1. As the semester ends, I learn a lot in computer subjectfrom the day we started until in our final
examination.It is more interesting that I never thought itwould be. Our Prelims areall about Decimal Numbers,
Digital Number Systems and Computer Basics.In digital number systems, I learned that this number systems are
we use in our day-to-day life.It has base10 as ituses 10 digits from0 to 9 and the successivepositionsto the left
of the decimal pointrepresents ones, tens, hundreds, thousands and so on. I also learned how to expand the
decimal number system. Example of this are: 2718,
8 = ones, 1 = tens, 7= hundreds and 2 = thousands.
= (2x1000) + (7x100) + (1x10) + (8xl)
= 2000 + 700 + 10 + 8
This is how simpleto do the expansion for decimal number system. It is also haveDigital Number System
wherein this number systems which are frequently used in computers. It includes Binary system, Octal System and
Hexadecimal System. In Binary System, also called base2 number system because ituses two digits,0 and 1. First
position in a binary number represents a 0 power of the base(2). Example 20
whilein lastposition in a binary
number represents a x power of the base (2).Example 2 𝑥
. To convert the binary number to decimal number is here
) + (0x25
) + (0x23
) + (1x22
) + (0x21
) + (1x20
= ( 1x 64 ) + (0 x 32 ) + ( 1x 16 ) + ( 0x 8) + ( 1x 4 ) + ( 0x 2 ) + (1𝑥1) 10
= 64 + 0 + 16 + 0 + 4 + 0 + 1
= 85 10
In Octal Number, also called base8 number system becauseit uses eight digits,0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7. First
position in a octal number represents a 0 power of the base (8).Example 80
whilein lastposition in a octal number
represents a x power of the base (8) Example 8 𝑥
. To convert the octal number to decimal number is here the
2727 8 = (2x83
) + (7x82
) + (2x81
) + (7x80
= (2x512 ) + (7x64 ) + (2x8 ) + (7x1 ) 10
= 1024 + 448 + 16 + 7
In Hexadecimal Number, also called base16 number system because it uses 10 digits and 6 letters,
0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F wherein letters represents numbers startingfrom 10.A = 10. B = 11, C
= 12, D = 13, E = 14, F = 15.. Firstposition in a hexadecimal number represents a 0 power of the base(16).Example
whilein lastposition in a hexadecimal number represents a x power of the base(16) Example 16 𝑥
. To convert
the hexadecimal number to decimal number is here the example:
19𝐹𝐷𝐸 16 = (1 x 164
) + (9 x 163
) + (F x 162
) + (D x 161
) + (E x 160
= (1 x 164
) + (9 x 163
) + (15 x 162
) + (13 x 161
) + (14 x 160
= (65536 + 36864 + 3840 + 208 + 14) 10
As I solvethose problems,they are all the same of process on how to convert it to Decimal Number but
the only different is the number what I multiply likefor example in Binary , I multiply itby 2 likewisein Octal I
multiply itby 8 and in Hexadecimal is by 16. This is simpleconversion of Binary,Octal and Hexadecimal to Decimal
2. In Computer Basics,this was notnew to me becauseit was already discussed this lessonswhen I was
elementary and even in High School.I is all aboutComputer systems. There are three systems those are Hardware,
Peripheral Devices and Software. Hardware is anythingyou can “touch” on the computer. Under of Hardware,
there are two devices, the Input Devices and Output Devices the difference of two is the Input Device is a
peripheral deviceused to gather and translateinputinto form that the computer can process:Example of this are
Mouse and Keyboard while in Output Devices is a peripheral devicethat displays,prints,or transmits theresultof
processing fromthe computer memory: Example of this areMonitor and Printer. In Software is the oppositeof the
hardware, this is anythingyou cannot touch on the computer. Under of software is the OperatingSystem that r uns
the computer Example of this are: Windows 98, Windows XP , Windows 7 , Linux, Mac OS and the other one is
Application Softwarethat Runs programs or applications:Exampleof this are, Ms Word, Ms Excel ,Photoshop. A
computers have four functions those are Input, Processing,Storage ,Output. Input wherein whatever is put into a
computer system. Input can be: Words , Symbols, Numbers for calculations, Pictures and sounds.Processingisthe
systematic series of actions a computer uses to manipulatethe data. Computers process data in a device called the
Central Processing Unit(CPU). Data processingincludes:Performingcalculations,Modifyingdocuments.Storage a
computer must store data so that it is availableprocessing.Memory is an area that holds data waitingto be
processed.Storage is the area where data can be left on a permanent basis whileitis notneeded for processing.
Lastly,Output is the results produced by the computer. Examples include:Reports ,Documents, Music,Graphics
and Pictures.We also learned how to make a simpleflow chartjustlikethis.
FINDING THE AREA OF SQUARE
= Connector Symbol represents
the exit to, or entry from, another
part of the same flowchart.
= Input/Output Symbol represents data
that is availablefor inputor resulting
= Decision Symbol is a junction
where a decision mustbe made.
