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Football project

Physical Assignment on
Submitted By: Submitted To:
Deepak Kumar Rajesh sir
Class: 12th
B; Roll NO : 10 Physical...
I thankGod for providing me with everything thatI required in completingthis project.
Iam highlyindebtedtothe physicaled...
This is to certify that Master ARADHYA MISHRA, student of class
XII-A has successfully completed the project on Football...
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Football project

  1. 1. 1 Physical Assignment on FOOTBALL Submitted By: Submitted To: Deepak Kumar Rajesh sir Class: 12th B; Roll NO : 10 Physical Teacher Acknowledgements I have taken efforts inthis project. However, it would not have been possiblewithout the kind support and help of many individuals.I would like to extend my sincerethanks to allof them.
  2. 2. 2 I thankGod for providing me with everything thatI required in completingthis project. Iam highlyindebtedtothe physicaleducationteacherMr. UmeshSharmafor hisguidance and constant supervisionas well as for providing necessaryinformationregarding the project and also for his supportincompleting the project. I would like to express my gratitude towards my parents for their kind co-operation and encouragement which helped me in the completionof thisproject. My thanks and appreciations also go to my classmates in developing the project and to the people who have willingly helped me out with theirabilities. (AradhyaMishra) Certificate
  3. 3. 3 This is to certify that Master ARADHYA MISHRA, student of class XII-A has successfully completed the project on Football under the guidance of Respected Mr.Umesh Sharma Sir during the year 2016- 17in partialfulfillmentofphysical education assignment conducted by CBSE. …………………… Signature of teacher (Umesh Sharma) Contents
  4. 4. 4 • History of Football • Rules and Regulations • Measurements of Play Field • Equipments Required • Basic Skills • Terminology • Important Tournaments • Important Venues • Important Personalities • Important Awards • Basic First-Aid Techniques related to Football HISTORY The contemporary historyof the world's favourite game spans more than 100 years. It all began in 1863 in England, when rugby football and association football branched off on their different courses and the FootballAssociationinEngland was formed - becoming the sport'sfirst governing body. Both codes stemmed from a common root and both have a long and intricatelybranched ancestral tree. A search down the centuries reveals at least half a dozen different games, varying to different degrees, and to which the historical development of football has been traced back. Whether this can be justified in some
  5. 5. 5 instances is disputable. Nevertheless, the fact remains that people have enjoyed kicking a ball about for thousands of years and there is absolutelyno reasonto consider it an aberrationof the more 'natural'form of playing a ballwith the hands. On the contrary, apart from the need to employthe legs and feet in tough tusslesfor the ball, often without any laws for protection, it was recognised right at the outset that the art of controlling the ball with the feet was not easy and, as such, required no small measure of skill. The very earliest form of the game for which there is scientific evidence was an exercise from a military manual dating back to the second and third centuriesBC inChina. ThisHanDynasty forebearof footballwas calledTsu' Chu and itconsistedof kicking aleatherball filled with feathers and hair through an opening, measuring only 30-40cm in width, into a small net fixed onto long bamboo canes. According to one variationof this exercise, the player was not permitted to aim at his target unimpeded, but had to use his feet, chest, back and shoulders while trying to withstand the attacks of his opponents. Use of the hands was not permitted. Another form of the game, also originating from the Far East, was the Japanese Kemari, which began some 500-600years later and isstill played today. This is a sport lacking the competitive element ofTsu' Chu with no struggle for possessioninvolved.Standing in a circle, the players had to pass the ball to each other, in a relativelysmall space, trying not to let it touch the ground. The Greek 'Episkyros' - of which few concrete details survive - was much livelier, as was the Roman 'Harpastum'. The latter was played out with a smaller ball by two teams on a rectangular field marked by boundarylines and a centreline. The objective was to get the ballover the opposition'sboundarylinesand as players passedit betweenthemselves, trickerywas the order ofthe day. The game remained popular for 700- 800 years, but, althoughthe Romans tookit toBritainwith them, the use offeet was so smallas to scarcelybe of consequence.
