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CIVIL ENGINEERING
MATERIALS
Done by Louis wayne
INDEX
• Timber ………………………………… 3-8
• Sand …………………………………. 9- 17
• Aggregate …………………………… 18-29
• Mortar ………………………………… 30-40
• ...
Timber
The wood suitable for
construction of
buildings or for other
engineering purposes
is called timber.
Uses and importance of
Timber
• Used as posts, beams, lintels, doors
and windows
• Used in floorings, roofing, ceilings
et...
TYPES
There are two types of timber:
• Hardwood
- Deciduous & having large leaves
- Eg., Teak, sal, Shisham
• Softwood
- Coniferous & having Pointed leaves
- Eg., Deodar, pine, kail
PROPERTIES
• Strength
• Hardness
• Density
• Elasticity
• Texture
• Durability
• Smell, etc.
Requirements
• Durable and effective.
• Able to penetrate from inside.
• Should not adversely affect timber.
• Should not ...
SAND
Requirements, Types, Uses
Property and Importance
Importance of Sand
• Sand is an extremely needful material for the
construction but this important material must be
purcha...
• Should not contain impurities like Silt, Clay and salts.
These impurities can affect physical and chemical
properties.
•...
Classification of sand
Sand is classified as:
• Fine Sand (0.075 to 0.425 mm),
• Medium Sand (0.425 to 2 mm)
• Coarse Sand...
Pit Sand
(Coarse sand)
• This type of coarse sand is procured from deep pits of
abundant supply and it is generally in red...
Sea Sand
• The name suggest, sea sand is taken from seas shores and it is
generally in distinct brown color with fine circ...
River Sand
• River sand is procured from river streams and banks and is fine
in quality unlike pit sand. This type of sand...
General Requirements
• All the sand particles should have higher crushing strength.
• The surface texture of the particles...
AGGREGATE
Uses, Types, Requirements, Properties
and Importance
Aggregates
 Definition - Aggregate is a type of material used in
construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stones
etc.
Requirements of Good
Aggregates
• It should be chemically inactive
• It should be sufficiently strong
• It should be hard ...
Types of Aggregates
Classification according to formation
Classification according to size
Classification according
to formation
Classification according
to size
Natural Aggregates Fine Aggregates
•Artificial Ag...
According to Formation -
1. Natural Aggregates
Natural aggregates consists
of rock fragments that are
used in their natura...
2. Artificial Aggregates
For making special type
of concrete we should
make special type of
artificial aggregates. In
thes...
According to Size -
1. Fine
Aggregates
“Fine aggregate” is
defined as material
that will pass a No. 4
sieve and will, for ...
2. Coarse Aggregate
Coarse aggregate basic
material of the concrete.
Crushed stone or gravel
used in concrete are
called c...
Uses of Aggregates
• In Concrete making,
• In making Roads,
• For laying Railways,
Properties of Aggregates
 Aggregates sizes
 Aggregates shape
 Aggregates surface
textures
 Specific gravity of
aggrega...
Importance of Aggregates
• Aggregates are the literally the foundation of our economy and
society.
• It is used in greater...
• It is used for building our basic needs like home, office,
buildings, bridges, roads, highway etc.
• Almost every field ...
MORTAR
Requirements, Types, Uses and
Importance
Definition
• Mortar is a workable paste used to bind building blocks such
as stones, bricks, and concrete masonry units to...
Importance
• To bind together the bricks or stones properly so as to provide
strength to the structure.
• To form a homoge...
Requirements
• good workability to ease laying work and improve quality of the
joints
• good water retentivity to prevent ...
Properties
• Water Retention
• Air content
• Uniformity
• Workability
• Durability
• Bond Strength
TYPES OF MORTAR AND ITS USES:
Cement mortar:
•The paste is prepared by mixing cement and sand in
suitable proportions in a...
Lime mortar:
•The paste is prepared by mixing lime and sand or surkhi in
suitable proportions in addition to water.
•If su...
Light weight mortar:
•The paste is prepared by mixing wood powder,
wood sawing or saw dust with cement or lime
mortar.
•In...
Fire resistant mortar:
•The paste is prepared by mixing aluminous
cement and finely crushed fire bricks in suitable
propor...
