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Constructive visualization

Samuel Huron
Samuel Huron
Samuel HuronPh.D. student@ INRIA & Lead Designer @ IRI à INRIA

To freely download the paper you can follow this URL: ***http://goo.gl/rfb9gW ***. Presentation done the 24 june 2014 for the ACM conference on Designing Interactive Systems in 2014.

Constructive visualization

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Constructive Visualization
Samuel Huron, Sheelagh Carpendale, Alice Thudt, Anthony Tang,
and Michael Mauerer
Honorable Mention Award
http://goo.gl/rfb9gW
How to democratize
visualization authoring?
Constructive visualization
Simple ExpressiveDynamic
Using
Simple ExpressiveDynamic
Drawing
Simple ExpressiveDynamic
Coding
Publicité

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Constructive visualization

Notes de l'éditeur

  1. And the last one is coding. Here you can enter abstract symbols, and then compile and run your code. This shows the visual (click) result. This is not simple (click), but it can handle dynamic data (click), and it is super expressive (click).
  2. We can summarize these three approaches to get an overview: Using Drawing Coding We saw that : - Using is simple (#), handles dynamic data (#), and is not really expressive (#) Drawing is simple (#) and expressive (#), but does not handle dynamic data (#), Last we saw that coding is not simple (#), but allows data dynamics (#), and is really expressive (#). All these approaches have been well studied. Grammel et al. recently surveyed the different ways to create information visualization. And if we classify all these papers among these three approaches we got the following distribution. Here we proposed a new paradigm which is, simple, dynamic, and expressive, and this paradigm was not previously study.
  3. So let’s define our design challenges to democratize Information visualization : Keeping it simple. (wait) If the actions one needs to take,,, are similar to the actions one has been comfortable with since Kindergarten, ,,, they are both simple and accessible. (stop) A good example of this is sketching,,,,, for which one of the best advantages is,,, that we all can do it. Enabling expressivity. (wait) We are looking for a creation process that provides sufficient freedom to support the ability to express one’s own ideas. (Stop) Our ideal is to support the expressivity of sketching,,, the flexibility of digital tools,,, by incorporating the concept of plasticity, or the ability to re-model during the creation process. Incorporating dynamics. One of the biggest challenges in making visualization creation more generally accessible is,,, that,, thus,,, far,, only,, through,, code can a visualization support adaptability to data dynamics. By this we mean that the visualization can change in response to a change in the data steam. However Coding remains, and is likely to remain, a skill of comparatively few.
  4. Papert founded a research group at MIT Media Lab the “Lifelong Kindergarten Group” One of the major works this group is known for is the programming environment Scratch. Scratch follows the Froebel inspiration by transforming the building block idea into a visual representation of the “command block”. This approach was so successful, that Scratch logic is NOW integrated in the programming interface of commercial products such as Lego Mindstorm.
  5. From Froebel, Piaget and Papert we learn: That understanding of abstract and mathematical concepts can be developed through the manipulation of simple elements such as wooden blocks. We also learn that this approach has continued to prove accessible and effective as it has spread across the world, and is still in use today. THIS MEET OU FIRST DESIGN CHALLENGE SIMPLICITY That this approach is highly creative and generative THIS MEET OUR second DC expressivity; That this approach also allows people to modify and understand their constructions over time THIS MEET OUR third DC Dynamics
  6. Now let’s study the component and processes of constructive visualization
  7. The first component is a token, maps to a unit. (wait) For instance let’s take this pink square on the screen as a token maps to one.
  8. The second element to define is the token grammar and vocabulary. The token grammar is the relation between different tokens properties and different data properties. (pause) Let’s say I want to self monitor my consumption of apple versus soda. So the pink square will stand for one soda, and the blue one for one apple.
  9. To organize this tokens, we need to have a environment, in this example let’s use the 2d environment of this screen. (pause) The environment is the space that provides constraints on how tokens can be assembled together using the token grammar. The properties of this space could include many different types of constraints such as gravity, 2D, 3D, space limitations, grids or others.
  10. The last component is the assembly model. The assembly model is the rules of the construction process. These rules are defined by creating the visualization. (Wait) Let’s continue our soda versus apple consumption tracking example. In this case I can place a blue token in the environment, because I just eat an apple (#). The same day I drink a soda so I add a pink token on top of the previous one. By this way I define an axis which correspond to the number of element monitored IN DAY ONE. The day after I drink two sodas and eat a one apple (click 3 time) (wait) But how did I do that : basically I DECIDED to make a new column (click) next to the first one. This defined a other axis, the time.(wait) Etcetera for the day 3 and 4. (wait) In this example we saw how one could define a simple assembly model.
  11. To provide a constructive information visualization environment the process is based on four steps: - P1: Environment initialization. - P2: Mapping data to “tokens”, and data properties to token properties. - P3: Assembling the tokens. - P4: Evolution over time. (click 5 x)
  12. Now I will present you 2 of the 4 example we have in the paper. One his historic, and the other is more contemporary.
  13. Otto Neurath wanted to democratize statistics of socio economics datasets. And for that he produce a specific type of visualization called Isotype. Let see how he produces it ?
  14. First Gerd Arntz, the Otto Neurath graphic designer, draws pictograms to represent a specific semantic type of data. This pictograms will be use as a token, and the symbol of the pictogram define its meaning.
  15. To duplicate quickly the pictograms they used a mold, with that they could produce as many pictograms as they wanted.
  16. Then pictograms are clipped to be individual discreet manipulative elements.
  17. And after that the pictograms are assembled on top of a white canvas. Here you can see Marie Neurath the wife of Otto Neurath positioning each pictogram into a certain assembly model. You could also notice in this picture the frame which play the role of a bi dimensional environment of assembly. During this phase the assembly could be updated and changed as needed.
  18. Later when they are satisfy by the result they take a picture of it as you can see here on the right. And on the left, you can see a poster resulting from this process.
  19. Let’s analyze the different components of this visual representation.
  20. Michael Hunger is a computer engineer, he works on a lot of different projects and he have trouble to manage his time.
  21. One PM Michael, he already spent a 30 minute on dev, he add the orange brick corresponding to the orange project.
  22. 2 PM , he still working on the orange project
  23. 3 pm
  24. 4 pm, he have a other one hour meeting, he add a white brick before leaving his desk.
  25. 4h30 as always meeting was longer than expected ! Hopefully he found a way to escape it before the end. Still he add a 2 pin brick.
  26. 5 PM , he replied and checked his mail before coming back home, and add a blue two pin brick.
  27. It’s how Michael track his time for monday
  28. And so on for Tuesday
  29. Wednesday
  30. Thursday
  31. Friday
  32. Here the real version of Michael time management tool. You can get more information on his blog.
  33. We have presented constructive visualization(click), a paradigm which can help realize the democratization of visualization. We presented our historical and theorical inspirations, We also unpack the component and process of constructive visualization Last we study two real life example as well as their constructive components.
  34. Most visualization creation paradigms focus first on creating a data representation and then developing interaction to suit data needs and tasks. The basic approach for constructive visualization is different. The focus is on creating an interactive environment where people can assemble, from modular data-linked units, visualizations that directly fit their needs. This paradigm reveals new perspectives on the visualization design process: (1) A new set of studies (2) A a new set of guideline to design of constructive visualization environment are need. (3) And last new tools could be create