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Assessing learning objectives

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This presentation emphasizes how objectives are stated. Emphasis is given also on how to match instruction and assessment tasks with objectives.

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Assessing learning objectives

  1. 1. Assessing Learning Objectives Carlo Magno, PhD. MCL Consultant
  2. 2.  Watch the video sand art
  3. 3. Activity 1  If the person making the sand art is your student who will do the task, what objective will you set for him/her?
  4. 4. Objectives  At the end of the session the faculty will be able to improve their course syllabus by:  Stating objectives with measurable behavioral terms  Aligning the objectives with the assessment task  Use appropriate assessment task to provide evidence of attaining learning objectives.
  5. 5. Outcomes-Based Education  Clearly focusing and organizing everything in an educational system around what is essential for all students to be able to do successfully at the end of their learning experiences.  This means starting with a clear picture of what is important for students to be able to do, then organizing the curriculum, instruction and assessment to make sure this learning ultimately happens (Spady, 1994).
  6. 6. Outcomes-Based Education
  7. 7. Where do we get our objectives?  Needs of students and society  Mission and vision of the school  National and International Standards  Existing programs
  8. 8. Considerations in Writing objectives  1. Objectives are always intended for the learners, audience, students or participants in a training program.  2. Objectives are specific and measurable. Each objective should have a corresponding assessment to test whether it was met.The following table shows how each objective will be assessed. Objective Assessment Given a microscope with glass slides, students in the biology class will mount 5 specimens found in the school garden. Performance assessment in the proper mounting of atleast 5 specimens. Given the constructed anemometer, the grade 4 pupils will record the wind speed every 5 hours. Listing of the wind speed every 5 hours during school time Given a 1 inch paper clip, the grade 5 students will measure the length, width, and area of the gym floor. Measurement of the gym floor.
  9. 9. Considerations in Writing objectives  3. Objectives should be attainable given the parameters of instruction and learning. For a 40 minute class, objectives should be realistically accomplished given the time frame.  4. General objectives (TO) can be broken down to more specific objectives (EO)
  10. 10. Considerations in Writing objectives  TO: Uses tools, materials, and equipment associated with the building trades  1. Identifies types of materials used in the building trades (e.g., lumber, metals, piping, bricks, wiring)  2. Familiar with procedures for maintaining hand and power tools (e.g., cleaning, adjusting, calibrating, storing)  3. Uses measuring instruments such as a ruler, tape measure, chalk line, level, transit, square, volt meter, and ammeter  4. Operates earth-moving equipment used in preparation of construction sites  5. Uses different types of scaffolding  6. Uses power and hand tools employed in the building trades (e.g., levels, jig saws, sanders, routers, drills, electrical test equipment, masonry tools, metal fabrication tools)
  11. 11. I. Recognizing Measurable Instructional Objectives  Place an “X” before each of those in the following list which are student objectives stated in measurable terms.  ___ 1. To develop critical thinking skills.  ___ 2. To identify those celestial bodies that are known as planets.  ___ 3. To provide worthwhile experiences for the students.  ___ 4. To recognize subject and verb in a sentence.  ___ 5. To tie shoes in a bow, without making a knot.  ___ 6. To write a summary of factors that led to World War II.  ___ 7. To fully appreciate the value of music.  ___ 8. To prepare a critical comparison of the two major political parties n the United States today.  ___ 9. To illustrate an awareness of the importance of balanced ecology by supplying relevant newspaper articles.  ___ 10. To know all the rules of spelling and grammar.
