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Post-2015Dr Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono Ellen Johnson Sirleaf David CameronLetter from the Co-Chairs of the High-Level Panel of EminentPersons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda30 May 2013Secretary-General,In July 2012 you tasked us with jointly chairing a twenty-seven person panel to make recommendationsto you on the development agenda beyond 2015. We hope that you will find our resultant report bothbold and practical. We have consulted extensively, in every region and across many sectors, includinglistening to the voices and priorities of people living in poverty themselves. We are very grateful for thevaluable support provided to us by the Panel’s secretariat led by Dr Homi Kharas and have benefitedgreatly from the regional, national and thematic consultations organised by the UN System and memberstates.Our panel conducted its work in a very positive spirit of cooperation. Through passionate and vigorousdebate we have learnt much from each other. We transmit our recommendations to you with a feeling ofgreat optimism that a transformation to end poverty through sustainable development is possible withinour generation. We outline five transformational shifts, applicable to both developed and developingcountries alike, including a new Global Partnership as the basis for a single, universal post-2015 agendathat will deliver this vision for the sake of humanity.Our report provides an example of how new goals and measurable targets could be framed in thewake of these transformative shifts. This list is illustrative rather than prescriptive. While views naturallydiffered within the panel on the exact wording of particular illustrative goals or targets we agreed that ourreport would be found wanting without a collective attempt to demonstrate how a simple clear agendabuilding on the MDGs and the Rio+20 process might be elaborated. We hope it will stimulate debateover the prioritisation that will be needed if the international community is to agree a new developmentframework before the expiry of the Millennium Development Goals.Yours sincerely,
Post-2015AcknowledgementsThe members of the Secretary-General’s High-Level Panel Of Eminent Persons On ThePost-2015 Development Agenda wish to extend their deepest appreciation to thegovernments, organisations, institutions, United Nations entities and individuals whoprovided valuable perspectives, ideas and support throughout the course of the Panel’swork.The Panel extends its sincere gratitude for financial and in-kind contributions receivedfrom the governments of Colombia, Denmark, Germany, Indonesia, Japan, Liberia,Mexico, the Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom, the United States of America,and from the Ford Foundation, Havas, and the Hewlett Foundation.The deliberations of the Panel were informed by the broad consultative processconducted by the United Nations, as directed by the Secretary-General in our termsof reference. This includes national and global thematic consultations under the aegisof the United Nations Development Group (UNDG), regional consultations undertakenby the Regional Commissions, consultations with businesses around the world underthe guidance of the UN Global Compact, and the views of the scientific and academiccommunity as conveyed through the Sustainable Development Solutions Network. Weare grateful for the perspective these extensive consultations provided.The Panel also wishes to thank people from more than 5000 civil society organisationsand 250 chief executive officers of major corporations who shared their valuable ideasand views during a series of consultations, both in person and online.We are grateful to all those who submitted policy briefs, research and inputs to theprocess, the full list of which appears at www.post2015hlp.org.Panel members wish to express their sincere appreciation for the dedication andintellectual rigour of the Panel secretariat (listed in AnnexVI), led by Dr. Homi Kharas, andto the institutions which have released them to undertake the work of supporting thePanel. They extend their appreciation to their advisers for their support and dedicationthroughout the report’s development.All of these contributions and support are gratefully acknowledged and warmlyappreciated.
Post-2015“Our vision and our responsibility are to end extreme poverty in all its forms in the contextof sustainable development and to have in place the building blocks of sustained prosperityfor all.” 1ThePanelcametogetherwithasenseofoptimismandadeeprespectfortheMillenniumDevelopment Goals (MDGs). The 13 years since the millennium have seen the fastestreduction in poverty in human history: there are half a billion fewer people living belowan international poverty line of $1.25 a day. Child death rates have fallen by more than30%, with about three million children’s lives saved each year compared to 2000. Deathsfrom malaria have fallen by one quarter. This unprecedented progress has been drivenby a combination of economic growth, better policies, and the global commitment tothe MDGs, which set out an inspirational rallying cry for the whole world.Given this remarkable success, it would be a mistake to simply tear up the MDGs andstart from scratch. As world leaders agreed at Rio in 2012, new goals and targets needto be grounded in respect for universal human rights, and finish the job that the MDGsstarted. Central to this is eradicating extreme poverty from the face of the earth by2030. This is something that leaders have promised time and again throughout history.Today, it can actually be done.So a new development agenda should carry forward the spirit of the MillenniumDeclaration and the best of the MDGs, with a practical focus on things like poverty,hunger, water, sanitation, education and healthcare. But to fulfil our vision of promotingsustainable development, we must go beyond the MDGs.They did not focus enough onreachingtheverypoorestandmostexcludedpeople.Theyweresilentonthedevastatingeffects of conflict and violence on development. The importance to development ofgood governance and institutions that guarantee the rule of law, free speech and openand accountable government was not included, nor the need for inclusive growth toprovide jobs. Most seriously, the MDGs fell short by not integrating the economic, social,and environmental aspects of sustainable development as envisaged in the MillenniumDeclaration, and by not addressing the need to promote sustainable patterns ofconsumption and production. The result was that environment and development werenever properly brought together. People were working hard – but often separately – oninterlinked problems.So the Panel asked some simple questions: starting with the current MDGs, what to keep,what to amend, and what to add. In trying to answer these questions, we listened to theviews of women and men, young people, parliamentarians, civil society organisations,indigenous people and local communities, migrants, experts, business, trade unionsand governments. Most important, we listened directly to the voices of hundreds ofthousands of people from all over the world, in face-to-face meetings as well as throughsurveys, community interviews, and polling over mobile phones and the internet.We considered the massive changes in the world since the year 2000 and the changesthat are likely to unfold by 2030. There are a billion more people today, with worldpopulation at seven billion, and another billion expected by 2030. More than half ofus now live in cities. Private investment in developing countries now dwarfs aid flows.The number of mobile phone subscriptions has risen from fewer than one billion tomore than six billion. Thanks to the internet, seeking business or information on theother side of the world is now routine for many. Yet inequality remains and opportunityis not open to all. The 1.2 billion poorest people account for only 1 per cent of worldconsumption while the billion richest consume 72 per cent.Above all, there is one trend – climate change – which will determine whether or notwe can deliver on our ambitions. Scientific evidence of the direct threat from climatechange has mounted. The stresses of unsustainable production and consumptionExecutive Summary
patterns have become clear, in areas like deforestation,water scarcity, food waste, and high carbon emissions.Losses from natural disasters–including drought, floods,and storms – have increased at an alarming rate. Peopleliving in poverty will suffer first and worst from climatechange. The cost of taking action now will be much lessthan the cost of dealing with the consequences later.Thinking about and debating these trends and issuestogether, the Panellists have been on a journey.At our first meeting in New York, the Secretary Generalcharged us with producing a bold yet practical vision fordevelopment beyond 2015.In London, we discussed household poverty: the dailyreality of life on the margins of survival. We consideredthe many dimensions of poverty, including health,education and livelihoods, as well as the demandsfor more justice, better accountability, and an end toviolence against women. We also heard inspiring storiesof how individuals and communities have worked theirway to prosperity.In Monrovia, we talked about economic transformationand the building blocks needed for growth that deliverssocial inclusion and respects the environment: how toharness the ingenuity and dynamism of business forsustainable development. And we saw with our owneyes the extraordinary progress that can be made whena country once ravaged by conflict is able to build peaceand security.In Bali, we agreed on the central importance of a newspirit to guide a global partnership for a people-centredand planet-sensitive agenda, based on the principle ofour common humanity. We agreed to push developedcountriestofulfiltheirsideofthebargain–byhonouringtheir aid commitments, but also reforming their trade,tax and transparency policies, by paying more attentionto better regulating global financial and commoditymarkets and by leading the way towards sustainabledevelopment. We agreed that developing countrieshave done much to finance their own development, andwill be able to do more as incomes rise. We also agreedon the need to manage the world’s consumption andproduction patterns in more sustainable and equitableways. Above all, we agreed that a new vision must beuniversal: offering hope – but also responsibilities – toeveryone in the world.These meetings and consultations left us energised,inspired and convinced of the need for a newparadigm. In our view, business-as-usual is not anoption. We concluded that the post-2015 agenda is auniversal agenda. It needs to be driven by five big,transformative shifts:1. Leave no one behind. We must keep faith with theoriginal promise of the MDGs, and now finish the job.After 2015 we should move from reducing to endingextreme poverty, in all its forms. We should ensure thatno person – regardless of ethnicity, gender, geography,disability, race or other status – is denied universalhuman rights and basic economic opportunities. Weshould design goals that focus on reaching excludedgroups, for example by making sure we track progress atall levels of income, and by providing social protectionto help people build resilience to life’s uncertainties.We can be the first generation in human history to endhunger and ensure that every person achieves a basicstandard of wellbeing. There can be no excuses. This is auniversal agenda, for which everyone must accept theirproper share of responsibility.2. Put sustainable development at the core. Fortwenty years, the international community has aspiredto integrate the social, economic, and environmentaldimensions of sustainability, but no country has yetachieved this. We must act now to halt the alarmingpace of climate change and environmental degradation,which pose unprecedented threats to humanity.We must bring about more social inclusion. This isa universal challenge, for every country and everyperson on earth. This will require structural change,with new solutions, and will offer new opportunities.Developed countries have a special role to play,fostering new technologies and making the fastestprogress in reducing unsustainable consumption. Manyof the world’s largest companies are already leadingthis transformation to a green economy in the contextof sustainable development and poverty eradication.Only by mobilising social, economic and environmentalaction together can we eradicate poverty irreversiblyand meet the aspirations of eight billion people in 2030.3. Transform economies for jobs and inclusivegrowth. We call for a quantum leap forward in economicopportunities and a profound economic transformationto end extreme poverty and improve livelihoods.This means a rapid shift to sustainable patterns ofconsumption and production--harnessing innovation,technology, and the potential of private business tocreate more value and drive sustainable and inclusivegrowth. Diversified economies, with equal opportunitiesfor all, can unleash the dynamism that creates jobs andlivelihoods, especially for young people and women.This is a challenge for every country on earth: to ensuregood job possibilities while moving to the sustainablepatterns of work and life that will be necessary in aworld of limited natural resources. We should ensurethat everyone has what they need to grow and prosper,including access to quality education and skills,healthcare, clean water, electricity, telecommunicationsand transport. We should make it easier for people toExecutive Summary
Post-2015invest, start-up a business and to trade. And we can domore to take advantage of rapid urbanisation: cities arethe world’s engines for business and innovation. Withgood management they can provide jobs, hope andgrowth, while building sustainability.4. Build peace and effective, open and accountableinstitutions for all. Freedom from fear, conflict andviolence is the most fundamental human right, andthe essential foundation for building peaceful andprosperous societies. At the same time, people theworld over expect their governments to be honest,accountable, and responsive to their needs. We arecalling for a fundamental shift – to recognise peaceand good governance as core elements of wellbeing,not optional extras. This is a universal agenda, for allcountries. Responsive and legitimate institutions shouldencourage the rule of law, property rights, freedom ofspeech and the media, open political choice, accessto justice, and accountable government and publicinstitutions. We need a transparency revolution, socitizens can see exactly where and how taxes, aid andrevenues from extractive industries are spent. These areends as well as means.5. Forge a new global partnership. Perhaps the mostimportant transformative shift is towards a new spiritof solidarity, cooperation, and mutual accountabilitythat must underpin the post-2015 agenda. Anew partnership should be based on a commonunderstanding of our shared humanity, underpinningmutual respect and mutual benefit in a shrinkingworld. This partnership should involve governmentsbut also include others: people living in poverty, thosewith disabilities, women, civil society and indigenousand local communities, traditionally marginalisedgroups, multilateral institutions, local and nationalgovernment, the business community, academia andprivate philanthropy. Each priority area identified in thepost-2015 agenda should be supported by dynamicpartnerships. It is time for the international communityto use new ways of working, to go beyond an aidagenda and put its own house in order: to implementa swift reduction in corruption, illicit financial flows,money-laundering, tax evasion, and hidden ownershipof assets. We must fight climate change, championfree and fair trade, technology innovation, transfer anddiffusion, and promote financial stability. And since thispartnership is built on principles of common humanityand mutual respect, it must also have a new spirit andbe completely transparent. Everyone involved must befully accountable.From vision to action. We believe that these fivechanges are the right, smart, and necessary thing to do.But their impact will depend on how they are translatedinto specific priorities and actions. We realised thatthe vision would be incomplete unless we offered aset of illustrative goals and targets to show how thesetransformative changes could be expressed in preciseand measurable terms. This illustrative framework is setout in Annex I, with more detailed explanation in AnnexII. We hope these examples will help focus attention andstimulate debate.The suggested targets are bold, yet practical. Likethe MDGs, they would not be binding, but should bemonitored closely.The indicators that track them shouldbe disaggregated to ensure no one is left behind andtargets should only be considered ‘achieved’ if theyare met for all relevant income and social groups. Werecommend that any new goals should be accompaniedby an independent and rigorous monitoring system,with regular opportunities to report on progress andshortcomings at a high political level. We also call fora data revolution for sustainable development, witha new international initiative to improve the qualityof statistics and information available to citizens. Weshould actively take advantage of new technology,crowd sourcing, and improved connectivity to empowerpeople with information on the progress towards thetargets.Taken together, the Panel believes that these fivefundamental shifts can remove the barriers that holdpeople back, and end the inequality of opportunitythat blights the lives of so many people on our planet.They can, at long last, bring together social, economicand environmental issues in a coherent, effective, andsustainable way. Above all, we hope they can inspire anew generation to believe that a better world is withinits reach, and act accordingly.1.Monrovia Communiqué of the High Level Panel, February 1, 2013, http://www.post2015hlp.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Monrovia-Communique-1-February-2013.pdf.
Post-2015ContentsChapter 1: A Vision and Framework for the post-2015 Development Agenda������������������������Setting a New Course�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������Remarkable Achievements Since 2000�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������Consulting People, Gaining Perspective�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������The Panel’s Journey�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������Opportunities and Challenges in a Changing World���������������������������������������������������������������������������One World: One Sustainable Development Agenda����������������������������������������������������������������������������Chapter 2: From Vision to Action—Priority Transformations for a post-2015 Agenda���������Five Transformative Shifts���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������1. Leave No One Behind������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������2. Put Sustainable Development at the Core����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������3. Transform Economies for Jobs and Inclusive Growth������������������������������������������������������������������������4. Build Peace and Effective, Open and Accountable Public Institutions����������������������������������������������5. Forge a new Global Partnership��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������Ensure More and Better Long-term Finance�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������Chapter 3: Illustrative Goals and Global Impact�����������������������������������������������������������������������������The Shape of the Post-2015 Agenda�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������Risks to be Managed in a Single Agenda����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������Learning the Lessons of MDG 8 (Global Partnership for Development)������������������������������������������������Illustrative Goals�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������Addressing Cross-cutting Issues�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������The Global Impact by 2030��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������Chapter 4: Implementation, Accountability and Building Consensus���������������������������������������Implementing the post-2015 framework���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������Unifying Global Goals with National Plans for Development����������������������������������������������������������������Global Monitoring and Peer Review�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������Stakeholders Partnering by Theme�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������Holding Partners to Account�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������Wanted: a New Data Revolution�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������Working in Cooperation with Others����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������Building Political Consensus�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������Chapter 5: Concluding Remarks����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������Annex I Illustrative Goals and Targets������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������Annex II Evidence of Impact and Explanation of Illustrative Goals���������������������������������������������Annex III Goals, Targets and Indicators: Using a Common Terminology������������������������������������Annex IV Summary of Outreach Efforts���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������Annex V Terms of Reference and List of Panel Members���������������������������������������������������������������Annex VI High-level Panel Secretariat������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������11112347778899121313141515161821212121222323242427293257596569
