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Research on 21st Century skills and innovation in Nordic schools

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Keynote at Nordic@Bett, London, January 2016: “How far are the Nordic countries in using ICT to teach young people in primary and lower secondary school 21 st Century Skills?”. Professor Ole Sejer Iversen from Denmark presents his recent study.
[Ole Sejer Iversen & Mikkel Ask Rasmussen, Aarhus University, Denmark. In collaboration with STIL, The National Agency for It and Learning, DK - and other Nordic ministries of education. January 2016]

Keynote at Nordic@Bett, London, January 2016: “How far are the Nordic countries in using ICT to teach young people in primary and lower secondary school 21 st Century Skills?”. Professor Ole Sejer Iversen from Denmark presents his recent study.
[Ole Sejer Iversen & Mikkel Ask Rasmussen, Aarhus University, Denmark. In collaboration with STIL, The National Agency for It and Learning, DK - and other Nordic ministries of education. January 2016]

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Research on 21st Century skills and innovation in Nordic schools

  1. 1. Survey How far are the Nordic countries in using ICT to teach children in primary and lower secondary school 21st Century Skills? Ole Sejer Iversen & Mikkel Ask Rasmussen Aarhus University, Denmark January 2016
  2. 2. Survey How far are the Nordic countries in using ICT to teach children in primary and lower secondary school 21st Century Skills? Duration September – December 2015 Approach Desk Research + QuesGonnaire Study + Expert Interviews
  3. 3. Question What do we talk about when we talk about 21st Century Skills?
  4. 4. Documentation A Working DefiniGon of 21st Century Skills from OECD Those skills and competencies young people will be required to have in order to be effec:ve workers and ci:zens in the knowledge society of the 21st century. Source: OECD CERI (2009) 21st century skills and competences in OECD countries (ppt), available from: www.oecd.org/edu/ceri/44254873.ppt
  5. 5. Question Okay, so what skills and competencies are required to be effecGve workers and ciGzens in the 21st century?
  6. 6. Finding There does not seem to be one single, agreed upon definiGon of 21st Century Skills – several frameworks exist and mulGple voices shape the conversaGon.
  7. 7. Documentation: Overview 5 of the Frameworks and DefiniGons that Shape the ConversaGon Several defini,ons and frameworks exist, here are 5 of the frameworks and defini,ons that shape the conversa,on The KSAVE (Knowledge-Skills-AYtudes-Values-Ethics) Model Developed and proposed by Assessment and Teaching of 21st Century Skills, a research project focused on defining 21st century skills and developing ways to measure them driven by the University of Melbourne and funded/sponsored by Cisco, Intel and MicrosoW. www.atc21s.org The 6C’s Developed and proposed by Michael Fullan, a very acYve Canadian educaYonal researcher and reformist (and adapted an promoted by several organizaYons (ex. New Pedagogies for Deep Learning – A Global Partnership) and in various publicaYons by Michael Fullan and others). www.michaelfullan.ca ISTE Standards Students Authors: Developed and proposed by InternaYonal Society for Technology in EducaYon (ISTE), a nonprofit membership organizaYon serving educators and educaYon leaders commiaed to empowering learners in a connected world, sponsored by MicrosoW, Samsung Business, SMART Technologies etc. www.iste.org P21 Framework for 21st Century Skills (including The 4Cs) Developed and proposed by Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21), a naYonal (US) nonprofit organizaYon with the mission to serve as a catalyst to posiYon at the center of US K-12 educaYon; partners and members include +16 state partners and companies like Adope Systems Inc., Apple, Cisco, LEGO, MicrosoW, Pearson, Walt Disney Company and many more. www.p21.org 6 Rubrics of 21st Century Learning Developed by SRI InternaYonal for (or in) InnovaYve Teaching and Learning (ITL) Research, a research program designed to invesYgate the factors that promote the transformaYon of teaching pracYces and the impact those changes have on students’ learning outcomes, sponsored by MicrosoW Partners in Learning. www.itlresearch.com
  8. 8. Source: ILT Research – MicrosoW Partners in Learning (2012) 21st Century Learning Design AcYvity Rubrics, available: www.itlresearch,com Documentation ITL Research: 6 Rubrics that Represents Important Skills for Student to Develop A Working Defini,on for the Purpose of this Presenta,on This guide describes six rubrics, each of which represents important skills for students to develop: •  CollaboraGon •  Knowledge ConstrucGon •  Self-RegulaGon •  Real-World Problem-Solving and InnovaGon •  The Use of ICT for Learning •  Skilled CommunicaGon Source: ILT Research – MicrosoW Partners in Learning (2012) 21st Century Learning Design AcYvity Rubrics, available: www.itlresearch,com
  9. 9. Question Is ICT available?