  12. 12. Bloom’s Taxonomy Levels of Cognitive, Psychomotor and Affective Domain Cognitive Affective Psychomotor Remembering Receiving Imitation Understanding Responding Manipulation Applying Valuing Precision Analyzing Organizing Articulation Evaluating Characterizing Naturalization Creating
  13. 13. Bloom’s Taxonomy Cognitive Domain Cognitive level Instructional Behavioral Term 1. Remembering define, describe, identify, label, enumerate, match, outline, select, state, name, reproduce 2. Understanding Summarize, paraphrase, rephrase, convert, estimate, explain, generalize, paraphrase, infer, rewrite, compute 3. Applying Use, employ, give examples, changes, demonstrate, modify, predict, show, problem solving 4. Analyzing Relate, distinguish, differentiate, illustrate, separates, subdivides, compare, contrast 6. Evaluating Appraise, decide, justify, conclude, criticize, describe, defend 7. Creating Formulate, compose, produce, categorize, combine, create, devise, design, generate, organize, rearrange, reconstruct, reorganize, revise
  14. 14. Bloom’s Taxonomy Affective Domain Affective Domain Instructional Behavioral Term 1. Receiving Asks, chooses, describes, follows, gives, holds, locates, points to, relies, uses 2. Responding Answers, assists, complies, conforms, greets, performs, practices, presents, recites, reports 3. Valuing Completes, explains, initiates, invites, joins, justifies, proposes, shares, studies 4. Organization Adheres, alters, arranges, defends, generalizes, integrates, orders, prepares, relates 5. Characterization Acts, discriminates, displays, influences, modifies, proposes, qualifies, questions, revises, serves, solves, verifies
  15. 15. Bloom’s Taxonomy Psychomotor Domain Psychomotor Domain Behavior 1. Imitation Observes a skill and attempts to repeat it 2. Manipulation Performs skill according to instruction rather than observation 3. Precision Reproduces a skill with accuracy, proportion and exactness 4. Articulation Combines more than one skill in sequence with harmony and consistency 5. Naturalization Completes one or more skills with ease and becomes automatic with limited physical or mental exertion
  16. 16. II. Classifying Instructional Objectives According to their Domains  Classify each of the following instructional objectives by writing on the blank space the appropriate letter according to the domain: (C) Cognitive; (P) Psychomotor; (A) affective.  ____ 1. The students will continue jumping rope until that student can successfully jump it ten times in succession.  ____ 2. The student will identify the capitals of all fifty states.  ____ 3. The student will summarize the history of the development of the republican party in the United States.  ____ 4. The student will demonstrate a continuing desire to learn to use the microscope by volunteering to work with it during free time.  ____ 5. The student will volunteer to tidy up the room.
  17. 17. II. Classifying Instructional Objectives According to their Domains  ____ 6. After reading and analyzing several books, the student will identify the respective authors.  ____ 7. The student will translate a favoriteVietnamese poem into English.  ____ 8. The student will accurately predict the results of combining genes from an available gene pool.  ____ 9. The student will indicate his or her interest in the subject by voluntarily reading additional books from the library about dinosaurs.  ____ 10. The student will make the ring toss in a minimum of seven in ten attempts.
  18. 18. III. Identifying Cognitive Levels of Questions  Instruction: Indicate the cognitive level of the following questions. Write whether they are remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating.  _________ 1. What was the name of the organization represented by officer?  _________ 2. How are the styles of the two artists similar?  _________ 3. Which of the poems do you think is the most interesting?  _________ 4. What other tools could you use to accomplish the same task?  _________ 5. What country lies between China and India?  _________ 6. How might these rocks be logically grouped?  _________ 7. Could you explain how these two types of redwood needles differ?
  19. 19. III. Identifying Cognitive Levels of Questions  _________________ 8. What do you predict would happen if we mixed equal amounts of two colored solutions, the red solution with the yellow solution?  _________________ 9. With the key words provided, compose an eight line poem.  _________________ 10. Describe how these poem makes you feel.  _________________ 11. Do you suppose everyone feels the same after reading that poem?  _________________ 12. What do you think caused the city to move the location of the zoo?  _________________ 13. How would the park be different today if it had been left there?  _________________ 14. Observe what happens when I pour in the second liquid.  _________________ 15. Using what you have learned about silent letters, circle all the words in the one-page story that use silent letters.
  20. 20. Stating Objectives  “From a standing still position on a level, hard surface (condition), male students (audience) will jump (behavior) at least two feet (criterion).”  “Given two hours in the library without notes (condition), students in the high reading group (audience) will identify (behavior) five sources on the topic “national health insurance” (Criterion).
  21. 21. Criteria inWriting Objectives  1. Behavior – Specific behavior as indicated by action verbs (summarize, enumerate, compare, defend, justify).  2. Audience – Description of the students who are expected to demonstrate the behavior.  3. Criterion – Description of the criteria used to indicate whether the behavior has been demonstrated (e. g. answering 8 out of 10 questions correctly; judgment of writing based on grammar, spelling, sentence construction, and organization).  4. Condition – Circumstances, equipment, or material used when demonstrating the behavior (e. g., with or without class notes, open book, using graph paper, given a calculator).