  6. 6. 6 Rules andRegulations • Ball inand out ofPlay:Thesoccerballis out ofbounds whenit has crossed the goal line or touchline whether on the ground or in air. If it rebounds off the referee, an assistant referee, a goal post, crossbar,or cornerflag post and remains inside the field, thenit isstillin play. • Methodofscoring:Agoalisscoredinfootball iftheballcrossesthegoallinebetweenthe twogoalposts and under the crossbar,as long as no violationof the rules has taken place. The side that scoresthe mostgoalswins. If bothteamshave the samenumberof goalsatthe end ofthe match,itis considered a draw even ifneither of them scoreda goal. • Offside:A player is in offside positionif there are fewer than two defenders (including the goalie) betweenhim and the goal line. Aviolationofthe offside rule infootballoccursifhe isin thatposition and the ballis played to him. A free kick is awarded to the oppositionifa player iscaught offside. • Fouls and misconducts: The following are the most common fouls in football: kicking, tripping, pushing, or charging another player recklessly;striking or attempting to strike an opponent or any memberof the opposing side. Afoul iscalled ifa player: makes a tackle buthits theplayer before the ball; deliberatelyhandles the ball (except the goalkeeper in his proper area); or if he uses excessive force in defending an opponent.
  7. 7. 7 • Free kicks:Arestarts a playafter a foul or rule infringement is committed and is usuallytakenfrom the spot where the violationwas committed.A free-kickcan eitherbe “direct”, inwhich a kicker may scoredirectly, or “indirect”, in which another player must touch the ballbefore a goal canbe scored. • Penaltykick:Apenaltykickinfootball isawarded if a defender commitsafoul insideits ownpenalty area.The kickistakenfrom thepenaltyspotand allthe players(exceptthekicker and thegoalkeeper) must be outsidethe penalty areaand penalty arc.
  8. 8. 8 • Throw-in: A throw-in in football is awarded to a team if the ball goes over the touchline. It is awarded to the team opposing the side that touched the ball last. The throwis taken from the spot where the ball goes out of bounds. The taker must throwthe ball with both hands, both feet on the ground, and facing the field of play.
  9. 9. 9 • Goalkick:Agoal-kickinfootballisawardedto the defending team ifthe opposingteam causesthe ball to go over the goal-line. Any player from the defending side is allowed to take the goal kick. It must be taken anywhere on the goal area and must go beyond the penalty area or it will be retaken. The ball mustbe touched by another player before the taker can playit again. • Cornerkick:Acorner kickinfootballisawardedtothe attacking team if anopposing player isthe last to touch the ball before it goes out of bounds on the goal-line. The attacking team resumes play by placing the ballin the corner arcnearest to where it crossedthe goal line.
  10. 10. 10 MeasurementsofPlayFieldandFootball Length of field: 120 yards (including 10 yards of end zone at each end). Width offield: 53 1/3 yards (160 feet). Height ofgoal posts: At least30 feet. Height ofcrossbar: 10 feet. Width ofgoal posts(above 18feet 6 inches, inside to inside. crossbar): Length ofball: 10 7/8 to 11 7/16 inches (long axis). Circumference of ball: 20 3/4 to 21 1/4 inches (middle); 27 3/4 to 28 1/2 inches (long axis).
  11. 11. 11 Terminology:  Advantage: decision made by the referee during a game, where a player is fouled, but play is allowed to continue because the team that suffered the foul is in better positionthan they would have been had the referee stopped the game.  Against the runof play: describesa goal scored,or a win or draw achieved,by a side that was being clearly outplayed.  Assist:passthat leadsto a goal being scored
  12. 12. 12  Back heel: pass between team-mates, in which one player uses their heel to propel the ball backwards to another player  Brace: when a player scorestwo goals ina single match .  Clean-sheet:Whena goalkeeper or team does not concede a single goal during a match.  Counter-attack:kick taken from within a one-yard radius of the corner flag.  Diving: form of cheating, sometimesemployed by anattacking player to wina free kick or penalty.  Dribbling:when a player runs with the ball at theirfeet under closecontrol.  Dummy: skill move performed by a player receiving a pass from a teammate; the player receiving the ball will angle theirbody insuch a way thatthe opponent thinks thatthey are going to playthe ball.  Extra Time: additional period, normally two halves of 15 minutes, used to determine the winner in some tied cup matches.  False Nine: a centre forward who regularlydropsback into midfield to disruptoppositionmarking.  Flick-On: when a playerreceivesa passfrom a teammateand,insteadof controllingit,touchesthe ballwith theirhead or foot while it is moving pastthem, with the intent of helping the ballreach another teammate  Free Kick: the resultofa foul outside the penaltyarea, given against the offending team.
