The information content of this slide was taken from the book of Bilbao, Purita,. et.al, (2008) Curriculum Development,. LORIMAR Publishing Company. And I am very thankful to have further knowledge because of her book.
2. The planned and guided learning experiences
and intended learning outcomes, formulated
through the systematic reconstruction of
knowledge and experiences, under the auspices of
the school, for the learners’ continuous and
willful growth in the personal social competence.
( Daniel Tanner, 1980)
4. This model focuses on the content of
The subject centered design
corresponds mostly to the textbook
written for the specific subject.
5. EXAMPLES OF THE SUBJECT-CENTERED DESIGN
→ is the oldest and the most familiar design for
teacher, parents and other laymen.
→ refers to the specific knowledge learned
through a method which the scholars use to
study a specific content of their fields.
6. EXAMPLES OF THE SUBJECT-CENTERED DESIGN
→ this comes from the core, correlated
curriculum design that links separate subject
designs in order to reduce fragmentation.
7. EXAMPLES OF THE SUBJECT-CENTERED DESIGN
Broad field design/interdisciplinary
→ this design was made to prevent the
compartmentalization of subjects and
integrate the contents that are related to
8. centered on certain aspects of the
the learner is the center of the educative
9. EXAMPLES OF THE LEARNER-CENTERED DESIGN
( John Dewey, Rouseau, Pestallozi, and Froebel)
› the curriculum design is anchored on the needs
and interests of the child.
› the learner is not considered as a passive
individual but as one who engages with his/her
10. EXAMPLES OF THE LEARNER-CENTERED DESIGN
› experiences of the learners become the
starting point of the curriculum, thus the
school environment is left open and free.
11. Humanistic design
( Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers)
› the development of self is the ultimate
objective of learning.
› it stresses the whole person and integration
of thinking, feeling and doing.
EXAMPLES OF THE LEARNER-CENTERED DESIGN
12. draws on social problem, needs, interests
and abilities of the learners.
content cuts across the subject boundaries
and must be based on the needs, concerns
and abilities of the students .
13. Life-situation design
› it uses the past and present experiences of the of
learners as a means to analyze the basic areas of
› the pressing immediate problem of the society
and the students’ existing concerns are utilized.
EXAMPLES OF THE PROBLEM-CENTERED DESIGN
14. Core design
› it centers on the general education and the
problem are based on the common human
› the central focus of the core design includes
common needs, problems, concerned of the
EXAMPLES OF THE PROBLEM-CENTERED DESIGN
15. DIMENSIONS AND PRINCIPLES OF
› this lesson will allow us to consider some
of the dimensions and provide some
principles in its use in curriculum
16. ● Scope
› defines as all the
content, topics, learning experiences
and organizing threads comprising
the educational plan.
› provides boundaries in curriculum as it
applies to the different educational levels.
› it should include time, diversity and
maturity of the learners, complexity of
content, and level of education.
18. ● Sequence
› contents and experiences are arranged
in hierarchical manner, where the basis
can either be logic of the subject or on
the developmental patterns of growth of
the cognitive, affective and psychomotor
20. Simple to Complex learning
› content and experiences are organized
from simple to complex, from concrete to
abstract, form easy to difficult.
› it means that there are fundamental things
to be learned ahead.
21. Whole to part learning
› the meaning can very well be understood if
everything will be taken as a whole.
› the order of events is made as a basis of
sequencing the content and the experiences. This
can be arranged from the most recent to the
distant past or vice versa.
23. a. Space
- spatial relation will be the basis for the
- the content is based from the earliest to the
c. Physical attributes
- this principles refers to the physical
characteristics of the phenomena.
24. a. Class relation
- refers to the group or set of things that share
common practices. Teaching the characteristics
of the class ahead of the member of the class.
b. Proportional relations
- a statement that asserts something. Sequence
are arranged so that the evidence presented
ahead before proposition.
25. - this is based on the scientific method of
inquiry. Based on the process of
generating, discovering and verifying
knowledge, content and experiences are
sequence logically and methodically.
26. a. Empirical prerequisites
- sequence is primarily based on empirical
study where the prerequisite is required before
learning the next level.
- prior learning is important in sequence. What
is familiar should be taking up first before the
27. c. Difficulty
- easy content is taken ahead than the
- contents and experiences that stimulate
interest are those that are novel. These can
arouse curiosity and interest of learners.
28. ● Continuity
- this process enables learners strengthen the
permanency of learning and development of
skills. Gerome Bruner called this “ spiral
curriculum” where the content is organized
according to the interrelationship between the
structure of the basis ideas of a major
29. ● Integration
“ Everything is integrated and
interconnected. Life is a series of
- organization is drawn from the
world themes from real life concerns.
30. ● Articulation
● Vertical Articulation
- the contents are arranged from level to level or
grade to grade so that the content in the lower level is
connected to the next level.
● Horizontal Articulation
- happens when the association is among or
between elements that happen at the same time.
31. ● Balance
- equitable assignment of content,
time, experiences and other elements
to establish balance is needed in
32. APPROACHES TO THE CURRICULUM
› this lesson will bring the various phases of
designing a curriculum.
› identify the commonly used approaches in the
design of curriculum.
› enhance and integrate the experiences and
observations based on the features and
characteristics of the different approaches.
34. 1. Who teaches?
-- the Teacher
→ Good teachers bring a shining light
into the learning environment, and are
needed to sort out the knowledge from
the information but more
important, excellent teachers are
needed to sort the wisdom from the
35. 2. Who do the teachers teach?
-- the Learners
→ the learners are at the center stage in
the educative process. They are the most
factors in the learning environment.
There is no teaching without them.
→ they come from different sectors of the
36. 3. What do the teachers teach?
-- knowledge, skills, values
“to help the learners cope with the rapid
changes to understand and to succeed in the new
work in the work place, we must design a
curriculum oriented to tomorrow.”
37. 4. How do teachers teach?
-- Strategies and Methods
Teachers should select teaching
methods, learning activities and
instructional materials or resources
appropriate to learners and aligned to the
objective of the lesson. Situations should
be creative to encourage learners to use
higher order thinking skills.
38. 5. How much of the teaching was
These learning outcomes indicate the
performance of both teachers and the learners.
Learning outcomes are the product performance
of the learners as the result of teaching.
Performance is the feature of a curriculum that
should be given emphasis.
39. 6. With whom do we teach?
-- Community Partners
“ Teaching is a collaborative undertaking”
Partnership is the means not an end to be
pursued in itself. Society changes, teachers will
have a new beginning, an opportunity to recast
their role in their communities, to change their
attitude to their community, to change the
attitude of their communities and societies about