  22. 22. IV. Identifying Cognitive Levels of Objectives  Instruction: Indicate the cognitive level of the following objectives.Write whether they are remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating.  1. State the domain and range of a given function  2. Solve systems of linear equations in two variables by the graphical method  3. Simplify complex fractions  4. Multiply and divide rational algebraic expression  5. Assess hazards of working with chemicals  6. Classify the properties of substances as to physical or chemical and extrinsic or intrinsic  7. Cite evidence of chemical changes
  23. 23. IV. Identifying Cognitive Levels of Objectives  8. Write Lewis symbols for atoms, ions, ionic compounds, and covalent compounds  9. Use comprehension strategies while reading a selection  10. Write purpose statements for reading  11. Write brief notes, symbols , and abbreviations in textbook margins to point out important ideas  12. Note correctly alphabetical and numerical data listened to  13. Find the topic sentence of a paragraph  14. Determine the effect of a changed angle between the current and magnetic field to the magnetic force  15. Observe reflection of a single ray of light from a plane mirror
  24. 24. Constructive Alignment  Objective: Interpret a table showing the population density of the world (Understanding) Test Item: Given a bar graph, report the years where the population increased and decreased, describe the pattern of growth each year and provide possible explanations for the growth pattern.  Objective: Draw a picture using the principle of balance. (Creating,) Test Item: Draw a picture in the box showing the principle of balance.  Objective: Recognize fallacies in an argument (Understanding) Test item: Read the given article and list down five fallacious statements found.  Objective: Run in a 100-yard dash (psychomotor) Performance Assessment: Students need to complete a run in 100 yard dash.
  25. 25. Example 1: Constructive alignment  Classify materials based on its ability to absorb water, float, sink, undergo decay  Item:  Which of the following materials will float in water?  A. Styrofoam  B. foam  C. metal  D. glass
  26. 26. Example 2: Constructive Alignment  Demonstrate proper disposal of waste according to the properties of its materials  Performance task  Final Output: A slide show with illustrations showing proper disposal of materials.  Task: Take a photo on how to properly dispose the following materials: plastic bottles, food scrap, papers. Present the picture in class and explain the procedure.  Criteria: Accuracy of disposal procedure, ability to explain, clarity of illustrations
  27. 27. V. Matching Items with Criterion Item  Instruction: Indicate whether the matching of the objective and item is suitable.  1. Objective: Given a performance of an instrumental or vocal melody containing a melodic or rhythmic error, and given the score for the melody, be able to point out the error.  Criterion item: The instructor will play the melody of the attached musical score on the piano and will make an error either in rhythm or melody. Raise your hand when the error occurs.  Is the item Suitable? ___Yes ____ No ____Can’t tell
  28. 28. V. Matching Items with Criterion Item  2. Objective: Given mathematical equations containing one unknown, be able to solve for the unknown.  Criterion Item: Sam weighs 97 kilos. He weighs 3.5 kilos more than Barrey. How much does Barry weigh?  Is the item Suitable? ___Yes ____ No ____Can’t tell
  29. 29. V. Matching Items with Criterion Item  3. Objective: Be able to demonstrate familiarity with sexual anatomy and physiology  Criterion Item: Draw and label a sketch of the male and female reproductive systems.  Is the item Suitable? ___Yes ____ No ____Can’t tell
  30. 30. V. Matching Items with Criterion Item  4. Objective: Given any one of the computers in our product line, in its original carton, be able to install and adjust the machine, preparing it for use. Criteria:The machine shows normal indication, and the area is free of debris and cartons  Criterion item: Select one of the cartons containing one of our model XX computers, and install it for the secretary in Room 45. Make sure it is ready for use and the area is left clean.  Is the item Suitable? ___Yes ____ No ____Can’t tell
  31. 31. V. Matching Items with Criterion Item  5. Objective: When given a set of paragraphs (that use words within your vocabulary), some of which are missing topic sentences, be able to identify the paragraph without topic sentences.  Criterion Item: Turn to page 29 in your copy of Silas Marner. Underline the topic sentence of each paragraph on that page.  Is the item Suitable? ___Yes ____ No ____Can’t tell
  32. 32. Forms Assessment  Formative assessment  Summative assessment  Major exams  Quizzes  Projects – student papers  Test  Performance-based  Rating scales  Rubrics  Inventories  Checklist used for observations  Surveys  Standardized tests
  33. 33. Types of Assessment  Selected Response  Binary Choices  Multiple Choice  MatchingType  Constructed Response “Supply Test”  Short Form answers - identification  Completion – fill in the blanks, cloze test  Essay  Alternative Forms  Performance-based  Authentic-based  Portfolio Assessment
  34. 34. Features of performance assessment  Intended to assess what it is that students know and can do with the emphasis on doing.  Have a high degree of realism about them (authentic).  Involve: (a) activities for which there is no single correct answer, (b) assessing groups or individuals, (c) testing that would continue over an extended period of time, (d) self- assessment of performances.  Likely use open-ended tasks aimed at assessing higher level cognitive skills.
  35. 35. Performance assessment  Bring testing methods more in line with instruction.  Assessment should approximate closely what it is students should know and be able to do.