Mud mortar:
•The paste is prepared by mixing suitable clayey
soil with water.
•The soil which is used for preparing mud mo...
Pictures
CONCRETE
Types, Uses, Requirements, Properties and
Importance
Definition
• It is a mixture of portland cement, water, aggregates, and in
some cases, admixtures.
• The cement and water ...
Properties
• Concrete has strength, durability, versatility, and economy.
• It can be placed or molded into virtually any ...
Importance
• With proper materials and techniques, concrete can withstand
many acids, silage, milk, manure, fertilizers, w...
Requirements of a good
concrete
• The fundamental requirements of hardened concrete are
strength, durability and economy. ...
Uses
Concrete has many applications and is used to make:
• pavements,
• pipes,
• structures,
• foundations,
• roads,
• bri...
Types
There are various types of
concrete for different
applications that are created by
changing the proportions of the
m...
• Limecrete
• Gypsum concrete
• Light-Transmitting Concrete
• Regular concrete
• Pre-Mixed concrete
• High-strength concre...
Pictures
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CIVIL ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTIONS MATERIALS

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CIVIL ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTIONS MATERIALS

  1. 1. CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS Done by Louis wayne
  2. 2. INDEX • Timber ………………………………… 3-8 • Sand …………………………………. 9- 17 • Aggregate …………………………… 18-29 • Mortar ………………………………… 30-40 • Concrete ……………………………….. 40-50
  3. 3. Timber The wood suitable for construction of buildings or for other engineering purposes is called timber.
  4. 4. Uses and importance of Timber • Used as posts, beams, lintels, doors and windows • Used in floorings, roofing, ceilings etc., • Used in rafters , purlins, trusses etc., • Used for interior decoration purposes • Used for making furniture, sport goods, railway sleepers etc.,
  5. 5. TYPES There are two types of timber: • Hardwood - Deciduous & having large leaves - Eg., Teak, sal, Shisham
  6. 6. • Softwood - Coniferous & having Pointed leaves - Eg., Deodar, pine, kail
  7. 7. PROPERTIES • Strength • Hardness • Density • Elasticity • Texture • Durability • Smell, etc.
  8. 8. Requirements • Durable and effective. • Able to penetrate from inside. • Should not adversely affect timber. • Should not emit any offensive smell. • Fire-proof. • Poisonous for fungus, white ants and other insects. • Cheap.
  9. 9. SAND Requirements, Types, Uses Property and Importance
  10. 10. Importance of Sand • Sand is an extremely needful material for the construction but this important material must be purchased with all care and vigilance. Sand which is used in the construction purpose must be clean, free from waste stones and impurities. It is important to know what type of sand is beneficial for construction purpose as sand is also classified into three different forms that make it suitable for specific type of construction.
  11. 11. • Should not contain impurities like Silt, Clay and salts. These impurities can affect physical and chemical properties. • Free from organic matter. • Coarse and well graded angular grains in suitable proportions. • Grains should be hard, strong and durable. • Free from hygroscopic moisture.
  12. 12. Classification of sand Sand is classified as: • Fine Sand (0.075 to 0.425 mm), • Medium Sand (0.425 to 2 mm) • Coarse Sand (2.0 to4.75 mm). However this classification of sand is further has types of sand in particular and on that basis only they are being incorporated in the construction
  13. 13. Pit Sand (Coarse sand) • This type of coarse sand is procured from deep pits of abundant supply and it is generally in red-orange color. The coarse grain is sharp, angular and certainly free from salts etc which is mostly employed in concreting.
  14. 14. Sea Sand • The name suggest, sea sand is taken from seas shores and it is generally in distinct brown color with fine circular grains. Sea sand is avoided for the purpose construction of concrete structure and in engineering techniques because it contains salt which tends to absorb moisture from atmosphere and brings dampness. Eventually cement also loses its action when mixed with sea sand that is why it is only used for the local purpose instead of structural construction.
  15. 15. River Sand • River sand is procured from river streams and banks and is fine in quality unlike pit sand. This type of sand has rounded grains generally in white-grey color. River sand has many uses in the construction purpose such as plastering.