  13. 13. 13  Ghost goal: situation where a ball fairly crossed the goal line but did not result in a goal, or a goal was awarded despitethe ball not crossingthe line.  Howler:glaring and possiblyamusing error made by a player or referee during a match.  Jew Goal: term used to describe a goal scored when a player “passes the ball when two-on-one with the keeper in order to provide the receiverwith anopen goal”.  Kick-Off: method of startinga match.  Lay-Off Pass:shortpass,usuallylateral,playeddelicatelyintothespace immediatelyinfront ofa teammate who isarriving at speed from behind the player making the pass.  Man On: warning shout uttered by players to a teammate with the ball to alert him of the presence of an opposing player behind him.  Man-To-ManMarking: systemofmarking inwhich eachplayer isresponsibleforanopposingplayer rather thanan area ofthe pitch.  Nutmeg: when a player intentionally plays the ball between an opponent’s legs, runs past the opponent, and collectstheirown pass.  Offside: law relating to the positioning of defending players in relationto attacking players when the ball is played to an attacking player by a teammate.
  14. 14. 14  Open Goal:where no player is defending the goal.  Overlap: move between two teammates.  Shielding: defensive technique in which a defensive player positions their body between the ball and an attacking opponent, inorder to prevent that opponent from reaching the ball.  Subbed:a player who is withdrawn from the field of play.  Sweeper: defender whose role isto protect the spacebetween the goalkeeper and the restof the defence  Throw-In: method of restarting play. Involves a player throwing the ball from behind a touchline after it has beenkicked out by anopponent. Important Tournaments:  FIFA: There is no greater competition than the World Cup. The European Championship may have a greater variety of winners. The Champions League may provide better football. However, nothing matches the prestige of lifting the FIFA World Cup. The World Cup pips the Champions League to the No. 1 spot becauseof the enormous cultural impact thata victorycan have. Nothing unites a nationlike being crowned the best inthe world.
  15. 15. 15  The UEFA Champions League: It is the most glamorous club competition in world football. This tournament brings together the greatest teams in the world. As the financial clout of club football has grown, ithas managed to supersedeinternationalfootball.In termsofthe qualityofplayonthe field, the Champions League isnowthe besttournamentthere is.Although the pureknockout form ofthe original European Cup is still missed, the re-branding as the Champions League has helped turn Europe into football's most financially powerful continent. There is no club competition to match the Champions League.  The UEFA European Championship:The first pan-Europeaninternational tournament was held in 1958 in France. In the intervening 55 years, the European Championship has establisheditselfas one of world football's most exciting competitions. The European Championship is characterised by its unusually competitive nature: The 14 tournaments to date have produced nine different winners. Germanyand Spaincurrentlylead the field withthree triumphseach.In 2014, the competitionexpanded from 16 to 24 teams, prompting concerns thatthe increaseinsize may precipitatea drop in quality.