  36. 36. Characteristics of performance-based assessment  Students perform, create, construct, produce, or do something.  Deep understanding and/or reasoning skills are needed and assessed.  Involves sustained work, [often days and weeks].  Calls on students to explain, justify, and defend.  Performance is directly observable.  Involves engaging in ideas of importance and substance.  Relies on trained assessor’s judgments for scoring  Multiple criteria and standards are prespecified and public  There is no single correct answer.  If authentic, the performance is grounded in real world contexts and constraints.
  37. 37. Learning Targets  Skills  Communication and presentation skills  Ex: Speaking 1. Speaking clearly, expressively, and audibly a. Using voice expressively b. Speaking articulately and pronouncing words correctly c. Using appropriate vocal volume 2. Presenting ideas with appropriate introduction, development, and conclusion 1. Presenting ideas in an effective order 2. Providing a clear focus on the central idea 3. Providing signal words, internal summaries, and transitions
  38. 38. Learning Targets 3. Developing ideas using appropriate support materials a) Being clear and using reasoning processes b) Clarifying, illustrating,exemplifying,and documenting ideas 4. Using nonverbal cues a. Using eye contact b. Using appropriate facial expressions, gestures, and body movement 5. Selecting language to a special purpose a. Using language and conventions appropriate for the audience
  39. 39. Learning Targets  Psychomotor skills  Fine motor: cutting papers with scissors, drawing a line tracing, penmanship, coloring drawing, connecting dots  Gross motor:Walking, jumping, balancing, throwing, skipping, kicking  Complex: Perform a swing golf, operate a computer, drive a car, operate a microscope  Visual: Copying, finding letters, finding embedded figures, identifying shapes, discrimination  Verbal and auditory: identify and discriminate sounds, imitate sounds, pronounce carefully, blend vowels
  40. 40. Learning Targets  Products  Write promotional materials  Report on a foreign country  Playing a new song
  41. 41. Variation of authenticity Relatively authentic Somewhat authentic Authentic Identify the materials used in dressing a wound Give the steps in dressing a wound Dresses the wound of a patient Tell the use of a thermometer Records temperature in a chart Uses the thermometer on a patient and records it. Explain the steps on taking blood pressure Show how to take the blood pressure using a sphygmomanometer Get the blood pressure of a patient.
  42. 42. Complexity of task  Restricted-type task  Narrowly defined and require brief responses  Task is structured and specific  Ex:  Construct a bar graph from data provided  Demonstrate a shorter conversation in French about what is on a menu  Read an article from the newspaper and answer questions  Flip a coin ten times. Predict what the next ten flips of the coin will be, and explain why.  Listen to the evening news on television and explain if you believe the stories are biased.  Construct a circle, square, and triangle from provided materials that have the same circumference.
  43. 43. Constructing Performance Based tasks  Extended-type task  Complex and elaborate  Often include collaborative work with small group of students.  Requires the use of a variety of information  Examples:  Design a playhouse and estimate cost of materials and labor  Plan a trip to another country: Include the budget and itinerary, and justify why you want to visit certain places  Conduct a historical reenactment (e. g. impeachment trial of ERAP)  Diagnose and repair a car problem  Design an advertising campaign for a new or existing product
  44. 44. Identifying Performance Task Description  Prepare a task description  Listing of specifications to ensure that essential if criteria are met  Includes the ff.:  Content and skill targets to be assessed  Description of student activities  Group or individual  Help allowed  Resources needed  Teacher role  Administrative process  Scoring procedures
  45. 45. Performance-based Task Question Prompt  Task prompts and questions will be based on the task descriptions.  Clearly identifies the outcomes, outlines what the students are encourage dot do, explains criteria for judgment.
  46. 46. Performance Criteria  What you look for in student responses to evaluate their progress toward meeting the learning target.  Dimensions of traits in performance that are used to illustrate understanding, reasoning, and proficiency.  Start with identifying the most important dimensions of the performance  What distinguishes an adequate to an inadequate demonstration of the target?
  47. 47. Example of Criteria  Learning target:  Students will be able to write a persuasive paper to encourage the reader to accept a specific course of action or point of view.  Criteria:  Appropriateness of language for the audience  Plausibility and relevance of supporting arguments.  Level of detail presented  Evidence of creative, innovative thinking  Clarity of expression  Organization of ideas
  48. 48. Example of Performance-based task  Final Product  Chemists are often required to determine the concentration of unknown acidic or basic solutions.You will be provided with an unknown solution that is either acidic or basic. Your problem is to design an experiment, using the materials (and/or others) listed below, to determine the concentration of the unknown solution provided. Express your concentration of the unknown material in moles of H+ (aq) per liter or moles of OH- (aq) per liter of solution.