Post-2015 | 1Setting a New CourseWe, the High-Level Panel on the post-2015 Development Agenda, were asked forrecommendations that would “help respond to the global challenges of the 21stcentury, building on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and with a view toending poverty”.2We discussed two of the world’s biggest challenges – how to end poverty and how topromote sustainable development. We have not come up with all the answers, but wedo believe the lives of billions of people can be improved, in a way that preserves theplanet’s natural resource assets for future generations.Progress on this scale is possible, but only if governments (at all levels), multilateralinstitutions, businesses, and civil society organisations are willing to change courseand reject business-as-usual. They have a chance to develop and put in place a newagenda: one that confronts the challenges of the modern world head-on. They have anopportunity to transform their thinking, and their practice, to solve current problemswith new ways of working. They can join forces, tackle poverty, the economy and theenvironment together, and bring about a paradigm shift.Remarkable Achievements Since 2000After the MDGs were adopted, dozens of developing-country planning ministries,hundreds of international agencies and thousands of civil society organisations (CSOs)rallied behind them. Together, they have contributed to remarkable achievements; halfa billion fewer people in extreme poverty; about three million children’s lives savedeach year. Four out of five children now get vaccinated for a range of diseases. Maternalmortality gets the focused attention it deserves. Deaths from malaria have fallen byone-quarter. Contracting HIV is no longer an automatic death sentence. In 2011, 590million children in developing countries – a record number – attended primary school.This unprecedented progress was driven by a combination of economic growth,government policies, civil society engagement and the global commitment to theMDGs.Given this success, it would be a mistake to start a new development agenda fromscratch. There is much unfinished business from the MDGs. Some countries achieveda great deal, but others, especially low-income, conflict affected countries, achievedmuch less. In the course of our discussions, we became aware of a gap between realityon the ground and the statistical targets that are tracked. We realised that the nextdevelopment agenda must build on the real experiences, stories, ideas and solutionsof people at the grassroots, and that we, as a Panel, must do our best to understandthe world through their eyes and reflect on the issues that would make a difference totheir lives.Consulting People, Gaining PerspectiveOver the last nine months, the Panel has spoken with people from all walks of life. Wehave reviewed almost one thousand written submissions from civil society and businessgroups working around the world. We have consulted experts from multilateralorganisations, national governments and local authorities. We have debated vigorouslyand passionately among ourselves.We agreed that the post-2015 agenda should reflect the concerns of people living inChapter 1: A Vision and Framework for thepost-2015 Development Agenda
2poverty, whose voices often go unheard or unheeded.To gather these perspectives, Panel members spoke tofarmers, indigenous and local communities, workers inthe informal sector, migrants, people with disabilities,small business owners, traders, young people andchildren, women’s groups, older people, faith-basedgroups, trade unions and many others. We alsoheard from academics and experts, politicians andphilosophers.In all, we heard voices and reviewed recommendationsfor goals and targets from over 5000 civil societyorganisations – ranging from grassroots organisationsto global alliances – working in about 120 countriesacross every major region of the world. We alsoconsulted the chief executive officers of 250 companiesin 30 countries, with annual revenues exceeding $8trillion, academics from developed and developingcountries, international and local NGOs and civil societymovements, and parliamentarians.In these meetings, people living in poverty told us howpowerless they felt because their jobs and livelihoodswere precarious. They said they fear getting sick, andlack safety.They talked about insecurity, corruption, andviolence in the home.They spoke of being excluded andabused by society’s institutions and of the importanceof transparent, open and responsive government thatrecognises their dignity and human rights.The Panel heard some similar priorities voiced bymayors and local elected officials. These leaders dealdaily with marginalised groups asking for help gettingfood, shelter, health care, meals at school, education andschool supplies. They strive to supply their constituentswith safe water, sanitation, and street lighting. They toldus that the urban poor want jobs that are better thanselling small items on the street or picking throughrubbish dumps. And, like people everywhere, they wantsecurity so their families can safely go about their lives.Young people asked for education beyond primaryschooling, not just formal learning but life skillsand vocational training to prepare them for jobs. Incountries where they have acquired good educationand skills, they want access to decent jobs. They wantopportunities to lift themselves out of poverty. Theycrave mentoring, career development, and programmesled by youth, serving youth. Young people said theywant to be able to make informed decisions abouttheir health and bodies, to fully realise their sexual andreproductive health and rights (SRHR). They want accessto information and technology so they can participatein their nation’s public life, especially charting its pathto economic development. They want to be able to holdthose in charge to account, to have the right to freedomof speech and association and to monitor where theirgovernment’s money is going.Women and girls asked in particular for protection oftheir property rights, their access to land, and to havea voice and to participate in economic and political life.They also asked the Panel to focus on ending violenceagainst women and discrimination at work, at schooland in the law.People with disabilities also asked for an end todiscrimination and for equal opportunity. They arelooking for guarantees of minimum basic livingstandards. Representatives of indigenous groups andlocal communities wanted recognition of their needto live more balanced lives in harmony with nature.They want restitution, non-discrimination and respectfor their ancestral ways. Those working in the informalsector also called for social protection and for reducinginequalities, as well as for opportunities to secure goodand decent jobs and livelihoods.Businesses spoke of their potential contribution to apost-2015 development agenda. Not just providinggood and decent jobs and growth, but deliveringessential services and helping billions of peopleaccess clean and sustainable energy and adapt toclimate change. They spoke of being willing to shareaccountability for the next agenda, and about what theyneed from governments if they are to do more – soundmacroeconomic policies, good infrastructure, skilledworkers, open markets, a level playing field, and efficientand accountable public administration.All these groups asked that when the post-2015 agendaisputintoplace,itincludesaplanformeasuringprogressthat compares how people with different income levels,gender, disability and age, and those living in differentlocalities, are faring – and that this information be easilyavailable to all.The Panel’s JourneyThese views and perspectives helped us to understandbetter how to think about the post-2015 agenda andhow to put flesh on the idea of a bold yet practical visionfor development that the Secretary-General challengedus to produce at our first meeting in New York.In London, we discussed household poverty: the dailyreality of life on the margins of survival. We agreed toseek to end extreme poverty by 2030. We learned howimportant it is to tackle poverty in all its dimensions,including basic human needs like health, education,safe water and shelter as well as fundamental humanrights: personal security, dignity, justice, voice and| Chapter 1: A Vision and Framework for the post-2015 Development Agenda
Post-2015 | 3empowerment, equality of opportunity, and access toSRHR. Several of these issues were not covered in theMDGs and we agreed they must be added in a newagenda. We recognised the need to focus on the qualityof public services, as well as on access to their delivery.We realised that providing access to nutritious food anddrinking water would not endure unless food and watersystems are also addressed.In Monrovia, we talked about economic transformationand the building blocks needed for growth that deliverssocial inclusion and respects the environment – howto harness the ingenuity and dynamism of business forsustainable development.We saw with our own eyes theextraordinaryprogressthatcanbemadewhenacountryonce ravaged by conflict is able to build peace andsecurity, but also the enormous challenge of providingbasicservices,likepower,roadsandtelecommunicationsto connect people and firms to a modern economy. Weheard about the business opportunities in pursuinggreen growth to promote sustainable development,and about the potential for individual entrepreneurs tofulfil their dreams, and for large businesses to connectto smallholder farmers. We learned that there are criticalshortages of the skilled professionals who are needed tomake governments and firms more efficient. We saw theneed for the agenda to include jobs, institutions, andmodern, reliable and sustainable energy.In Bali, we discussed common global challenges,including the dangers posed by climate change andthe need for development strategies to include makinghouseholds and countries more resilient. We focusedon the elements of a new global partnership. Weagreed that developed countries had to do more toput their own house in order. They must honour theiraid commitments but go beyond aid to lead globalefforts to reform trade, crack down on illicit capital flows,return stolen assets, and promote sustainable patternsof consumption and production. We asked wherethe money would come from to finance the massiveinvestments that will be needed for infrastructure indeveloping countries, and concluded that we need tofind new ways of using aid and other public funds tomobilise private capital.Opportunities and Challenges in aChanging WorldOur conversations with people added to our ownexperiences about how significantly the world haschanged since the Millennium Declaration was adoptedin 2000. We are also aware of how much more the worldwill change by 2030. It will be more urban, more middleclass, older, more connected, more interdependent,more vulnerable and more constrained in its resources– and still working to ensure that globalisation bringsmaximum benefits to all.For many, the world today feels more uncertain