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Hadoop Operations: How to Secure and Control Cluster Access

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Learn about the different aspects of securing a multi-tenant cluster, how to deploy a secure cluster, and about data asset security and control.

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Hadoop Operations: How to Secure and Control Cluster Access

  1. 1. 1 Hadoop Operations: How to Secure and Control Cluster Access Eric Sammer Engineering Manager, Cloudera – Author, Hadoop Operations
  2. 2. 2 We’re here to talk about… •How common security constructs map onto services •How these constructs work in Hadoop •Security model and options for a few critical components •A few DOs and DON’Ts
  3. 3. 3 Warning •Security in distributed systems is complicated •This is just a whirlwind tour – Do your homework •Assumptions • You’re familiar with Hadoop’s architecture and functionality • You have a basic understanding of Kerberos
  4. 4. 4 The Three Questions •Identity: Who are you? •Authentication: Can you prove it? •Authorization: Are you allowed to do that?
  5. 5. 5 Hadoop’s “Simple” Mode •Identity: Usually the OS user of the client application •Authentication: Trust •Easy to impersonate other users •Stop good users from doing silly things •The default
  6. 6. 6 Hadoop’s “Simple” Mode •Use simple mode when: • No regulatory or compliance concerns • All users are trusted • Single purpose cluster (single-tenancy)
  7. 7. 7 Hadoop’s “Secure” Mode •Identity: Local part of the Kerberos principal •Authentication: Kerberos •User impersonation not possible except in specific (admin-configured) situations
  8. 8. 8 Hadoop’s “Secure” Mode •Use secure mode when: • Real regulatory concerns • Untrusted users • Running on untrusted infrastructure or in an untrusted environment • Multi-purpose cluster (multi-tenancy)
  9. 9. 9 Identity Management •Always • Use a central user database/directory service for OS users • Wire up the Kerberos KDC to use the central directory •Never • Use service users (e.g. hdfs, mapred) for anything other than running services • Share accounts, even for admin purposes
  10. 10. 10 Authentication •Simple mode: Trust what the client provides •Secure mode: Kerberos • Keytabs for services • Many options: Passphrase, M/TFA, X.509 for users • Depends on Kerberos implementation
  11. 11. 11 Authorization •Inherently service specific •Granularity of control varies by platform component •Examples • Filesystem object-level, POSIX-style • Role-based access control (RBAC) • Access control lists (ACLs) • Deferral to underlying components
  12. 12. 12 HDFS Security Model •POSIX-style users and groups •Traditional Unix-style octal permissions • Files: no execute, sticky, setuid, setgid • Directories: no setuid, always behave as if setgid is set •Authorization checks performed by NameNode
  13. 13. 13 HDFS User Levels User Level Privileges Description and Notes Cluster super user All User who started the daemons. Default: hdfs Administrators All Configuration property dfs.permissions.supergroup specifies the name of the group of admins. Default: supergroup Normal user Object-level All other users are beholden to the file and directory permissions, as specified.
  14. 14. 14 MapReduce Security Model •Configurable job queues •Queues have associated ACLs •ACLs control job submission and administrative ops •Authorization checks performed by JobTracker
  15. 15. 15 MapReduce User Levels User Level Privileges Queue Description and Notes Cluster super user All All User who started the daemons. Default: mapred Cluster admins All All Configuration property mapred.cluster.administrators specifies the admin ACL. Queue admins All Single Configuration property mapred.queue.queue-name.acl-administer- jobs specifies the admin ACL. Job owner Submit, Admin on own jobs Queue containing job Configuration property mapred.queue.queue-name.acl-submit-job specifies the submission ACL.
  16. 16. 16 Systems on top of MapReduce •Hive/Impala are the most featureful today • Without Sentry: Defers to HDFS object permissions • With Sentry, fine-grained RBAC on logical constructs (New!) • Scope: Server, database, table, view • Privileges: ALL, SELECT, INSERT, TRANSFORM • Removes direct access to files • Supports traditional techniques for controlling column-level access (i.e. views without sensitive columns) •Everything else: HDFS object permissions
  17. 17. 17 A note on auditing... •Winds up being service-specific •Cloudera Navigator handles this (and more)
  18. 18. 18 What we didn’t talk about •Configuration and deployment • Lots of options, lots of moving parts • Integration with existing infrastructure • Cloudera Manager turns days or weeks of work into minutes or hours; built to handle exactly these challenges •The other 80%: YARN applications, ZooKeeper, Flume, Sqoop, Oozie, Hue, Cloudera Search (Solr), multi-tenant gateway services, all of the administrative web interfaces, encryption of data at rest and on the wire, network footprint and exposure, ...
  19. 19. 19 Further reading and references •Hadoop Operations Chapter 6: Identity, Authentication, and Authorization (E. Sammer, O’Reilly) •Kerberos: The Definitive Guide (J. Garman, O’Reilly) •CDH4 Security Guide •CDH4 Sentry Guide •Cloudera Manager •Cloudera Navigator Submit questions in the Q&A panel Watch on-demand video of this webinar and many more at http://cloudera.com Follow Eric @esammer Follow Cloudera @ClouderaU Learn more at Strata + Hadoop World: http://tinyurl.com/hadoopworld Thank you for attending!