  16. 16. General Requirements • All the sand particles should have higher crushing strength. • The surface texture of the particles should be smooth. • The edges of the particles should be grounded. • The ratio of fines below 600 microns in sand should not be less than 30%. • There should not be any organic impurities • Silt in sand should not be more than 2%, for crushed sand. • In manufactured sand the permissible limit of fines below 75 microns shall not exceed 15%
  17. 17. AGGREGATE Uses, Types, Requirements, Properties and Importance
  18. 18. Aggregates  Definition - Aggregate is a type of material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stones etc.
  19. 19. Requirements of Good Aggregates • It should be chemically inactive • It should be sufficiently strong • It should be hard enough • It should be durable • It should have rough surface • It should be of proper shape • It should have limited pores
  20. 20. Types of Aggregates Classification according to formation Classification according to size
  21. 21. Classification according to formation Classification according to size Natural Aggregates Fine Aggregates •Artificial Aggregates •Coarse Aggregates
  22. 22. According to Formation - 1. Natural Aggregates Natural aggregates consists of rock fragments that are used in their natural state, or are used after mechanical processing such as crushing, washing, and sizing.
  23. 23. 2. Artificial Aggregates For making special type of concrete we should make special type of artificial aggregates. In these aggregates most are light weight aggregates and heavy weight aggregates.
  24. 24. According to Size - 1. Fine Aggregates “Fine aggregate” is defined as material that will pass a No. 4 sieve and will, for the most part, be retained on a No. 200 sieve. Some types are sand, stone dust, cinder, surkhi.
  25. 25. 2. Coarse Aggregate Coarse aggregate basic material of the concrete. Crushed stone or gravel used in concrete are called coarse aggregate and it will not, pass when it is dry through a sieve with ¼-inch- diameter. Some types are stone ballast, gravel, clinker etc.
  26. 26. Uses of Aggregates • In Concrete making, • In making Roads, • For laying Railways,
  27. 27. Properties of Aggregates  Aggregates sizes  Aggregates shape  Aggregates surface textures  Specific gravity of aggregates  Water absorption and surface moisture
  28. 28. Importance of Aggregates • Aggregates are the literally the foundation of our economy and society. • It is used in greater quantities than any other natural resources.
  29. 29. • It is used for building our basic needs like home, office, buildings, bridges, roads, highway etc. • Almost every field of job depends on aggregate industry. • Economic growth depends on maintaining a competitive supply of high quality aggregates at a reasonable cost and close to market.
  30. 30. MORTAR Requirements, Types, Uses and Importance
  31. 31. Definition • Mortar is a workable paste used to bind building blocks such as stones, bricks, and concrete masonry units together, fill and seal the irregular gaps between them, and sometimes add decorative colors or patterns in masonry walls. In its broadest sense mortar includes pitch, asphalt, and soft mud or clay, such as used between mud bricks. Mortar comes from Latin mortarium meaning crushed.
  32. 32. Importance • To bind together the bricks or stones properly so as to provide strength to the structure. • To form a homogenous mass of the structure so as to resist all the loads coming over it without disintegration. • To provide a weather resisting i.e., a durable layer between the different courses of masonry in the structure. • To hold coarse aggregate together in any concrete so as to form a solid mass. The mortar used in a concrete is termed as matrix. • To do pointing and plastering to the structure. The mortar used for plastering is known as plaster. • To fill up empty joints in brick and stone masonry. The mortar used for such purposes is a thin liquid mortar which is termed as grout and the process is known as grouting.
  33. 33. Requirements • good workability to ease laying work and improve quality of the joints • good water retentivity to prevent excessive suction of water by bricks that have high initial rate of absorption and retain sufficient water required for hydration of cement • development of suitable early and final strength • offers water-tightness and durability to a wall • good adhesion or bond for bricks
  34. 34. Properties • Water Retention • Air content • Uniformity • Workability • Durability • Bond Strength
  35. 35. TYPES OF MORTAR AND ITS USES: Cement mortar: •The paste is prepared by mixing cement and sand in suitable proportions in addition to water. •The general proportion is 1 part of cement to 2-8 parts clean sand. •These mortars must be use within half an hour, i.e.; before initial setting time of the cement. •USE-This type is used for all engineering works where high strength is desired such as load bearing walls, deep foundations, flooring etc.