than itdid in 2000. In developed countries, the financial crisishas shaken belief that every generation will be betteroff than the last. Developing countries, for their part, arefull of optimism and confidence as a result of a decade-long growth spurt, but many also fear that slow progressin reforming global trade and stabilising the worldfinancial system may harm their prospects. Half theworld’s extreme poor live in conflict-affected countries,while many others are suffering the effects of naturaldisasters that have cost $2.5 trillion so far this century.3Intoday’s world, we see that no country, however powerfulor rich, can sustain its prosperity without working inpartnership to find integrated solutions.This is a world of challenges, but these challenges canalso present opportunities, if they kindle a new spiritof solidarity, mutual respect and mutual benefit, basedon our common humanity and the Rio principles. Sucha spirit could inspire us to address global challengesthrough a new global partnership, bringing togetherthe many groups in the world concerned with economic,social and environmental progress: people living inpoverty, women, young people, people with disabilities,indigenous and local communities, marginalisedgroups, multilateral institutions, local and nationalgovernments, businesses, civil society and privatephilanthropists, scientists and other academics. Thesegroups are more organised than before, better able tocommunicate with each other, willing to learn aboutreal experiences and real challenges in policymaking,committed to solving problems together.Envisioning a new Global Partnership“We agreed on the need for a renewed Global Partnership that enables a transformative, people-centred andplanet-sensitive development agenda which is realised through the equal partnership of all stakeholders.Such partnership should be based on the principles of equity, sustainability, solidarity, respect for humanity,and shared responsibilities in accordance with respective capabilities.”Bali Communiqué of the High-Level Panel, March 28, 20134
4We are deeply aware of the hunger, vulnerability, anddeprivation that still shape the daily lives of more thana billion people in the world today. At the same time weare struck by the level of inequality in the world, bothamong and within countries. Of all the goods and servicesconsumed in the world each year, the 1.2 billion peopleliving in extreme poverty only account for one per cent,while the richest 1 billion people consume 72 per cent.5Every year, one billion women are subject to sexual orphysicalviolencebecausetheylackequalprotectionunderthe law;6and 200 million young people despair becausethey lack equal opportunities to acquire the skills theyneed to get decent jobs and livelihoods.7At the same time there is unprecedented prosperity anddynamism in many countries. Two billion people alreadyenjoy middle class lifestyles, and another three billion aresettojointhemby2030.Low-andmiddle-incomecountriesare now growing faster than high-income ones – whichhelps to reduce global inequality. And many countries areusing public social protection programmes and social andenvironmental regulations to bring down high levels ofdomesticinequalitybyimprovingthelivesoftheworst-off,while also transforming their economies so that growthis sustained over the long term and provides more goodjobs and secure livelihoods. This means it is now possibleto leave no one behind – to give every child a fair chancein life, and to achieve a pattern of development wheredignity and human rights become a reality for all, where anagenda can be built around human security.While we were writing this report, the world passedan alarming threshold: atmospheric carbon dioxideconcentration was measured at over 400 parts per million,probablythehighestlevelinatleast800,000years.8Thereisno evidence yet that the upward trend has been slowed orreversed, as it must be if potentially catastrophic changesin climate are to be avoided. Despite all the rhetoric aboutalternative energy sources, fossil fuels still make up 81 percent of global energy production--unchanged since 1990.9To continue on this business-as-usual path would be verydangerous. Changes in consumption and productionpatterns are essential, and they must be led by thedeveloped countries.Recent food and energy crises, and high prices for manycommodities, point to a world where increasing resourcescarcity is the norm. In environmental “hot spots,” theharm that is coming if we don’t halt current trends willbe irreversible. Of the 24 most important ways the poordepend on natural resources, 15 are in serious decline,including: more than 40 per cent of global fisheries thathave crashed or are overfished; loss of 130 million hectaresofforestsinthelastdecade;lossof20percentofmangroveforests since 1980; threats to 75 per cent of the world’scoral reefs, mostly in small island developing states wheredependence on reefs is high.10YetthePanelisimpressedbytheextraordinaryinnovationsthat have occurred, especially the rate at which newtechnologies are adopted and diffused, and by theopportunities these technologies offer for sustainabledevelopment.Thenumberofmobilephonesubscriptionshas risen from fewer than a billion to more than 6 billion,and with it many mobile (m-) applications – m-banking,m-health, m-learning, m-taxes – that can radically changeeconomies and service delivery in sustainable ways.The powerful in today’s world can no longer expect to setthe rules and go unchallenged. People everywhere expectbusinesses and governments to be open, accountable,and responsive to their needs. There is an opportunitynow to give people the power to influence and controlthingsintheireverydaylives,andtogiveallcountriesmoresay in how the world is governed.Without sound domesticand global institutions there can be no chance of makingpoverty reduction permanent.There are 21 countries that have experienced armedconflict since 2000 and many others where criminalviolenceiscommon.Betweenthem,theseclaim7.9millionlives each year.11In order to develop peacefully, countriesafflicted by or emerging from conflict need institutionsthat are capable and responsive, and able to meet people’score demands for security, justice and well-being. Aminimally functional state machinery is a pre-requisite anda foundation for lasting development that breaks the cycleof conflict and distrust.People care no less about sound institutions than they doabout preventing illness or ensuring that their children canread and write – if only because they understand that theformer play an essential role in achieving the latter. Goodinstitutions are, in fact, the essential building blocks of aprosperousandsustainablefuture.Theruleoflaw,freedomof speech and the media, open political choice and activecitizen participation, access to justice, non-discriminatoryandaccountablegovernmentsandpublicinstitutionshelpdrivedevelopmentandhavetheirownintrinsicvalue.Theyare both means to an end and an end in themselves.One World: One SustainableDevelopment AgendaThe Panel believes there is a chance now to do somethingthat has never before been done – to eradicate extremepoverty, once and for all, and to end hunger, illiteracy,and preventable deaths. This would be a truly historicachievement.But we wanted to do more and we thought: endingextreme poverty is just the beginning, not the end. It isvital, but our vision must be broader: to start countries onthe path of sustainable development – building on the| Chapter 1: A Vision and Framework for the post-2015 Development Agenda
Post-2015 | 5foundations established by the 2012 UN Conference onSustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro12, and meetinga challenge that no country, developed or developing, hasmet so far.WerecommendtotheSecretary-Generalthatdeliberationson a new development agenda must be guided by thevision of eradicating extreme poverty once and for all, inthe context of sustainable development.We came to the conclusion that the moment is rightto merge the social, economic and environmentaldimensions of sustainability guiding internationaldevelopment. Why now? Because 2015 is the targetdate set in the year 2000 for the achievement of theMDGs and the logical date to begin a second phasethat will finish the job they started and build on theirachievements. Member states of the General Assemblyof the United Nations have also agreed at Rio+20 todevelop a set of sustainable development goals thatare coherent with and integrated into the developmentagenda beyond 2015. 2015 also marks the deadline forcountries to negotiate a new treaty to limit greenhousegas emissions.Developing a single, sustainable development agendais critical. Without ending poverty, we cannot buildprosperity; too many people get left behind. Withoutbuilding prosperity, we cannot tackle environmentalchallenges; we need to mobilise massive investmentsin new technologies to reduce the footprint ofunsustainable production and consumption patterns.Without environmental sustainability, we cannot endpoverty; the poor are too deeply affected by naturaldisasters and too dependent on deteriorating oceans,forests and soils.The need for a single agenda is glaring, as soon as onestarts thinking practically about what needs to be done.Right now, development, sustainable development andclimate change are often seen as separate. They haveseparate mandates, separate financing streams, andseparate processes for tracking progress and holdingpeople accountable. This creates overlap and confusionwhen it comes to developing specific programs andprojects on the ground. It is time to streamline theagenda.It is also unrealistic to think we can help another onebillion people to lift themselves out of poverty bygrowing their national economies without makingstructural changes in the world economy. There is anurgent need for developed countries to re-imaginetheir growth models. They must lead the world towardssolutions to climate change by creating and adoptinglow-carbon and other sustainable developmenttechnologies and passing them on to others. Otherwise,further strains on food, water and energy supplies andincreases in global carbon emissions will be inevitable– with added pressures from billions more peopleexpected to join the middle class in the next twodecades. People still living in poverty, or those in near-poverty, who have been the most vulnerable to recentfood, fuel and financial crises, would then be at graverisk of slipping back into poverty once more.This is why we need to think differently. Ending povertyis not a matter for aid or international cooperation alone.It is an essential part of sustainable development, indeveloped and developing countries alike. Developedcountries have a great responsibility to keep thepromises they have made to help the less fortunate.The billions of dollars of aid that they give each yearare vital to many low-income countries. But it is notenough: they can also co-operate more effectively tostem aggressive tax avoidance and evasion, and illicitcapital flows. Governments can work with businessto create a more coherent, transparent and equitablesystem for collecting corporate tax in a globalised world.They can tighten the enforcement of rules that prohibitcompanies from bribing foreign officials. They canprompt their large multinational corporations to reporton the social, environmental, and economic impact oftheir activities.Developing countries, too, have a vital part to play inthe transformative shifts that are needed. Most of themare growing rapidly and raising their own resources toOur Vision and Our Responsibility“Our vision and our responsibility is to end extreme poverty in all its forms in the context of sustainabledevelopment and to have in place the building blocks of sustained prosperity for all. The gains in povertyeradication should be irreversible. This is a global, people-centred and planet-sensitive agenda to addressthe universal challenges of the 21st century: promoting sustainable development, supporting job-creatinggrowth, protecting the environment and providing peace, security, justice, freedom and equity at all levels.”Monrovia Communiqué of the High-Level Panel February 1, 2013