  10. 10. Finding The Nordic countries compete (with each other) to be best in class in the EU when it comes to provision of ICT infrastructure in schools – the technological infrastructure seems to be in place. Source: European Schoolnet (2013) Survey of Schools: ICT in EducaYon – Benchmarking Access, Use and Aitudes to Technology in Europe’s Schools
  11. 11. Documentation: The Digitally Equipped School Survey of Schools: ICT in EducaYon, SecYon 1: Infrastructure Provision Source: European Schoolnet (2013) Survey of Schools: ICT in EducaYon – Benchmarking Access, Use and Aitudes to Technology in Europe’s Schools
  12. 12. DocumentaYon: Nordic@BETT QuesYonnaire Study, QuesYon 2.1 NaYonal/Regional 21st Century Skills Policy. Question 2.1: Questionnaire Study Does your country have a 21st Century Skills in educaGon policy for primary and lower secondary school (yes/no)?
  13. 13. Finding Skills and objecGves associated with 21st Century Skills can be found in naGonal policy regulaGons and guidelines in all the Nordic countries, though they are not named 21st Century Skills. DocumentaYon: Nordic@BETT QuesYonnaire Study, QuesYon 2.1 NaYonal/Regional 21st Century Skills Policy.
  14. 14. DocumentaYon: Nordic@BETT, QuesYonnaire Study, QuesYon 2.1 NaYonal/Regional 21st Century Skills Policy Denmark Finland Norway Sweden Nej Insert: Answer: QuesYon 2.2: Den danske folkeskolelov opererer ikke med begrebet 21st Century Skills (21st CS). Men i tre tværgående emner ’It og medier’, 'InnovaYon og entreprenørskab' og 'Elevernes alsi- dige udvikling' som skal integreres i alle fag på alle klassetrin er der flere elementer fra 21st CS. Fx i det tværgående emne ”It og medier” fremhæves, at en elev i løbet af et undervisningsforløb skal kunne indtage forskellige posiYoner. Disse benævnes som: •  Eleven som kriYsk undersøger •  Eleven som analyserende modtager •  Eleven som målreaet og kreaYv producent •  Eleven som ansvarlig deltager. På denne side er en nærmere beskrivelse af hver af de fire elevposiYoner (see link). Ud fra beskrivelserne af elevposiYonerne i vejledningen er det nærliggende at koble dem Yl disse 21st CS Yes. This requires a small introducYon in our educaYon system: The overall distribuYon of lesson hours for basic educaYon and the minimum number of lessons for core subjects during basic educaYon are decided by the Government. The distribuYon of lesson hours sYpulate such maaers as the core subjects taught to all pupils, and the distribuYon of teaching hours between various subjects. The naYonal core curriculum is determined by the Finnish NaYonal Board of EducaYon. It includes the objecYves and core contents of different subjects, as well as the principles of pupil assessment, special-needs educaYon, pupil welfare and educaYonal guidance. The principles of a good learning environment, working approaches as well as the concept of learning are also addressed in the core curriculum. The present naYonal core curriculum for basic educaYon was confirmed in January 2004 and it was introduced in schools in August 2006. The new distribuYon of lesson hours was confirmed in 2012 and the new core curriculum in December 2014. No, 21st Century Skills is not an explicit part of the educaYon policy in Norway. You can sYll find parallel objecYves, and you can find aspects of the 21st Century Skills in the Norwegian educaYon policy. Though they will not be named as 21st Century Skills. It is important to noYce that having 21st Century Skills as a part of Norwegian educaYon policy would be difficult under the current curriculum reform. The current