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Susanne Clausen

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Susanne Clausen

  1. 1. Exploiting Economies of Scale<br />The role of Agri-Cooperatives<br />27. juni 2011<br />1...|<br />
  2. 2. The Agenda<br />Development in farming over time<br />Economies of scale<br />Agri-cooperatives and their role in regard to exploiting economies of scale<br />
  3. 3. Development in farming over time<br />Seventies<br />Nineties<br />Tenths<br />Thirties<br />Fifties<br />Production<br />Optimization<br />Sustainability<br />Optimization<br />Sustainability<br />Optimization<br />Production<br />Mechanization<br />Information and communication technology<br />Precision farming<br />Many small farms<br />Few large farms<br />Labor intensive<br />Capital intensive<br />
  4. 4. The skills required for farming have changed over time<br />Seventies<br />Nineties<br />Tenths<br />Thirties<br />Fifties<br /><ul><li>Leadership
  5. 5. Management
  6. 6. Human resource management
  7. 7. Skilled craftsmanship
  8. 8. Physical work
  9. 9. Management
  10. 10. Skilled craftsmanship
  11. 11. Physical work
  12. 12. Skilled craftsmanship
  13. 13. Hard physical work</li></ul>A good business leader<br />A good manager<br />A skilled craftsman<br />
  14. 14. Structural development in Danish dairy farming<br />The same amount of milk as in 1984 is being produced by only 12% of the farms<br />
  15. 15. Economies of scale drive structural development in agriculture<br />Economies of scale exist as large farms can better exploit productivity gains related to technological developments<br />Long run average costs<br />Constant returns to scale<br />Diseconomies of scale<br />Economies of scale<br />Quantity produced<br />
  16. 16. Economies of scale in dairy farming in EuropeBased on information from typical farms<br />Source: IFCN Dairy report 2010<br />
  17. 17. The characteristics of cooperatives<br />They are owned by farmers<br />They are controlledby farmers<br />The benefits generated are accrued to the farmers based on their use<br />
  18. 18. The characteristics of cooperatives<br />Open membership: “naked in and naked out”<br />“Equal pay for products possessing same quality”<br />“One man one vote”<br />The mission of the cooperatives is to benefit farmers economically through<br />Lower input prices<br />Higher product prices<br />
  19. 19. Co-operatives enables farmers to own and thus control a large part of value chain<br /><ul><li>Market power
  20. 20. Creation of economies of scale</li></ul>Lower input prices and higher product prices<br />
  21. 21. Profits are being “recycled” in the chain<br />Profit<br /><ul><li>Product development and innovation
  22. 22. Sustaining the competitiveness of the co-operative
  23. 23. Through their product strategy the co-operatives can mitigate market price volatility </li></li></ul><li>Rights and obligations<br />Cooperatives<br />Farmers<br />
  24. 24. The existence of agri-cooperatives mitigate risk<br />
  25. 25. Danish farmers have specialized in only one production branch <br />
  26. 26. The farmers become more heterogeneous – the big farms deliver a larger share of the milk<br />
  27. 27. The role of co-operatives in exploiting economies of scale<br />Collection costs<br />The co-operatives should include production quantity in their price/cost setting<br />Quantity collected<br />
  28. 28. Co-operatives constantly need to adapt in order to be competitive and attractive to farmers<br />We are obliged to modernize the co-operatives. We have to respect and understand the big differences between our members<br />Ove Moeberg, former chairman of Ala Foods<br />Jyllands-Posten 2008<br />The current trends lead to discussions, we compete with globalized commercial corporations. If we are to survive, we have to be attractive to the very big producers<br />Jens Jørgen Henriksen, TICAN<br />Jyllands-Posten 2008<br />
  29. 29. Integration and coordination provide competitive advantage<br />Low transaction costs<br />Facilitating integration and coordinated actions<br />
  30. 30. In conclusion<br />Economies of scale:<br />Exist so larger farms can better exploit productivity gains related to technology<br />Demands access to capital: Owned or borrowed<br />Co-operatives<br />Have facilitated farmers’ access to capital by mitigating risk<br />Associated with the producers’ sale of raw products<br />Through product development and composition<br />Have not only facilitated economies of scale, but also enabled specialization <br />Can facilitate economies of scale at producer level by including production volume when shaping pricing models<br />Provide competitive advantage <br />Through close coordination and integration in the value chain<br />Recycling of capital makes room for long-term investment thus sustaining competitiveness<br />27. juni 2011<br />19...|<br />

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