62.See Terms of Reference, Annex V.3. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, 15 May, 2013, http://www.un.org/sg/statements/index.asp?nid=6821.4.Bali Communiqué of the High Level Panel, March 27, 2013, http://www.post2015hlp.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Final-Communique-Bali.pdf.5.HLP Secretariat calculations.6.UNiTE to end violence against women. Fact Sheet. http://www.un.org/en/women/endviolence/pdf/VAW.pdf.7.Education For All (EFA) monitoring report (2012). Youth and Skills: Putting Education to Work. (p. 16).8.Luthi et al., 2008, Nature 453, 379-382.9.World Energy Outlook Factsheet, 2011, International Energy Agency, http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/media/weowebsite/factsheets/factsheets.pdf.10.UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005). This was a four-year, multi-volume scientific appraisal by more than 1,000experts.11.The World Development Report, 2011: Conflict, Security and Development, World Bank.12.The Future We Want, United Nations, A/RES/66/288*, 11 September 2012.13.Copenhagen Consensus (2012). Expert Panel Findings, (p. 4) and Hoddinott et al. (2012). Hunger and Malnutrition. ChallengePaper Copenhagen Consensus 2012 (p. 68).14.Jamison, D., Jha, P., Bloom, D. (2008). The Challenge of Diseases. Challenge Paper Copenhagen Consensus 2008 (p. 51).15.Whittington, D. et al. (2008). The Challenge of Water and Sanitation. Challenge Paper Copenhagen Consensus 2008 (p. 126).16.Turn Down the Heat, The World Bank, November 2012, http://climatechange.worldbank.org/sites/default/files/Turn_Down_the_heat_Why_a_4_degree_centrigrade_warmer_world_must_be_avoided.pdf .| Chapter 1: A Vision and Framework for the post-2015 Development Agendafund their own development. They already contributethe most to global growth and expansion of globaltrade. They have young, dynamic populations. Theyare urbanising, modernising and absorbing newtechnologies faster than ever before. But they facecritical choices. The infrastructure investments theymake today will lock-in energy use and pollution levelstomorrow. The way they manage natural resourcerevenues today will determine the options availableto their young people tomorrow. They must makesmart choices to turn cities into vibrant places full ofopportunities, services and different lifestyles, wherepeople want to work and live.There is a global ethic for a globalised world, basedon our common humanity, the Rio principles and theshared ethos of all traditions: “do as you would be doneby.” Moreover, the benefits of investing in sustainabledevelopment are high. Every dollar invested in stoppingchronic malnutrition returns $30 in higher lifetimeproductivity.13Expanded childhood immunisationimproves health in later life, with benefits worth 20 timesthe cost.14The value of the productive time gained whenhouseholds have access to safe drinking water in thehome is worth 3 times the cost of providing it.15And wecannot wait before moving to sustainable development.Scientists warn us that we must aggressively movebeyond current voluntary pledges and commitments toreduce carbon emissions or else we will be on a path toat least a 4-degree Celsius warming over pre-industriallevels by this century’s end. According to the WorldBank, such“4°C scenarios”would be devastating.16Pursuing a single, sustainable development agenda isthe right thing, the smart thing and the necessary thingto do.
Post-2015 | 7FiveTransformative ShiftsThe Panel views five big, transformative shifts as the priorities for a forward-looking,compelling and integrated sustainable development agenda based on the Rio principles.The first four shifts are where the focus for action is mostly at the country level, while thefifth transformative shift, forging a new global partnership, is an overarching change ininternational cooperation that provides the policy space for domestic transformations.Webelievethereisaneedforaparadigmshift,aprofoundstructuraltransformationthatwillovercome the obstacles to sustained prosperity.The transformations described below apply to all countries. They are universally relevantand actionable.The details may vary, and responsibilities and accountabilities will inevitablydiffer, in line with the circumstances and capabilities of each country. We recognise thatthere are enormous differences among countries in resources and capabilities, differencesrooted in long-ago history and often beyond their individual control. But every country hassomething to contribute. Countries are not being told what to do: each country is beingasked what it wants to do, on a voluntary basis, both at home and to help others in meetingjointly identified challenges.1. Leave No One BehindThe next development agenda must ensure that in the future neither income nor gender,nor ethnicity, nor disability, nor geography, will determine whether people live or die,whetheramothercangivebirthsafely,orwhetherherchildhasafairchanceinlife.Wemustkeep faith with the promise of the MDGs and now finish the job.The MDGs aspired to halvepoverty. After 2015 we should aspire to put an end to hunger and extreme poverty as wellas addressing poverty in all its other forms. This is a major new commitment to everyoneon the planet who feels marginalised or excluded, and to the neediest and most vulnerablepeople, to make sure their concerns are addressed and that they can enjoy their humanrights.Thenewagendamusttacklethecausesofpoverty,exclusionandinequality.Itmustconnectpeople in rural and urban areas to the modern economy through quality infrastructure –electricity, irrigation, roads, ports, and telecommunications. It must provide quality healthcare and education for all. It must establish and enforce clear rules, without discrimination,so that women can inherit and own property and run a business, communities can controllocal environmental resources, and farmers and urban slum-dwellers have secure propertyrights. It must give people the assurance of personal safety. It must make it easy for them tofollow their dreams and start a business. It must give them a say in what their governmentdoes for them, and how it spends their tax money. It must end discrimination and promoteequality between men and women, girls and boys.These are issues of basic social justice. Many people living in poverty have not had a fairchanceinlifebecausetheyarevictimsofillnessorpoorhealthcare,unemployment,anaturaldisaster, climate change, local conflict, instability, poor local leadership, or low-qualityeducation – or have been given no schooling at all. Others face discrimination. Remedyingthese fundamental inequalities and injustices is a matter of respect for people’s universalhuman rights. A focus on the poorest and most marginalised, a disproportionate numberof whom are women, follows directly from the principles agreed to in the MillenniumDeclaration and at Rio.17These principles should remain the foundation of the post-2015agenda.To be sure that our actions are helping not just the largest number of people, but theneediest and most vulnerable, we will need new ways of measuring success. StrategiesChapter 2: From Vision to Action—PriorityTransformations for a post-2015 Agenda
8and plans will have to be developed to reach those notadequately covered by existing programmes. The cost ofdeliveringservicesinremoteareasmaybeonly15to20percent higher than average, to judge by practical experiencein many countries. This seems reasonable and affordable,given higher tax revenues expected in most countries, andsustained aid to the lowest income countries. Above all it isthe right thing to do.2. Put Sustainable Development at the CoreFor twenty years, the international community has aspiredto integrate the social, economic, and environmentaldimensions of sustainability, but no country has yetachieved patterns of consumption and production thatcould sustain global prosperity in the coming decades.A new agenda will need to set out the core elements ofsustainable lifestyles that can work for all.ThePanelisconvincedthatnationalandlocalgovernments,businesses and individuals must transform the way theygenerate and consume energy, travel and transportgoods, use water and grow food. Especially in developedcountries, incentives and new mind-sets can sparkmassive investment in moving towards a green economyin the context of sustainable development and povertyeradication, while promoting more sustainable andmore efficient consumption and production. Developingcountries, when they get access to new technologies,can leapfrog straight to new, more sustainable and moreefficient consumption and production. Both approachesare simply smart public policy.It is sometimes argued that global limits on carbonemissions will force developing countries to sacrificegrowth to accommodate the lifestyles of the rich, or thatdeveloped countries will have to stop growing so thatdeveloping countries can develop – substituting onesourceofpollutionforanother.Wedonotbelievethatsuchtrade-offsarenecessary.Mankind’scapacityforinnovation,and the many alternatives that already exist, mean thatsustainable development can, and must, allow people inall countries to achieve their aspirations.At least one-third of the activities needed to lower globalcarbon emissions to reasonable levels, such as switchingto LED lighting to conserve electricity, more than pay forthemselves under current market conditions. Consumerswill pay more up front if they can see future savingsclearly and if the right incentives are in place to make theswitch. Examples abound of smart, feasible, cost-effective,green economy policies: improved vehicle aerodynamics,constructing buildings for energy efficiency, recyclingwaste, generating electricity from landfill gas—andnew technologies are constantly coming on-stream. Butconcerted efforts are needed to develop and adopt them.There are other ways to reduce