This lesson covers the skills,
knowledge, and attitudes
required to prepare various
stocks, sauces, and soup in a
commercial kitchen or
3. A stock is a very
flavorful liquid that
is made by gently
cooking bones and
such as vegetables
in a liquid. This
aroma, body, color,
4. WHITE STOCK is a
clear, pale liquid made
by simmering poultry
BROWN STOCK is an
amber-colored liquid made
by browning and then
simmering beef, veal, or
There different types of
5. FUMET (foo-MAY) is a
very flavorful, light-
colored stock made with
(court boo-YON) is a
very aromatic vegetable
broth, and is used for
poaching fish or
6. REMOUILLAGE (ray-moo-
LAHZ) is a stock made from
bones that have already been
cooked in another food
preparation. When simmered
in water a second time, the
result is a pale and weak-
7. All stocks contain four parts:
Part 1 is the
usually consists of the
bones and trimmings
from meat, poultry, or
Bones may be from any
part of the animal, including
the neck or tail, arm or leg.
Many have marrow. They
must be prepared by
blanching, browning, or
8. All stocks contain four parts:
Part 2 is the liquid. That liquid is
usually water, but may also
include wine or vinegar, or even a
bouillon or remouillage.
Foam or scum may accumulate on
this liquid as the bones cook. This
is called the ‘raft’, and consists of
meat or egg white protein foams.
Skim this off during cooking.
9. All stocks contain four parts:
Part 3 is the mirepoix
The standard mirepoix is
50% onions, 25% carrots,
and 25% celery… all
chopped in small pieces
when simmering time is
short, and large pieces
when simmering time is
an hour or longer.
A ‘white’ mirepoix, for white stock or a fumet, may have
mushrooms substituted for the carrots.
10. All stocks contain four parts:
Part 4 is the aromatics.
These are the herbs,
spices, and flavorings
that create a savory
Aromatics may include
a ‘bag of herbs’ called a
Fresh herbs are held in
a cheesecloth bag or
stems are simply tied
Aromatics may also include
(sah-SHAY day-PEESE), or a
‘bag of spices’.
11. Basil: sweet; fragrant; complements pasta & proteins
Bay leaves: sharp, bitter taste good in soups & stews
Cardamon: Intense sweet flavor for coffee & breads
Cayenne pepper: made from chili peppers; hot taste
Chervil (chur-vil): sweet; parsley-like flavor; trace of anise
Cilantro: fragrant mix of parsley and citrus
Cloves: dark brown, pungent, strong, & sweet flavor
Coriander: mild lemon & sage flavor mixture
Cumin (Q-min): slightly bitter; warm
Curry powder: savory combination of many spices
Fennel: anise-like flavor
Ginger: slightly biting and hot; sweet, woody aroma
Mace: similar to nutmeg but more pungent; sweet
Marjoram: slightly sweet and resembles oregano
Rosemary: tea-like aroma and piney flavor
Saffron: spicy bitter flavor with penetrating aroma
Sage: fragrant aroma and warm flavor
Tarragon: bittersweet; flavors vinegar and pickles
Thyme: subtle aroma; slightly minty flavor
Tumeric: orange or ginger aroma; bitter flavor
Common seasonings for soups and sauces
12. Guidelines for preparing stock
1. Follow the correct procedures for cooling and storing
stock and make sure that any stock you use is flavorful
2. Follow the cooking time for stock. The following are
approximate cooking time for different stocks; the time
will vary according to numerous factors such as
ingredients quality, volume and cooking temperature.
White beef stock - 8 to 10 hours
White and brown Veal Game stock – 6 to 8 hours
White poultry and Game Bird Stocks – 3 to 4 hours
Fish Stock – 45 minutes to 1 hour
Vegetables Stock – 45 minutes to 1 hour, depending on
the specific ingredients and the size of vegetables cut
13. 3. The stock ingredients are boiled
starting with cold water. This promotes
the extraction of protein which may be
sealed in by hot water.
4. Stocks are simmered gently, with
small bubbles at the bottom but not
breaking at the surface. If a stock is
boiled, it will be cloudy.
14. 5. Salt is not usually added to a stock,
as this causes it to become too salty,
since most stocks are preserved to
make soup and sauces.
6. Meat is added to the stock before
the vegetables and the ―scum‖ that
rises to the surface is skimmed off
before further ingredients are added.
16. Stocks, sometimes made in large
quantities, must be cooled down
quickly before refrigeration. Divide it
into smaller portions, place the
container into an ice-water bath, and
As the stock cools or
after it has been
hardens on the
Lift or scrape away this fat for
better nutrition and better color.
One of the important
components of a dish is the sauce.
Sauces serve a particular function
in the composition of a dish.
These enhance the taste of
the food to be served as well
as add moisture or succulence
to food that are cooked dry.
19. Sauce is a flavorful liquid, usually
thickened that is used to season,
flavor and enhance other foods. It
4. Appearance (color and shine)
20. Variation of Sauces
Hot sauce- made just before
they are to be used
Cold sauce- cooked ahead of
time, then cooled, covered
and placed in the refrigerator
21. Basic Sauces for Meat, Vegetables, and Fish
1. White sauce - Its basic ingredient
is milk which is thickened with flour
enriched with butter.
