or fatigue
Feelings of guilt or worthlessness
Sleeping too much or inability to sleep
Drop in grades and inability to concentrate
Inability to experience pleasure
Appetite loss or overeating
Anger, worry, and anxiety
Thoughts of death or suicide
- formerly referred to as character disorders, are
a class of personality types and behaviors. These
behavioral patterns in personality disorders are
typically associated with severe disturbances in the
behavioral tendencies of an individual, usually
involving several areas of the personality, and are
nearly always associated with considerable personal
and social disruption.
- This is a collection of diseases that severely affect the
brain and thinking processes. The most prevalent
symptoms of these diseases are usually delusions and
Major Psychotic Disorders:
o Schizoaffective disorder
o Delusional disorder
o Substance-abuse Psychotic Disorder
- are false or distorted sensory experiences that
appear to be real perceptions. These sensory
impressions are generated by the mind rather than by
an external stimuli, and may be seen, heard, felt, even
smelled or tasted.
- is defined as a false belief based on incorrect
inference about external reality that is firmly sustained
despite what almost everybody else believes and
despite what constitutes inconvertible and obvious
proof or evidence to the contrary.
Clinical Interview – the most widely used method of
Psychological Tests- are structured methods of assessment
that are used to evaluate reasonably stable traits such as
intelligence and personality.
Neuropsychological assessment- help determine organic
bases for impaired behavior and psychological functioning.
Behavioral assessment- test responses are taken as samples
of behavior rather than as signs underlying traits or
Cognitive assessment- focuses on the measurement of
thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes in order to help identify
distorted thinking patterns.
- Involves a systematic interaction between therapists and
clients that incorporate psychological principles to help
clients overcome abnormal behavior, solve problems in
living, or develop as individuals.
o Behavior Therapy
o Humanistic Approaches
o Technical Electicism
o Group Therapy
- Biological approaches include drug therapy,
electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT), and psychosurgery.
HOSPITALIZATION and COMMUNITY-BASED CARE
- The mental hospital provides a structured treatment
environment for people in acute crisis and for those who are
unable to adapt to community living. The mental hospital
today aims to restore patients to community functioning and
incorporates treatment approaches such as biological
therapies, psychotherapies, structured living environment s,
and drug and alcohol rehabilitation.
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