carbon emissions at verylittle cost; for example restoring soil, managing grasslandsand forests in a sustainable way.18Healthcare costs canfall significantly with a switch to clean transport or powergeneration, helping offset the costs. But incentives – taxes,subsidies and regulations – must be in place to encouragethis – incentives that are largely not in place now.With theright incentives, and some certainty about the rules, manyof the world’s largest companies are prepared to committhemselves to moving to sustainable modes of productionon a large scale.In developing countries too, the benefits of investing insustainable development are high, especially if they getaccess to new technologies. Small investments to allowcross-border trading in electricity could save sub-SaharanAfrica $2.7 billion every year, by substituting hydro forthermal power plants.19Sustainable production is farcheaper than“Grow now, clean later.”Already, some industries have developed global standardsto guide foreign investment in sustainable development.Examples can be found in mining, palm oil, forestry,agricultural land purchases, and banking. Certification andcompliance programmes put all companies on the samefooting.As more industries develop sustainability certification, itwill be easier for civil society and shareholders to becomewatchdogs, holding firms accountable for adhering toindustry standards and worker safety issues, and beingready to disinvest if they do not. Today, however, only25 per cent of large companies report to shareholderson sustainability practices; by 2030, this should becommonplace.3. Transform Economies for Jobs and InclusiveGrowthThe Panel calls for a quantum leap forward in economicopportunities and a profound economic transformationto end extreme poverty and improve livelihoods. Theremust be a commitment to rapid, equitable growth – notgrowth at any cost or just short-term spurts in growth, butsustained, long-term, inclusive growth that can overcomethe challenges of unemployment (especially youthunemployment), resource scarcity and – perhaps thebiggestchallengeofall–adaptationtoclimatechange.Thiskind of inclusive growth has to be supported by a globaleconomy that ensures financial stability, promotes stable,long-term private financial investment, and encouragesopen, fair and development-friendly trade.The first priority must be to create opportunities for goodand decent jobs and secure livelihoods, so as to makegrowth inclusive and ensure that it reduces poverty andinequality. When people escape from poverty, it is mostoftenbyjoiningthemiddleclass,buttodosotheywillneed| Chapter 2: From Vision to Action—Priority Transformations for a post-2015 Agenda
Post-2015 | 9the education, training and skills to be successful in the jobmarket and respond to demands by business for moreworkers. Billions more people could become middle-classby 2030, most of them in cities, and this would strengtheneconomic growth the world over. Better governmentpolicies, fair and accountable public institutions, andinclusive and sustainable business practices will supportthis and are essential parts of a post-2015 agenda.A second priority is to constantly strive to add value andraise productivity, so that growth begets more growth.Some fundamentals will accelerate growth everywhere –infrastructure and other investments, skills development,supportivepoliciestowardsmicro,smallandmediumsizedenterprises, and the capacity to innovate and absorb newtechnologies, and produce higher quality and a greaterrange of products. In some countries, this can be achievedthrough industrialisation, in others through expanding amodern service sector or intensifying agriculture. Somespecialise, others diversify.There is no single recipe. But it isclearthatsomegrowthpatterns–essentiallythosethataresupported by open and fair trade, globally and regionally– offer more opportunities than others for future growth.Third, countries must put in place a stable environmentthat enables business to flourish. Business wants, aboveall, a level playing field and to be connected to majormarkets. For small firms, this often means finding theright business linkages, through supply chains or co-operatives, for example. Business also wants a simpleregulatory framework which makes it easy to start,operate and close a business. Small and medium firms,that employ the most people, are especially hamstrungat present by unnecessarily complicated regulationsthat can also breed corruption. This is not a call for totalderegulation: social and environmental standards are ofgreat importance. But it is a call for regulation to be smart,stable and implemented in a transparent way. Of course,businesses themselves also have a role to play: adoptinggoodpracticesandpayingfairtaxesinthecountrieswherethey operate, and being transparent about the financial,social and environmental impact of their activities.Fourth, in order to bring new prosperity and newopportunities, growth will also need to usher in new waysto support sustainable consumption and production, andenable sustainable development. Governments shoulddevelopandimplementdetailedapproachestoencouragesustainable activities and properly cost environmentallyandsociallyhazardousbehaviour.Businessshouldindicatehow it can invest to reduce environmental stresses andimprove working conditions for employees.4. Build Peace and Effective, Open andAccountable Public InstitutionsFreedomfromconflictandviolenceisthemostfundamentalhuman entitlement, and the essential foundation forbuilding peaceful and prosperous societies. At the sametime, people the world over want their governmentsto be transparent, accountable and responsive to theirneeds. Personal security, access to justice, freedom fromdiscriminationandpersecution,andavoiceinthedecisionsthat affect their lives are development outcomes as wellas enablers. So we are calling for a fundamental shift—torecognisepeaceandgoodgovernanceascoreelementsofwell-being, not an optional extra.Capable and responsive states need to build effective andaccountablepublicinstitutionsthatsupporttheruleoflaw,freedom of speech and the media, open political choice,andaccesstojustice.Weneedatransparencyrevolutionsocitizens can see exactly where their taxes, aid and revenuesfromextractiveindustriesarespent.Weneedgovernmentsthat tackle the causes of poverty, empower people, aretransparent, and permit scrutiny of their affairs.Transparencyandaccountabilityarealsopowerfultoolsforpreventing the theft and waste of scarce natural resources.Without sound institutions, there can be no chance ofsustainable development.The Panel believes that creatingthem is a central part of the transformation neededto eradicate poverty irreversibly and enable countriesacross the world, especially those prone to or emergingfrom conflict, to develop sustainably – and that thereforeinstitutions must be addressed in the new developmentagenda.Societies organise their dialogues through institutions.In order to play a substantive role, citizens need a legalenvironment which enables them to form and join CSOs,to protest and express opinions peacefully, and whichprotects their right to due process.Internationally, too, institutions are important channelsof dialogue and cooperation. Working together, inand through domestic and international institutions,governments could bring about a swift reduction incorruption, money laundering, tax evasion and aggressiveavoidance, hidden ownership of assets, and the illicit tradein drugs and arms.They must commit themselves to doingso.5. Forge a new Global PartnershipA fifth, but perhaps most important, transformative shiftfor the post-2015 agenda is to bring a new sense of globalpartnership into national and international politics. Thismust provide a fresh vision and framework, based onour common humanity and the principles establishedat Rio. Included among those principles: universality,equity, sustainability, solidarity, human rights, the right todevelopment and responsibilities shared in accordancewith capabilities. The partnership should capture, and willdepend on, a spirit of mutual respect and mutual benefit.One simple idea lies behind the principle of global
10partnership. People and countries understand that theirfates are linked together. What happens in one part of theworld can affect us all. Some issues can only be tackledby acting together. Countries have resources, expertiseor technology that, if shared, can result in mutual benefitWorking together is not just a moral obligation to helpthose less fortunate but is an investment in the long-termprosperity of all.A renewed global partnership will require a new spiritfrom national leaders, but also – no less important – itwill require many others to adopt new mind-sets andchange their behaviour. These changes will not happenovernight. But we must move beyond business-as-usual– and we must start today. The new global partnershipshould encourage everyone to alter their worldview,profoundly and dramatically. It should lead all countries tomove willingly towards merging the environmental anddevelopment agendas, and tackling poverty’s symptomsand causes in a unified and universal way.What are the components of a new global partnership?It starts with a shared, common vision, one that allowsdifferent solutions for different contexts but is uniformlyambitious. From vision comes a plan for action, at the levelof the individual country and of smaller regions, cities orlocalities. Each needs to contribute and cooperate tosecure a better future.A new global partnership should engage nationalgovernmentsofallcountries,localauthorities,internationalorganisations, businesses, civil society, foundations andother philanthropists, and people – all sitting at the tabletogobeyondaidtodiscussatrulyinternationalframeworkof policies to achieve sustainable development. It shouldmove beyond the MDGs’ orientation of state-to-statepartnerships between high-income and low-incomegovernments to be inclusive of more players.Anewglobalpartnershipshouldhavenewwaysofworking– a clear process through which to measure progresstowards goals and targets and to hold people accountablefor meeting their commitments. The United Nations cantake the lead on monitoring at the global level, drawing oninformation from national and local governments, as wellas from regional dialogues. Partnerships in each thematicarea, at global, national and local levels, can assignresponsibilities and accountabilities for putting policiesand programmes in place.Each participant in the global partnership has a specificrole to play:National governments have the central role andresponsibility for their own development and for ensuringuniversal human rights. They decide on national targets,taxes, policies, plans and regulations that will translate thevision and goals of the post-2015 agenda into practicalreality. They have a role in every sector and at many levels– from negotiating international trade or environmentalagreements to creating an enabling environment forbusiness and setting environmental