22. 2. Veloute sauce- Its chief
ingredients are veal, chicken and
fish broth, thickened with blonde
23. 3. Hollandaise – It is a rich
emulsified sauce made from
butter, egg yolks, lemon juice and
24. 4. Brown sauce / Espagnole – It is a
brown roux-based sauce made with
margarine or butter, flavor and
25. 5. Tomato Sauce – It is made from
stock (ham/pork) and tomato
products seasoned with spices
26. Thickening agent – thickens sauce
to the right consistency. The sauce
must be thick enough to cling
lightly to the food.
27. Starch granules are separated in
Mixing the starch with fat.
Mixing the starch with a cold
liquid. Example: SLURRY
28. Roux – is a cooked mixture of
equal parts by weight of fat and
33. Hygienic Principles and Practices in
1.Make sure all equipment is
2. Hold sauce no longer than 1 ½
hours. Make only enough to serve in
this time, and discard any that is left
3. Never mix an old batch of
sauce with a new batch.
34. Basic Finishing Techniques in Sauce
Liaison mixture of egg yolks and cream
added to sauce to give extra richness and
Heavy cream- added to give flavor and
richness to sauce
Butter - Add softened butter to hot
sauce and swirl until it melts. Serve
immediately to prevent separation of
butter. Butter gives extra shine and
smoothness to the sauce.
39. There are two categories of soups:
CLEAR AND THICK.
Clear soups include
stocks, broth, and
A broth is made from
water, vegetables or meat,
mirepoix, and bouquet
garni. A good broth
should be pale, with a
distinct flavor of the major
40. A basic consommé
consists of some
combination of meat,
mirepoix, a tomato
egg white, and/or
oignon brûlé (oy-
The oignon brûlé is an
onion that has been
burned by grilling it,
holding it over an open
flame, or pressing it onto a
hot skillet to brown the
outside and intensify it’s
41. The second category of soups is THICK
SOUPS which include cream soups, pureé
soups, bisques, chowders, and specialty
A cream soup is made with a thickener, the most
common of which is called a roux (roo); a fat and
42. Sauté the main flavoring ingredient in a
small amount of butter or oil.
Add flour and cook briefly to eliminate the
Add the stock and vegetables; simmer ‘til
Add cream; heat; garnish; serve. If you are
adding pre-cooked vegetables, you may
eliminate the stock.
Boiling cream soups breaks down the milk
fat, causing the soup to become thin and
43. A purée soup is thickened by the starch found in the
main ingredient. The starch is released when the
ingredient is puréed. The main ingredient may be
cooked and puréed prior to adding it to the liquid OR
the finished soup can be puréed in a food processor
blender prior to serving.
44. A bisque (BISK) is a cream soup made from shellfish
such as lobster, shrimp, or crab.The shells are puréed
along with the other ingredients, making it somewhat
grainy in texture. A bisque that is correctly prepared is
pink/red in color, is high in calcium, and has a
45. A chowder is a very hearty soup, usually creamed, and with
large chunks of ingredients.
New England Clam Chowder has a cream base; Manhattan
Clam Chowder has a tomato base.
46. Minestrone is an Italian, tomato-
based vegetable soup.
is a cold potato and leek soup
A GUMBO is a thick Creole soup
from Louisiana made with okra
and a filé (fee-LAY) powder. Filé
is a thickener made from ground
sassafras leaves from the
47. Gazpacho (gahz-PAH-cho) is a
cold, tomato-based soup made with
cucumbers, onions, green peppers,
and garlic from Spain.
Bouillabaisse (boo-yah-bess) is a
soup containing at least 3 kinds of
fish, mirepoix, and herbs/spices.
Borscht (BORSHT) is a cold beet
soup from Russia. It is commonly
served with a dollop of sour
48. Stews are thickened stocks with large chunky pieces
of meat, fish, or poultry and/or vegetables. They are
cooked by simmering for a long period of time…
Mulligan Stew is a stew made from any ingredients
or leftovers that you may have on hand. It was
considered the main cuisine of hobos (transients).
Irish stew is traditionally made with lamb, but today
just means any beef stew.
1. It is a stock with clear, pale liquid
made by simmering poultry bones.
2. What kind of stock that is very
flavorful, light-colored stock made with
3. It is an amber-colored liquid made
by browning and then simmering beef,
veal, or game bones.
52. 4. is a very aromatic vegetable broth,
and is used for poaching fish or
5. It is a flavorful liquid, usually
thickened that is used to season, flavor
and enhance other foods.
6. Its chief ingredients are veal, chicken
and fish broth, thickened with blonde
53. 7. It is a rich emulsified sauce made from
butter, egg yolks, lemon juice and
8. Its basic ingredient is milk which is
thickened with flour enriched with
9. is a very flavorful liquid that is made
by gently cooking bones and other
ingredients such as vegetables in a
54. 10. It is a cream soup made from
shellfish such as lobster, shrimp, or
11. It is a very hearty soup, usually
creamed, and with large chunks of
12. It is made with a thickener, the
most common of which is called a
55. 13. It is thickened by the starch found in
the main ingredient.
14. is an onion that has been burned by
grilling it, holding it over an open flame,
or pressing it onto a hot skillet to brown
the outside and intensify it’s flavor.
15. It is composed of 50% onions, 25%
carrots and 25% celery.