reform (see link) focuses on outcome-based objecYves. These state clearly the competence the students should acquire. It says liale about the learning processes that leads to the student acquiring that competence. The current laws and regulaYons give the schools and local government the authority to choose how they teach their students. As 21st Century Skills also says a lot of how schools should teach their students, it would go against the current autonomy of the schools and local government to implement 21st Century Skills on a naYonal level. On the other hand it also makes it possible for local authoriYes and school to teach 21st Century Skills if they choose. There are 447 local authoriYes, and we do not know if No, the concept of 21st Century Skills is not used in naYonal policy (steering) documents but as you can see most of them are addressed in the above cited part from the naYonal curriculum and in other parts of the same document. Everybody student should be able to use modern technology as a tool in the search for knowledge, communicaYon, creaYvity and learning, DocumentaYon: Nordic@BETT QuesYonnaire Study, QuesYon 2.1 NaYonal/Regional 21st Century Skills Policy, Norway and Sweden. Sweden: Word count in the curriculum: CreaGvity (26) and InnovaGon (1) CriGcal (28) Thinking Problems Solving (8) and Decision Making (17) Learning-To-Learn (0)and MetacogniGon (0) However lifelong learning and equivalents are menGon, as reflecGon about individual learning paths CommunicaGon (154) and CollaboraGon (expressed but using different vocabulary) InformaGon (276) and ICT Literacy (term not used) Local and Global CiGzenship (3) Personal and Social Responsibility (35 but from very different perspecGves) Norway: The parts of the 21st Century Skills that are implemented in the curriculum, are implemented as the 5 basic skills and the core curriculum (…) Though it will oGen be a maHer for interpreta:on, as they are a part of/hidden in the outcome-based objec:ves. DocumentaYon: Nordic@BETT QuesYonnaire Study, QuesYon 2.1 NaYonal/Regional 21st Century Skills Policy, Norway and Sweden. Documentation 2.1 NaGonal/Regional 21st Century Skills Policy Does your country have a 21st Century Skills in educaYon policy for primary and lower secondary school (yes/no)? If so, please provide a brief introducYon indicaYng the objecYves, Ymeframe and strategies for implementaYon.
  15. 15. Question 3.3 : Questionnaire Study What targets are set for students’ 21st Century Skills? DocumentaYon: Nordic@BETT QuesYonnaire Study, QuesYon 3.1 21st Century Skills in the Curriculum, QuesYon 3.3 Students’ 21st Century Skills, and QuesYon 3.4 Assessment of 21st Century Skills Question 3.1: Questionnaire Study How are 21st Century Skills integrated into the curriculum for primary and lower secondary school in your country? Question 3.4: Questionnaire Study How are students’ 21st Century Skills currently being assessed in primary and lower secondary school?
  16. 16. Finding In the Nordic countries, 21st Century Skills are integrated in a cross-curricular way, however, there seems to be differences in how it’s done. DocumentaYon: Nordic@BETT QuesYonnaire Study, QuesYon 3.1 21st Century Skills in the Curriculum, QuesYon 3.3 Students’ 21st Century Skills, and QuesYon 3.4 Assessment of 21st Century Skills Finding The naGonal curricula in the Nordic countries are goal-based. Targets for students’ 21st Century Skills are set and defined as part of the goals for each subject. Finding 21st Century Skills are assessed by the teachers as part of the subject-based assessment.