  36. 36. Lime mortar: •The paste is prepared by mixing lime and sand or surkhi in suitable proportions in addition to water. •If surkhi is to be added in lime mortar the equal proportions of sand and surkhi should be mixed with lime. •These mortars are inferior to cement mortars in strength as well as water tightness. •These mortars should not be used for underground works as they set in the presence of carbon dioxide and break up in damp conditions. •USE- This type is used for construction work above ground level i.e. exposed positions.
  37. 37. Light weight mortar: •The paste is prepared by mixing wood powder, wood sawing or saw dust with cement or lime mortar. •In such mortars fibers of jute coir or asbestos fibers can also be used. •USE- These are generally used as fiber plasters in sound and heat proof construction.
  38. 38. Fire resistant mortar: •The paste is prepared by mixing aluminous cement and finely crushed fire bricks in suitable proportions in addition to water. •The usual proportion are 1 part aluminous cement to 2 parts of finely crushed fire bricks. •USE-These are generally used for lining furnaces, ovens and fire places with fire bricks.
  39. 39. Mud mortar: •The paste is prepared by mixing suitable clayey soil with water. •The soil which is used for preparing mud mortar should be free from grass, pebbles etc. •These are the cheapest mortars but weakest in strength. •USE- These mortars are used for brickwork of ordinary buildings and for plastering walls in rural areas.
  40. 40. Pictures
  41. 41. CONCRETE Types, Uses, Requirements, Properties and Importance
  42. 42. Definition • It is a mixture of portland cement, water, aggregates, and in some cases, admixtures. • The cement and water form a paste that hardens and bonds the aggregates together. • Concrete is often looked upon as “man made rock”. Portland Cement
  43. 43. Properties • Concrete has strength, durability, versatility, and economy. • It can be placed or molded into virtually any shape and reproduce any surface texture. • Concrete is a versatile construction material, adaptable to a wide variety of agricultural and residential uses. • The elasticity of concrete is relatively constant at low stress levels but starts decreasing at higher stress levels as matrix cracking develops. • Concrete has a very low coefficient of thermal expansion, and as it matures concrete shrinks.
  44. 44. Importance • With proper materials and techniques, concrete can withstand many acids, silage, milk, manure, fertilizers, water, fire, and abrasion. • Concrete can be finished to produce surfaces ranging from glass-smooth to coarsely textured, and it can be colored with pigments or painted. • Concrete has substantial strength in compression, but is weak in tension. • Most structural uses, such as beams, slats, and manure tank lids, involve reinforced concrete, which depends on concrete's strength in compression and steel's strength in tension.
  45. 45. Requirements of a good concrete • The fundamental requirements of hardened concrete are strength, durability and economy. Fresh concrete must be workable, that is, it must be of such a consistency and physical make-up that it can be readily placed in the form without segregation of the materials and without requiring an excessive amountof spading to completely fill the form. Uniformity in both the fresh and hardened concrete is necessary to secure economy of materials, to facilitate handling and placing and to obtain uniformity in the completed structure. It is particularly important where water tightness is required.
  46. 46. Uses Concrete has many applications and is used to make: • pavements, • pipes, • structures, • foundations, • roads, • bridges/overpasses, • walls and • footings for gates.
  47. 47. Types There are various types of concrete for different applications that are created by changing the proportions of the main ingredients. The mix design depends on the type of structure being built, how the concrete will be mixed and delivered, and how it will be placed to form the structure.
  48. 48. • Limecrete • Gypsum concrete • Light-Transmitting Concrete • Regular concrete • Pre-Mixed concrete • High-strength concrete • Stamped concrete • High-Performance concrete • UHPC (Ultra-High Performance Concrete) • Self-consolidating concretes • Vacuum concretes • Shotcrete • Cellular concrete • Roller-compacted concrete • Glass concrete • Asphalt concrete • Rapid strength concrete • Rubberized concrete • Polymer concrete • Geopolymer or Green concrete Some Examples of types of Concrete.
  49. 49. Pictures

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