  16. 16. 16  The Copa America: It is the oldest existing continental football competition. The first formal Copa America was held inArgentina in 1916 to commemorate the first century of Argentina's independence. The competitioninvolves the teams associatedwith CONMEBOL as well as two othernations, frequently Mexico, CostaRica ortheUnited States.AlthoughBrazil and Argentina are regularlyreferredtoas South American football's "Big Two," current holders Uruguay are in fact the competition's most successful team with 15 wins to date.  The CopaLibertadores:Itisthe South American equivalent of the Champions League. The Libertadorestrophy is the most coveted prize in South American club football, and the competition's final is broadcast in an incredible 135 countries across the globe. The Copa has extraordinary cultural currency in South America. It has spawned the Spanish phrase "El Sueno Libertador,"referring to the dream of lifting the historicprize aloft. Since the competition'sinceptionin
  17. 17. 17 1960, many have chased that dream. Argentine club Independiente are the most successful team in the competition'shistory,having claimed the Copa a phenomenal seventimes.  The UEFA Europa League: It is the much-maligned successor to the UEFA Cup. As the Champions League'syounger and lessglamoroussibling,the EuropaLeague is vulnerabletosniperswho criticisethe competition'senormousfixture listand plethoraof dead-rubberties. However, a glance at the recentlist of winners suggests that European football's major clubs still take the competition seriously. Chelsea, Atletico Madrid and Porto have all experienced the joy of Europa League triumph in the last few seasons.In2003, PortowereEuropa League Champions.A year later,theyliftedthe Champions League.  Africa Cup ofNations:Africaisacontinentthatis seeminglyinlovewith football.This tournamentpits Africa's greatest international sides against each other in a fascinating battle for supremacy. The continent's mostsuccessful side isEgypt. Theyhave won the tournament a recordseven times, although theyhave not yet managed totransfer thiscontinental successto theglobal stage. The competitionisnot without its flaws. The Africa Cup of Nations generally takes place in January, meaning that many
  18. 18. 18 European-basedplayers are forced to abandon theirclubsto take part. This has led to the withdrawal of some ofAfrica's major stars.If the tournament is toretainitsstatus,it mayneed to move inline with the Europeancalendar.  FA Cup:Itis arguablythe most famous domestic competitioninthe world.Established inJuly1871, itis the oldest associationfootball competition in the world. The FA Cup has produced some of English football'smosticonicmomentsand ispartlyresponsibleforWembley'sstatusas"The Homeof Football." English clubs from the Premier League right down to the fifth tier ofthe FA National League are invited to compete. The tournament has subsequently become known for "giant killings": occasions when minnows overcome theodds to defeat a clubwith far greater resources.The2013 final was a caseinpoint, as Roberto Martinez's gutsyWigan side showed remarkablebravery and disciplineto beat the financial superpower thatis Manchester City.  The ConfederationsCup: Itrosetoprominencein2005whenitwasestablishedasavitalforerunnertotheWorldCup. Sincethat auspicioussummer,thetournamenthasbeenheldin thesamecountrythatwill hosttheWorld Cupthefollowing year. The Confederations Cup has subsequently become a vital part of preparation for global football's most celebrated
  19. 19. 19 tournament. The ConfederationsCup allows FIFA to assess a nation's preparations for the arrival of their mostprestigious tournament. More importantly, it is a chance for the host nation to pit themselves againstsome of the world's best aheadof therealthing.TheexcitementaroundthecurrenttournamentinBrazilisindicativeoftheConfederationsCup'srisingprofile. Important Venues (Stadiums) • Estadio Aztec Tenants:Club America
  20. 20. 20 Opened in: 29 May1966 Capacity:105,000 City:Mexico City • Wembley Tenants: England National Team Opened in: 1923 Capacity: 82,000 City: London
  21. 21. 21 • Estadio Do Maracana Tenants: None Opened in: 16 June 1950 Capacity: 82,238 City: Madrid
  22. 22. 22 • Santiago Bernabeu Tenants: Real Madrid Opened in: 14 Dec 1947 Capacity: 85,454 City: Rio de Janeiro
  23. 23. 23 • Estadio Monumental Tenants: River Plate: Opened in: 25 May1938 Capacity: 67,664 City: Buenos Aires • Olmpiastadion Tenants: FC Bayern Munich Opened in: 26 May1972 Capacity: 69,250 City: Munich
  24. 24. 24 Important Personalities DavidBeckham: DavidRobertJosephBeckham,heisanEnglish formerprofessionalfootballer.Heplayed for Manchester United, PrestonNorth End, Real Madrid, Milan, LAGalaxy, ParisSaint-Germain.
  25. 25. 25 Lionel Messi: Lionel Andrés "Leo" Messi is an Argentine professional footballer who plays as a forward for Spanish club FC Barcelona and the Argentina nationalteam. Wayne Rooney: Wayne Mark Rooney is an English professional footballer who plays for and captains both Manchester United and the England national team. He has played much of his career as a forward, but he has alsobeen used invarious midfield roles.