  17. 17. VersaGle Competencies K1 Capacity to think and learn K2 Cultural and CommunicaYve Competence K3 Everyday Competence K4 MulY Literacy K5 Digital Competence K6 Work-Life Competence and Entrepreneurship K7 Capacity to ParYcipate in , Influence and Contribute to a Sustainable Future Source. Utbildningsstyrelsen (2014) Grunderna För läroplanen för den grundläggende utbildningen, p.20-25, p. 375, and p. 395,. Example Mångsidig Kompetens as goals of educaGon in Finland Versa,le Competencies in our transla,on Goals: MathemaGcs: Year 7-9 Goals of Teaching: Content: Competence: M4: encourage the student to get experience in expressing him-/herself accurately and mathemaYcally both verbally and in wriYng 11-16 K1, K2, K4, K5 Goals: Chemistry: Year 7-9 Goals of Teaching: Content: Competence: M8: guide the student to perceive how chemistry is used in technology and to parYcipate in creat- ing, planning, developing and applying soluYons that includes use of chemistry in collaboraYon with others 11-16 K2, K3, K5
  18. 18. Question: Questionnaire Study How are responsibiliGes for 21st Century Skills in educaGon in primary and lower secondary school shared in your country? Who are the main actors and what are their responsibiliGes? DocumentaYon: Country Reports on ICT in EdcuaYon (2015) (2011) published by European Schoolnet, SecYon 2.2 ResponsibiliYes DocumentaYon: QuesYonnaire Study, QuesYon 2.3 ResponsibiliYes for 21st Century Skills, QuesYon 2.5 ResponsibiliYes for ICT for 21st Century Skills
  19. 19. Finding In the Nordic countries, the responsibiliGes for 21st Century Skills in primary and lower secondary school are shared between state, municipaliGes, schools and teachers. The autonomy of municipaliGes, schools and teachers is emphasized. DocumentaYon: Country Reports on ICT in EdcuaYon (2015) (2011) published by European Schoolnet, SecYon 2.2 ResponsibiliYes DocumentaYon: QuesYonnaire Study, QuesYon 2.3 ResponsibiliYes for 21st Century Skills, QuesYon 2.5 ResponsibiliYes for ICT for 21st Century Skills
  20. 20. Sources: Country Reports on ICT in EdcuaYon (2015) (2011) published by European Schoolnet, SecYon 2.2 ResponsibiliYes QuesYonnaire Study: Nordic@BETT, SecYon 2.3 ResponsibiliYes for 21st Century Skills Denmark Finland Norway Sweden Da vi i folkeskoleloven ikke opererer med begrebet 21st Century Skills følger ansvarsfordeling det, som alYd gælder: •  FolkeYnget vedtager en folkesko- lelov, hvor kommunerne har an- svaret for at Ylpasse de vejled- ninger, der er udstedt af Ministe- riet. •  Skolelederen har ansvaret for at de enkelte lærere følger vejled- ningerne i klassen. •  Den enkelte faglærer har ansvaret for at it anvendes i undervisningen i overensstemmelse med det pågældende fags mål og som beskrevet i vejledningen Yl det tværgående tema om it og medier. QuesYonnaire Study, SecYon2.5 Same as above. ICT is not a separate subject in Finnish basic educaYon, but transversal competencies (including ICT competence) is distributed within all subjects. At naYonal level: NaYonal Board of EducaYon •  Sets out the NaYonal Core Curriculum •  Manages funding for teacher training programs, infrastructure projects and overall implementaYon of the core curriculum Regional level: municipaliYes (ca. 98 % of pupils), university training schools and private insYtuYons: •  Set out local curriculums which derives from the naYonal core curriculum •  Employer of teaching staff •  Typically administers ICT infrastructure •  Decides upon schools hours for children, deriving from naYonal curriculum. Local: Schools and teachers •  School schedule allocates working hours •  Teaching material acquisiYons are typically made on school level The Ministry of EducaYon and Research has the overall responsibility for the administraYon of the educaYonal system and for implemenYng naYonal educaYonal policy. The Directorate for EducaYon and Training is the execuYve organ of the Ministry and is responsible for the development of primary and secon- dary educaYon. In each of Norway's 