= Off-page Connector Symbols are used to
on another page. YES
Side = 5cm
The area is 25cm2 END
3. Now in our Midterm, its all aboutHTML and some uses of DATABASE. HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup
Language. It is a languagefor describingweb pages. HTML documents are also called web pages. HTML markup
tags are usually called HTML tags. HTML tags arekeywords (tag names) surrounded by angle brackets like
<html>HTML tags normally come in pairs like<b> and </b>.The firsttagin a pair is thestarttag, the second tag is
the end tag. The end tag is written likethe start tag, with a forward slash beforethe tag name. Start and end tags
are also called openingtags and closingtags <tag>content</tag>.
HTML Page Structure
Here are the steps I learned on how to create my first web pages.
Step 1: Start Notepad
Step 2: Edit Your HTML with Notepad
Step 3: Save Your HTML
Select Save as.. in Notepad's filemenu. Save the filewith extension .htm or .html
Step 4: Run the HTML in Your Browser
Start your web browser and open your html filefrom the File, Open menu, or justbrowse the
folder and double-click your HTML file.
The <title> element:
defines a title in the browser toolbar
provides a title for the page when it is added to favorites
displaysa titlefor the page in search-engine results
Example: <title>This is title</title>
4. HTML links aredefined with the <a> tag. The HTML <a> tag defines a hyperlink.
A hyperlink (or link) is a word, group of words,or image that you can click on to jump to another
When you move the cursor over a link in a Web page, the arrowwill turn into a littlehand.
The most importantattribute of the <a> element is the href attribute, which indicates the link’s
The link address is specified in thehref attribute:
Example: <a href="http://www.netultimateschool.com">This is a link</a>
Headings are importantin HTML documents.
Headings are defined with the <h1> to <h6> tags.
<h1> defines the most important heading. <h6> defines the leastimportantheading.
<h1>This is a heading</h1>
<h2>This is a heading</h2>
<h3>This is a heading</h3>
HTML documents aredivided into paragraphs.
Paragraphs aredefined with the <p> tag.
<p>Welcome to NetUltimate School</p>
Here are some HTML tags.
<b> Defines bold text
<em> Defines emphasized text
<i> Defines a part of text in an alternate voiceor mood
<small> Defines smaller text
<strong> Defines important text
<sub> Defines subscripted text
<sup> Defines superscripted text
<ins> Defines inserted text
<del> Defines deleted text
An unordered liststarts with the <ul> tag.
The Output will look like
An ordered liststarts with the <ol> tag.
The Output will look like
• Put a pictureon my page
• <img src=“Name of your picture.extension” />
– Example: <img src=“me.jpg” width=“25%”/>
• The picture MUST be in the same folder as the web page.
5. TO MAKE THE TABLE in my page here are steps:
Start with the table tag. The tabletag looks likethe image below. Then usethe border attribute.
For now set itto 1.
Next is the table row tag. As you probably guessed it,it is used to make table rows. The tag looks
The next step is to use the td tag. TD stands for table data.You use this tag to put in the
information that you want to put in the table.
Once I have done that you can add more data or add another row. So far your html should look
Now I need to have a better way to style my HTML so I used CSS. Here aresome example.
<img src=“ab.jpg"alt=“abimage" width="304“ height="228">
6. Next is aboutthe DATABASE . Databasemanagement system (DBMS) is a collection of interrelated data and a
set of programs to access thosedata. , Set of programs to access the data , DBMS contains information about
a particular enterprise,DBMS provides an environment that is both convenient and efficient to use.
Levels of Abstraction
Physical level describes how a record (e.g., customer) is stored.
Logical level: describes data stored in database,and the relationshipsamongthe data.
type customer = record
name : string;
street : string;
city : integer;
View level: application programs hidedetailsof data types. Views can also hideinformation (e.g., salary)
for security purposes.
Instances and Schemas
Similar to types and variables in programminglanguages
Schema – the logical structureof the database
e.g., the databaseconsists of information abouta set of customers and accounts and the relationship
Analogous to type information of a variablein a program
Physical schema: databasedesign at the physical level
Logical schema: databasedesign atthe logical level
Instance – the actual content of the databaseata particularpointin time
Analogous to the value of a variable
Physical Data Independence – the ability to modify the physical schema withoutchangingthe logical
Applications depend on the logical schema
In general, the interfaces between the various levels and components should be well defined so that
changes in some parts do not seriously influenceothers.
Data Definition Language (DDL) = Specification notation for definingthe database schema.
Data Manipulation Language (DML) = Language for accessingand manipulatingthedata organized by the
appropriatedata model. DML also known as query language
Our Finals is all about SQL
SQL: widely used non-procedural language
E.g. find the name of the customer with customer-id 192-83-7465
where customer.customer-id = ‘192-83-7465’
E.g. find the balances of all accounts held by the customer with customer-id 192-83-7465
from depositor, account
where depositor.customer-id = ‘192-83-7465’and
depositor.account-number = account.account-number
7. UNIVERSAL COLLEGE OF PARAÑAQUE
Fundamentals of Programming $
Database Theory $ Applications
Czarina Mae R. Patalod
Ms. Ivy Razonales