  26. 26. 26 CristianoRonaldo: CristianoRonaldodosSantosAveiro,ComM,GOIH isa Portugueseprofessionalfootballer who playsfor SpanishclubReal Madridand the Portugalnationalteam.He isaforward and servesascaptain for Portugal. Maradona: Diego Armando Maradona is a retired Argentine professional footballer. He has served as a manager and coach at other clubsas well as the national team of Argentina
  27. 27. 27 Ryan Giggs:Ryan Joseph Giggs, OBE is a Welsh football coach and former player who is the co-owner of Salford City. He played his entire professionalcareer for Manchester United Thierry Henry: ThierryDaniel Henryis a French retired professional footballer who played as a forward,and the current second assistantmanager ofthe Belgium national team.
  28. 28. 28 Kaka:RicardoIzecsondosSantosLeite,commonlyknown asKaká orRicardo Kaká, isa Brazilianprofessional footballer who plays as an attacking midfielder for Orlando City SC in Major League Soccer and the Brazil national team.
  29. 29. 29 Important Awards • Ballond’Or: It was first awarded in1956 bythe France Football Magazine. The award was the brainchild of GabrielHanot- his visionwas to have anaward for the bestEuropean footballerofthe seasonas voted on by a selectpanel of European journalists. The Ballo d'Or was quickly established as one of the most prestigiousawards a Europeanfootballercould win. • FIFPro Playerof the Year:Itisa newcomer onthe internationalawards front having firstbeenawarded in 2005. The awarded is voted on by players from the various player associationsacrossthe world. As such the award shot to prominance quickly, to be voted as the best player in the world by your fellow professionalsisseen as one of the highestforms of recognitiona player can achieve.
  30. 30. 30 • FIFA Team of the Year: It was first awarded in 1991 and was always destined to become arguably the pinnacle achievement for an individual in Football. Since it's inception the award has been seen to be provide the definitive answer to the questionwho isthe best team inthe world. • PFA Playerofthe Year Award:The Professional Footballer's Associationaward is consider bymany to be the most prestigious award a player can receive due to the fact that it is voted on by fellow Footballers. Each member of the associationvotesfor two players. The award was first given in1974.
  31. 31. 31 • FWA Playerof the Year:Alongwith the PFA Award, theFootball Writer's Associationawardisconsidered asthe premierindividualaward inEngland.It isawarded to thebestplayerintheEnglish PremierLeague and is voted on by approximately 400 English journalists. Sir Stanley Matthews was the award's first recipientafter the 1947/48 award. • World SoccerMagazine Playerof theYear:Yet another magazine award.Originallystarted in1982, WSM readers from across the global cast their votes on whom they believe as been the player of the year. Obviouslythe player with the highest percentage of votes wins. The current holder isChristiano Ronaldo who amassed48% ofthe votes. Votes came from over 40 different countriesfrom around the world.
  32. 32. 32 • FIFA GoldenBall/Golden Shoe:TheGoldenballis presentedto the best player of a World Cup, whilst the Golden shoe is presented to the highest goal scorer in the tournament. The awards have beenpresented since the first world cup in 1930. The Golden Ball is voted on by the world's media, who select their vote from shortlist put together by the FIFA technical committee. The current holder(from the 2006 World Cup) ofthe GoldenBall is Zinidine Zidane, whilst the Goldenshoe was awarded to MiroslavKlose.