19 counYes, the County Governor represents the central government at regional level, contribuYng to the implementaYon of naYonal educaYon policies in schools at all levels. The County Governor ensures that appropriate schooling is provided for young people in compliance with regulaYons, and also ensures the provision of adequate adult educaYon faciliYes. MunicipaliYes are responsible for the running and administraYon of primary and lower secondary schools, while counYes are in charge of upper secondary schools. This includes ICT infrastructure, access to digital learning resources and local strategies regarding in-service training and school improvement for ICT. Part of n/a Documentation: Questionnaire 2.3 ResponsibiliGes for 21st Century Skills How are responsibiliYes for for 21st Century Skills in educaYon in primary and lower secondary school shared in your country? Who are the main actors and what are their responsibiliYes? At na:onal level: Na:onal Board of Educa:on •  Sets out the Na:onal Core Curriculum •  Manages funding for teacher training programs, infrastructure projects and overall implementa:on of the core curriculum Regional level: municipali:es (ca. 98 % of pupils), university training schools and private ins:tu:ons: •  Set out local curriculums which derives from the na:onal core curriculum •  Employer of teaching staff •  Typically administers ICT infrastructure •  Decides upon schools hours for children, deriving from na:onal curriculum. Local: Schools and teachers •  School schedule allocates working hours •  Teaching material acquisi:ons are typically made on school level •  Teachers are very autonomous in deciding how to implement the local curriculum and how to organize assessment QuesYonnaire Study: Finland SecYon2.5, ResponsibiliYes for ICT for 21st Century Skills The Finnish educa:on system is completely decentralized. European Schoolnet ICT in EducaYon Country Report Finland SecYon 2.2 ResponsibiliYes DocumentaYon: Country Reports on ICT in EdcuaYon (2015) (2011) published by European Schoolnet, SecYon 2.2 ResponsibiliYes DocumentaYon: QuesYonnaire Study, QuesYon 2.3 ResponsibiliYes for 21st Century Skills, QuesYon 2.5 ResponsibiliYes for ICT for 21st Century Skills
  21. 21. Framework Responsibility for ICT and 21st Century Skills in EducaGon are shared …between state, municipaliYes, schools and teachers. Level: Authority: Parliament Adopts legislaGons regarding the schools Ministry of EducaGon Lays down legislaGons in execuGve orders including the overall educaGonal goals MunicipaliGes Adopts the financial framework, sets local goals, supervises the schools, follow up on results School Commimee Adopts principles for the acGviGes of the school and approves the school budget School Responsible for the operaGon of each school, makes concrete decisions for the school and regarding individual pupils Teacher EducaGon is characterized by freedom in the choice of method Source: www.kl.dk/English/Municipal-ResponsibiliYes/The-Danish-School-System (cut and paste)
  22. 22. How far are the Nordic countries in using ICT to teach children in primary and lower secondary school 21st Century Skills? •  In their naYonal curricula, the Nordic countries have already suggested what children should learn to succeed in the 21st Century. •  The ICT infrastructure seems to be in place – the Nordic countries are top of class on an EU scale. •  All the Nordic countries integrate development and assess- ment of 21st Century skills in a cross curricular and decentralized way leaving an opportunity space for each local government, school and teacher to unfold the regulaYons and guidelines into teaching and learning. •  How do we secure that every child in the decentralized educaGonal systems of the Nordic countries have equal opportuniGes to develop 21st Century Skills?
  23. 23. Ole Sejer Iversen & Mikkel Ask Rasmussen Aarhus University, Denmark oiversen@cavi.au.dk; mikkelask@dac.au.dk Thank you!

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