standards at home.Developed countries must keep their promises todeveloping countries. North-South aid is still vital for manycountries: it must be maintained, and increased whereverpossible. But more than aid is needed to implementsustainabledevelopmentworldwide.Developedcountriesare important markets and exporters. Their trade andagriculture practices have huge potential to assist, orhinder, other countries’development.They can encourageinnovation,diffusionandtransferoftechnology.Withothermajor economies, they have a central role in ensuring thestability of the international financial system. They havespecial responsibilities in ensuring that there can be nosafe haven for illicit capital and the proceeds of corruption,and that multinational companies pay taxes fairly in thecountries in which they operate. And, as the world’s largestper-capita consumers, developed countries must showleadership on sustainable consumption and productionand adopting and sharing green technologies.Developing countries are much more diverse than whenthe MDGs were agreed – they include large emergingeconomies as well as countries struggling to tackle highlevelsofdeprivationandfacingseverecapacityconstraints.These changing circumstances are reflected in changingroles. Developing country links in trade, investment, andfinance are growing fast. They can share experiencesof how best to reform policy and institutions to fosterdevelopment. Developing countries, including oneswith major pockets of poverty, are cooperating amongthemselves, and jointly with developed countries andinternational institutions, in South-South and Triangularcooperation activities that have become highly valued.These could be an even stronger force with developmentof a repository of good practices, networks of knowledgeexchange, and more regional cooperation.20Local authorities form a vital bridge between nationalgovernments, communities and citizens and will have acritical role in a new global partnership.The Panel believesthat one way to support this is by recognising that targetsmight be pursued differently at the sub-national level – sothat urban poverty is not treated the same as rural poverty,for example.Local authorities have a critical role in setting priorities,executing plans, monitoring results and engaging withlocal firms and communities. In many cases, it is localauthorities that deliver essential public services in health,education, policing, water and sanitation. And, even if notdirectly delivering services, local government often has arole in establishing the planning, regulatory and enablingenvironment—for business, for energy supply, masstransit and building standards. They have a central role indisasterriskreduction–identifyingrisks,earlywarningand| Chapter 2: From Vision to Action—Priority Transformations for a post-2015 Agenda
Post-2015 | 11building resilience. Local authorities have a role in helpingslum-dwellers access better housing and jobs and are thesource of most successful programmes to support theinformal sector and micro-enterprises.International institutions will play a key role. The UnitedNations, of course, has a central normative and conveningrole, and can join partnerships through its developmentfunds,programmesandspecialisedagencies.Internationalfinancial institutions can compensate for the market’sfailures to supply long-term finance for sustainableprojects in low- and middle-income countries, but theyneed to be more innovative, flexible and nimble in the waythey operate. The Panel noted the huge potential to usepublic money to catalyse and scale up private financingfor sustainable development. For example, only 2 per centof the $5 trillion in sovereign wealth fund assets has so farbeen invested in sustainable development projects.21Business is an essential partner that can drive economicgrowth. Small- and medium-sized firms will create most ofthe jobs that will be needed to help today’s poor escapepoverty and for the 470 million who will enter the labourmarket by 2030. Large firms have the money and expertiseto build the infrastructure that will allow all people toconnect to the modern economy. Big businesses can alsolink microenterprises and small entrepreneurs with largermarkets. When they find a business model that works forsustainable development, they can scale it up fast, usingtheir geographic spread to reach hundreds of millions ofpeople.A growing number of business leaders with whom wediscussed these issues are already integrating sustainabledevelopment into their corporate strategies. They spokeof a business case with three components that goes wellbeyondcorporatesocialresponsibility.First,useinnovationto open up new growth markets, and address the needs ofpoor consumers. Second, promote sustainable practicesand stay cost-competitive by conserving land, water,energy and minerals and eliminating waste. Third, attractthe highest calibre employees and promote labour rights.Many companies recognise, however, that if they are to betrusted partners of governments and CSOs, they need tostrengthen their own governance mechanisms and adopt“integrated reporting”, on their social and environmentalimpact as well as financial performance. Many businessestoday are committed to doing this; the new globalpartnership should encourage others to follow suit.Civil society organisations can play a vital role ingiving a voice to people living in poverty, who includedisproportionate numbers of women, children, peoplewith disabilities, indigenous and local communitiesand members of other marginalised groups. They haveimportant parts to play in designing, realising, andmonitoring this new agenda. They are also importantproviders of basic services, often able to reach the neediestand most vulnerable, for example in slums and remoteareas.In a new partnership, CSOs will have a crucial role inmaking sure that government at all levels and businessesact responsibly and create genuine opportunities andsustainable livelihoods in an open-market economy. Theirability to perform this role depends on an enabling legalenvironment and access to due process under the law,but they should also commit to full transparency andaccountability to those whom they represent.Foundations, other philanthropists and social impactinvestors can innovate and be nimble and opportunistic,forming bridges between government bureaucracies,internationalinstitutionsandthebusinessandCSOsectors.Foundations and philanthropists can take risks, showthat an idea works, and create new markets where noneexisted before. This can give governments and businesstheconfidencetotaketheinitiativeandscaleupsuccesses.Social impact investors show that there can be a “thirdway” for sustainable development – a hybrid between afully for-profit private sector and a pure grant or charity aidprogrammes. Because they make money, their efforts canbesustainableovertime.Butbecausetheyarenew,neitherbusiness nor charity, they do not fall neatly into traditionallegal frames. Some countries may need to consider how tomodify their laws to take better advantage of this sector.Scientists and academics can make scientific andtechnological breakthroughs that will be essential to thepost-2015 agenda. Every country that has experiencedsustained high growth has done so through absorbingknowledge, technology and ideas from the rest of theworld, and adapting them to local conditions.22Whatmatters is not just having technology, but understandinghow to use it well and locally. This requires universities,technical colleges, public administration schools and well-trained, skilled workers in all countries.This is one exampleof the need for the post-2015 agenda to go well beyondthe MDG’s focus on primary education.Energy is a good example of where a global technologybreakthrough is needed. When governments cooperatewith academia and the private sector, new ways ofproducing clean and sustainable energy can be foundand put into practice.23This needs to happen quickly: theinfrastructure decisions of today will affect the energy useof tomorrow.Science in many fields, like drought-resistant crops, canbe advanced by using open platforms where scientistseverywhere have access to each other’s findings and canbuild on them freely and collaborate broadly, addinguseful features without limit. Open platform science canspeed the development of new ideas for sustainable
12development and rapidly bring them to scale. It cansupport innovation, diffusion and transfer of technologythroughout the world.People must be central to a new global partnership.To do this they need the freedom to voice their viewsand participate in the decisions that affect their liveswithout fear. They need access to information and toan independent media. And new forms of participationsuch as social media and crowd-sourcing can enablegovernments, businesses, CSOs and academia to interactwith, understand and respond to citizens’ needs in newways.Ensure More and Better Long-termFinanceThe Panel believes that most of the money to financesustainabledevelopmentwillcomefromdomesticsources,and the Panel urges countries to continue efforts to investin stronger tax systems, broaden their domestic tax baseand build local financial markets. Low- and middle-incomecountry governments have made great strides in raisingdomestic revenues, and this has helped expand publicservices and investments, vital for sustainable growth, aswell as creating ownership and accountability for publicspending.But developing countries will also need substantialexternal funding. The main part of this will not be aidfrom developed countries, although aid remains vitalfor low-income countries and the promises made on aidmust be kept. The most important source of long-termfinance will be private capital, coming from major pensionfunds, mutual funds, sovereign wealth funds, privatecorporations, development banks, and other investors,including those in middle-income countries where mostnew savings will come from by 2030. These private capitalflows will grow and become less prone to sudden surgesand stops, if the global financial system is stable and wellregulated, and if they finance projects backstopped byinternational financial institutions.The money is there – world savings this year will likely beover $18 trillion – and sponsors of sustainable projects aresearching for capital, but new channels and innovativefinancial instruments are needed to link the two. Supportsystems (know-how, financial institutions, policies, laws)mustbebuiltand,wheretheyexist,mustbestrengthened.A broad vision of how to fund development has alreadybeen agreed by governments at a conference held inMonterrey, Mexico in 2002. The Monterrey Consensusagreed that “each country has primary responsibility forits own economic and social development, and the roleof national policies and development strategies cannot beoveremphasised. At the same time, domestic economiesare now interwoven with the global economic system…”24So these efforts should be supported by commitmentsmade on aid, trade and investment