  33. 33. 33 Basic First-Aid Techniques Bruises– To treat bruising and swelling, the first aider will need to applyice onthe affected area for about 15 minutes at a time every two hours making sure to put a cloth or towel between the ice and the skin. A day or two after the bruisingor swelling develops; you should applya heat packor warm clothto the affected area. Bleeding (cut, graze or scratch wounds) – These could be minor, here the first aider will need to put on disposablegloves, cleanthe cuts with a dry steriledressing or cleanlint-free material,apply pressureto stop
  34. 34. 34 the bleeding thendab with ointment or gel and protect with a sterilebandage. A deep wound will have to be referred to a hospitalafter following the minor injury procedure. Head & Face injuries – These injuries could be serious and are associated with concussion (impaired consciousness),cuts, skull fractures,neck or spinal break. The First Aider’s immediateaim is to let the player lie down gently whilst avoiding turning the player’s head- this is to maintainan openairway, check for pulse & breathingand recordall vital signalsof response.If the player is unconscious,the airway should be opened with a jaw thrusttechnique inorder tofeel breathingthenproceed bycalling outto the player iftheycanhear you or open their eyes but if no response, the coach then need to carry out chest compressionalso known as the CPR [ placing one or two hands in the centre of the chest using the heel of the hands with arms straight to pressdownabout30 timesatthe rate of100-120 p/min] thenperformthe rescuebreathmethod [make sure the airway isopen, seal your lips around the child’s mouth and blowgently into their lungs. If the chest rises, stopblowing to allowit tofall thenrepeatthis5 timesuntiltheyshowsignsof recoveryor untilpropermedical assistancearrives. Asthma Attack – Asthma is a medical conditionthat attacks the muscles ofthe air passages when the tubes that carryair in and out of the lungs become narrowed therebymaking it difficult to breathe. To administer firstaid,help the player to sitina comfortablepositiontoease breathing and reassurethem. If theyhave their inhaler let them take 3-5 puffs according to the asthma plan given to them by their doctor but if the player has none, then the coach need to reach for one from the first-aidkit. The coach should or would have known about the player’sconditionfrom the medicalinformationsubmittedin theirregistration. Ankle, Footor Toe injuries –wheninjuries tothese areasare minor, theyare usuallytreatedat home torelieve symptoms and promote healing but incase they are serious, the first-aideror the coach will need to take the appropriatemeasuresindealing with the affected areas using any of the following first-aidtechniques.
  35. 35. 35  Witha brokenbone, it is not advisableto push the bone backinto the skin ifit issticking out but to leave it as itis by carefullycovering the affected area with a cleanbandage or hold togetherwith a splint.  With sprained ankle or toe injury, the first thing to do is to use the P.R.I.C.E method (Protect, Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation) to reduce the swelling and pain, also use soft padding bandage. If pain persists then an assessment need to made to ascertain whether a visit to the specialist is warranted however if it is pain free, try massaging gently to allow the flow of blood whilst avoiding hot substances such as hot water or heat gels until 48-72hrs and then start gentle exercises of movement & strength without too much strain. BackPain – Mostly, footballers feel painin the lower back. If this happens, there are various types of simple treatmentsthat canbe applied:  Walking- Taking a briskwalk for about10-20mins every 2hrs might do the trick.  Heat Therapy- Hotpool bath could be useful for some playerswhilst cold compressiontherapy(ice pack) may be suitedto others.  Exerciseslike flexible stretchingcould be effective inrelieving pain however this should be done with due care so as not to aggravate the pain.  Massage Therapy, massaging may be more appropriate remedy, visiting an experienced massage therapistcould be the answer to ending the back painproblems.  Medicines, using simple pain relieving medicines like Ibuprofen or Paracetamol, might just be the solution. Muscle Pulls–Theinitialfirst-aidtreatmentisto protect the affected area byapplying soft padding and then resume the P.R.I.C.E method which will acceleratehealing, reduce swelling and keep the blood from clotting in the injured area but if thereis a severe pain thena visitto a medical expert is advisable as thismight be a signof brokenbone, sprainor muscle tear.
  36. 36. 36 Shoulder, joint and allotherdislocations wouldbethe job for the expert medicalprofessional, any attemptto tryreducing or replacingthe joint must be avoided. ShinSplints,examinationof the cause of painis absolutelynecessaryinorder to choose the right treatments. If itis certainthatit isstressfracture,thena rest isusuallythebesttreatmentby taking a breakfrom training for about 6-7weeks to help the bone heal. The First Aid Kitessentials: 1. Tweezers 2. HandSanitizers 3. Gauge andTapes, 4. DisposableGloves 5. Wipes,CleaningSolutions 6. Antibiotic Cream 7. Ointments 8. Painrelieve gels 9. Adhesive Bandages 10. Elastic Plasters 11. Thermometers 12. Inhalers for Asthma, 13. Disinfectants 14. Instant ColdPacks, 15. Scissors
  37. 37. 37 16. CottonSwabs 17. Heat &ColdSprays 18. PainKillers 19. Smelling Salt ********THANKYOU**********