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# Multidimensional scaling1

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### Multidimensional scaling1

1. 1. Multidimensional Scaling<br />Advance Statistics<br />CPS510D<br />Dr. Carlo Magno<br />Counseling and Educational Psychology Department<br />De La Salle University-Manila<br />
2. 2. Multidimensional Scaling (MDS)<br /><ul><li>Measures of proximity between pairs of objects.
3. 3. Proximity measure – index over pairs of objects that quantifies the degree to which the two object are alike.
4. 4. Measure of similarity – correspond to stimulus pairs that are alike or close in proximity.
5. 5. Measure of dissimilarity – correspond to stimulus pairs that are least alike or far in proximity.</li></li></ul><li>MDS<br /><ul><li>Use:
6. 6. When our information is an assessment of the relative proximity or similarity between pairs of objects in the data set.
7. 7. Goal:
8. 8. Use information about relative proximity to create a map of appropriate dimensionality such that the distances in the map closely correspond to the proximities used to create it.
9. 9. Consideration:
10. 10. The coordinate locations of the objects are interval scaled variables that can be used in subsequent analysis.</li></li></ul><li>Approaches of MDS<br />Proximities between pairs of objects from the same set.<br />Metric MDS<br />Nonmetric MDS<br />Individual differences scaling<br /> Proximities between objects from disjoint sets<br />Unfolding model<br />
11. 11. Metric MDS<br />Proximity between pairs of objects reflect the actual physical distances.<br />Judgment of the respondents’ proximity using well calibrated instruments.<br />Level of measurement: ratio<br />Ex. Actual distances of one city to another.<br />
12. 12. Example of Proximities<br />
13. 13. Configuration of distances<br />
14. 14. Nonmetric MDS<br />Perceived similarity of different stimuli judged on a scale that is assumed ordinal in nature.<br />Level of measurement: interval, ratio<br />Steps:<br />1. Choose the number of dimensions<br />2. Plot the configurations<br />3. Calculate the distances<br />4. Achieve monotonic correspondence between actual distance and dissimilarities.<br />5. Reduce stress <br />
15. 15. People’s Judgment on the similarity of negative emotions<br />15 negative emotions were judged in the study<br />
16. 16. Configuration of the negative emotions<br />Step 2<br />
17. 17. Calculated distances of negative emotions<br />Step 3<br />Estimates are calculated Eucledian distances<br />
18. 18. Step 4<br />Achieving monotonic correspondence<br />
19. 19. Stress Estimates<br /><ul><li>STRESS
20. 20. Goodness of fit of the configuration
21. 21. The larger the difference between the actual distance (d)and the transformed distance ( ) in the monotone curve, the greater the stress, the poorer the fit.
22. 22. Raw stress = 13.94786;
23. 23. Alienation = .2470421
24. 24. D-hat: ( ) Raw stress = 8.131408;
25. 25. Stress = .1901042</li></ul>Step 4<br />
26. 26. Distances in final configurationTo reduce stress (adjustments)<br />Step 5<br />
27. 27. Adjusted STRESS<br />D-star: Raw stress = 14.50918; <br />Alienation = .2518842<br />D-hat: Raw stress = 7.887925; <br />Stress = .1872363<br />Step 4<br />
28. 28. How many dimensions?<br />
29. 29. Individual differences scaling model<br />The number (m) subjects each judge similarities or dissimilarities of all pairs of n objects leading to m matrices.<br />m x n x n<br />
30. 30. Father’s Involvement in their grade school and college child’s schooling<br />Father’s involvement for the grade school child<br />STRESS=.000<br />Father’s involvement for the college child<br />STRESS=.000<br />
31. 31. Mother’s Involvement in their grade school and college child’s schooling<br />Mother’s involvement for the grade school child<br />STRESS=.000<br />Mother’s involvement for the college child<br />STRESS=.000<br />
32. 32. Unfolding Model<br />To map the person with the object rated.<br />Determine the distance of the person with the object rated. <br />The closer the object rated with the person’s preference the more simmilar.<br />
33. 33. Distance estimates<br />
34. 34. Configuration<br />
35. 35. Shephard Plot<br />D-star: Raw stress = 0.000000; Alienation = 0.000000<br />D-hat: Raw stress = 0.000000; Stress = 0.000000<br />
36. 36. Proximity measures<br />Category rating technique-the subject is presented a stimulus pair. <br />The respondents task is to indicate how similar or dissimilar they think the two stimuli are by checking the appropriate category along along the rating scale.<br />
37. 37. Example<br />Judge how similar or dissimilar are the following universities:<br />