patterns, as well astechnical cooperation for development.The Panel believes the principles and agreementsestablished at Monterrey remain valid for the post-2015agenda. It recommends that an international conferenceshould take up in more detail the question of financefor sustainable development. This could be convenedby the UN in the first half of 2015 to address in practicalterms how to finance the post-2015 agenda. The Panelsuggests that this conference should discuss how tointegrate development, sustainable development andenvironmental financing streams. A single agenda shouldhave a coherent overall financing structure.17. The Millennium Declaration urged “efforts to promote democracy and strengthen the rule of law, as well as respect for allinternationally recognised human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to development.” It also supported the“freedom of the media to perform their essential role and the right of the public to have access to information.”18. Towards a Global Climate Change Agreement, McKinsey (2009).19. Rosnes et al. (2009), Powering Up: Costing Power Infrastructure Spending Needs in sub-Saharan Africa, Africa InfrastructureCountry Diagnostic, Paper 5 (Phase II).20. South-South Cooperation is guided by the“principles of respect for national sovereignty, national ownership and independence,equality, non-conditionality, non-interference in domestic affairs and mutual benefit.” High-level United Nations Conference onSouth-South Cooperation, Nairobi, Kenya (2009).21.UNCTAD (2012) World Investment Report. Towards a New Generation of Investment Policies. http://www.unctad-docs.org/files/UNCTAD-WIR2012-Full-en.pdf.22. Commission on Growth and Development (2008) The Growth Report. Strategies for Sustained Growth and InclusiveDevelopment. World Bank: Washington DC.23.For example, the US-India Partnership to Advance Clean Energy has already generated $1.7 billion in public and private resourcesfor clean energy.24. United Nations, Monterrey Consensus on the International Conference on Financing for Development, in Monterrey, Mexico. UnitedNations, 2002.| Chapter 2: From Vision to Action—Priority Transformations for a post-2015 Agenda
Post-2015 | 13The Shape of the Post-2015 AgendaBold commitments in these five areas – leave no one behind, put sustainable developmentat the core, transform economies, build peace and effective and accountable institutions,and forge a new global partnership – would allow the international community to keep thepromises made under the MDGs, raise the bar where experience shows we can do more,and add key issues that are missing. Together, these would be significant steps towardspoverty eradication as an essential part of sustainable development.Precisely because the scope of the post-2015 agenda is so broad – blending social progress,equitable growth and environmental management – it must have clear priorities, andinclude shared global metrics as well as national targets. It is around these that the globalcommunity can organise itself.We believe that the combination of goals, targets, and indicators under the MDGs was apowerful instrument for mobilising resources and motivating action. For this reason, werecommend that the post-2015 agenda should also feature a limited number of high-prioritygoalsandtargets,withacleartimehorizonandsupportedbymeasurableindicators.With this in mind, the Panel recommends that targets in the post-2015 agenda should beset for 2030.25Longer time frames would lack urgency and might seem implausible, giventhe volatility of today’s world, while shorter ones would not allow the truly transformativechanges that are needed to take effect.Goals can be a powerful force for change. But a goal framework is not the best solutionto every social, economic and environmental challenge. They are most effective where aclear and compelling ambition can be described in clearly measurable terms. Goals cannotsubstitute for detailed regulations or multilateral treaties that codify delicately-balancedinternational bargains. And unlike treaties, goals similar to the MDGs are not binding ininternationallaw.Theystandorfallastoolsofcommunication,inspiration,policyformulationand resource mobilisation.Theagendashouldalsoincludemonitoringandaccountabilitymechanismsinvolvingstates,civilsociety,theprivatesector,foundations,andtheinternationaldevelopmentcommunity.Itshouldrecogniseeachparty’scontributiontodevelopmentfinance,recognisingcommonchallenges but also different capabilities and needs. It will need to be informed by evidenceof what works, and focus on areas where, by acting together, the global community canachieve the transformations needed for sustainable development.A goal framework that drives transformations is valuable in focusing global efforts, buildingmomentumanddevelopingasenseofglobalurgency.Itcanbeinstrumentalincrystallisingconsensus and defining international norms. It can provide a rallying cry for a globalcampaign to generate international support, as has been the case with the MDGs.The Panel recommends that a limited number of goals and targets be adopted in thepost-2015 development agenda, and that each should be SMART: specific, measurable,attainable,relevantandtime-bound.Asetofclearandeasilyapplicablecriteria,toguidetheshape of the post-2015 agenda in line with the Rio+20 Outcome, is that each goal should:• Solve a critical issue, and have a strong impact on sustainable development, based onexisting research;• Encapsulate a compelling message on issues that energise people, companies andgovernments;• Be easy to understand and communicate without jargon;• Be measurable, using credible and internationally comparable indicators, metrics anddata, and subject to monitoring;Chapter 3: Illustrative Goals and Global Impact
14• Be widely applicable in countries with different levelsof income, and in those emerging from conflict orrecovering from natural disaster;• Be grounded in the voice of people, and the prioritiesidentified during consultations, especially children,youth, women and marginalised and excluded groups;• Be consensus-based, whenever possible built on UNmember states’existing agreements, while also strivingto go beyond previous agreements to make people’slives better.Whenever possible, goals and targets should reflect whatpeople want, without dictating how they should get there.For example, all countries might subscribe to a target ofreducing food waste by a given percentage. But a low-income country might achieve this by investing in betterstorage and transport facilities, to keep food from spoilingbefore it gets to market, while a high-income countrymight do it by changing how food is packaged, sold, andconsumed to reduce the amount of food thrown away byhouseholds.The Panel recommends that the post-2015 goals, whilekeeping those living in extreme poverty, and the promisesmade to them, at the heart of the agenda, should raisethe level of ambition for 2030 to reach all the neediestand most vulnerable. They should call for improving thequality of services. They should capture the priorities forsustainable development. And they should connect to oneanother in an integrated way.Of course, given vastly different capabilities, histories,starting points and circumstances, every country cannotbe asked to reach the same absolute target. All countrieswould be expected to contribute to achieving all targets,but how much, and at what speed, will differ. Ideally,nations would use inclusive processes to make thesedecisions and then develop strategies, plans, policies, laws,or budgets to implement them.26A few examples that came up during Panel discussionsillustrate how priorities might vary, depending on countrycircumstances. The Panel agreed that some high-incomecountries might be expected to move further and faster onclean energy targets, because most start from a low baseand all have responsibilities to do more to move towardssustainable consumption and production patterns. Manycan also do more to provide equitable access to healthand education services for isolated, poor or immigrantcommunities at home. And youth unemployment is aserious problem everywhere. The priorities expressedin consultations in middle-income countries focusedmore on reducing inequality, a good education, betterquality healthcare, reliable infrastructure, a transparentand responsible government, especially at local levelsfor improved city management, creating more andbetter jobs and livelihoods and freedom from violence.Similar priorities are expressed in low-income countries,as well as the need to transform economies and reduceextreme poverty. Landlocked countries often call forbetter connections to the global economy; small islanddeveloping states for economic diversification, and astronger response to climate change.All countries have an interest in a better managed globaleconomy, one that is more stable, more fair, more attentiveto common resources, and more willing to cooperate inscientific and technical exchange. All would benefit fromshared early-warning systems to identify and preventnatural disasters and pandemics.Risks to be Managed in a Single AgendaIf the new development agenda is to be trulytransformational, there are several major risks to bemanaged. The international community will need toensure that a single, sustainable development agenda isnot:• over-loaded with too many priorities, a product ofcompromises rather than decisions – lacklustre andbland instead of transformative and focused;• Focused on the agenda of the past – and not orientedtowards future challenges;• insufficiently stretching – business as usual;• unworkably utopian;• intellectually coherent, but not compelling;• narrowly focused on one set of issues, failing torecognise that poverty, good governance, socialinclusion, environment and growth are connected andcannot be addressed in silos.The best way of managing these risks is to make surethat the post-2015 development agenda includes clearpriorities for action that the international community canrally behind. These should be in areas where there aregenuinely shared global aspirations, and which will make atransformative difference to sustainable development andpoverty reduction.The MDGs show how a goal framework can be used. Onereasonwhytheyaresuccessfulisthattheyareinspirational,limited in number – eight goals and 21 targets – andeasy to understand. The more successful targets are alsomeasurable with clear deadlines. With eyes on the goals,money has been raised, partnerships built and strategiesdesigned. When new technologies were needed, partnersdesigned them. Good practices were shared. Field workerson the ground and policymakers in capitals learned andadapted. Of course, much progress would have happenedeven without the MDGs, but there is little doubt in ourmindsthattheymadeadramaticimpactinsomekeyareas.The same should apply to the development agenda after2015. Those priorities that can be addressed througha goal framework should be. Goals have shown their| Chapter 3: Illustrative Goals and Global Impact