  49. 49. Task  a) Under the heading PROCEDURE list in order the steps of the procedure you will use to solve the problem.You may include a diagram to help illustrate your plans for the experiment. Include any safety procedures you would follow.  b) Construct a DATA TABLE or indicate any other method that you could use to record the observations and results that will be obtained.  Materials  2 beakers, 100 ml 1 burette, 50 ml 4 Erlenmeyer flasks, 250 ml  1 filter funnel, small 1 graduated cylinder, 50 ml 1 burette stand  safety goggles calculator 1 wash bottle of distilled watre  1 white tile hydrochloric acid, 0.1 mol/L sodium hydroxide, 0.1 mol/L  phenolphthalein indicator bromothymol blue indicator unknown solution
  50. 50. Criteria Yes NO A. Procedures for investigation 1. Detailed procedure/experimentally feasible Method includes details which will clearly result in accurate determination of concentration of unknown, including steps below and repeated trials. 2. Sequence to plan Suggests method to determine molarity of unknown solution 3. General strategy First identifies unknown solution as an acid or base using appropriate indicator, then suggests titration using neutralizing solution. 4. Safety procedures Safety goggles should be worn; care in handling acids and bases. 5. Use of equipment/diagram Appropriate equipment and materials are suggested, especially use of burette and indicator.
  51. 51. Criteria Yes No B. Plan for recording and organizing observations/data 1. Space for manipulation of data or qualitative description Could include space for averaging data; stipulation of indicator used. 2. Matched to plan Plan is comprehensive so that all observations and data generated by plan may be recorded; e.g., space for repeated trials is included. 3. Organized sequentially Organized so that recording follows data as generated. 4. Labelled fully (units included) All columns and rows are identified; correct units of measurement are used. 5. Variables identified Solution used to titrate unknown is indicated as acid or base.
  52. 52. Rating Scales  Indicate the degree to which a particular dimension is present.  Three kinds:  Numerical  Qualitative  Combined Qualitative and Quantitative
  53. 53. Rating Scale  Numerical Scale  Numbers of a continuum to indicate different level of proficiency in terms of frequency or quality Example: Complete Understanding 5 4 3 2 1 No understanding Clear organization 5 4 3 2 1 No organization Fluent reader 5 4 3 2 1 Emerging reader
  54. 54. Rating Scale  Qualitative scale  Uses verbal descriptions to indicate student performance.  Provides a way to check the whether each dimension was evidenced.  Type A: Indicate different gradations of the dimension  Type B: Checklist
  55. 55. Rating Scale  Example of Type A:  Minimal, partial, complete  Never, seldom, occasionally, frequently, always  Consistent, sporadically, rarely  None, some, complete  Novice, intermediate, advance, superior  Inadequate, needs improvement, good excellent  Excellent, proficient, needs improvement  Absent, developing, adequate, fully developed  Limited, partial, thorough  Emerging, developing, achieving  Not there yet, shows growth, proficient  Excellent, good, fair, poor
  56. 56. Rating Scale  Example of Type A: Checklist
  57. 57. Rating Scale  Holistic scale  The category of the scale contains several criteria, yielding a single score that gives an overall impression or rating Example level 4: Sophisticated understanding of text indicated with constructed meaning level 3: Solid understanding of text indicated with some constructed meaning level 2: Partial understanding of text indicated with tenuous constructed meaning level 1: superficial understanding of text with little or no constructed meaning
  58. 58. Example holistic scale
  59. 59. Analytic scale  Analytic Scale  One in which each criterion receives a separate score. Example Criteria Outstanding 5 4 Competent 3 Marginal 2 1 Creative ideas Logical organization Relevance of detail Variety in words and sentences Vivid images
  60. 60. Rubrics  When scoring criteria are combined with a rating scale, a complete scoring guideline is produced or rubric.  A scoring guide that uses criteria to differentiate between levels of student proficiency.
  61. 61. Example of a rubric
  62. 62.  Rubrics should answer the following questions:  By what criteria should performance be judged?  Where should we look and what should we look for to judge performance success?  What does the range in the performance quality look like?  How do we determine validity, reliability, and fairly what scores should be given and what that score means?  How should the different levels of quality be described and distinguished from one another? Rubric
  63. 63. Workshop  Work in groups by department and write the course requirements by indicating the assessment tasks that matches the objectives.  Ensure that the major requirement is aligned with the objective  Organize the presentation in a table:  Group presentation and feedback will follow. Course Objective AssessmentTask
  64. 64. Download  http://www.slideshare.net/crlmgn/assessing-learning- objectives