• General anatomy of nervous system
Nervous system
• Nervous system
integrates these
sensory information,
store information as
memory
Nervous system receives ...
Simple flowchart of nervous system function
Skin > touch
> nerve (sensory nerve/afferent
fibre/ascending tract)
Brain
 n...
CNS : PRINCIPLES ROLES
• Integrate and coordinate
incoming and outgoing neural
signals
• Carry out higher mental
functions...
Division of nervous system
• Structurally,
• Central nervous
system
Brain Spinal cord
• Peripheral nervous
system
Cranial ...
Functional division
Somatic nervous system,
is the part of
nervous
system which
control voluntary
activities
Autonomic ner...
What is the composition of nervous tissue?
1. Neuron ( nerve cell ) 2. Neuroglia
Nerve cell body Processes
Dendrite Axon
Nerve cell body
Nerve cell processes
Dendrite
Axon
Histological feature of neuron
nerve cell body
A centrally placed
spherical, unusually
large , euchromatic
(pale-staining)...
Nissl body unique feature of neuron
Nissl bodies are
basophilic granular
areas formed by
the rER , iron &
free ribosomes.
Golgi complex
arranged
around the
periphery of
the nucleus.
Mitochondria are found through out of the cell body,
dendrites, and axons. They are spherical or rod shaped.
Axon hillock :
it is the area of
cell body which is
free of large
cytoplasmic
organelles. It is a
landmark to
distinguish
...
• Dendrites are
receptor processes that
receive stimuli from
other neurons or from
the external
environment
• Axon are eff...
What is gray matter and
white matter?
Grey matter
Nerve cell body
Neuroglia
Blood vessel
White matter
Nerve processes
Neuroglia
Blood vessels
Neuroglia
Blood ve...
• Gray matter: Neuron cell bodies
Neuroglial cells
Blood vessels
• White matter: Processes of neuron
Neuroglial cells
Bloo...
Location of gray & white matter in the CNS
• Cerebrum and
cerebellum ,
• Outer gray matter
• Inner white matter
• Spinal c...
Gray matter matter
Classification of neuron
According to the polarity
According to function
Sensory neuron
Motor neuron
Neuroglia
• The neuron of the central nervous system are
supported by several varieties of non excitable
cells, which toge...
There are four types of neuroglial cells in CNS &
two types in PNS:
CNS
1. Astrocytes
(a) fibrous
(b) protoplasmic
2. Olig...
Protoplasmic Astrocytes Fibrous Astrocytes
Oligodendrocytes Microglia
Ependyma
Schwann cells:
It have the same
function as
oligodendrocytes but
are located around
axons in the peripheral
NS.
Axon
Functions of neuroglia
Name of the neuroglia Functions
Astrocytes Formation of blood brain barrier
Oligodendrocyte Myelina...
Development of neuroglia
Name of the
neuroglia
Functions
Astrocytes Neuroectoderm
Oligodendrocyte Neuroectoderm
Ependymal ...
What is myelin sheath?
• Axon of neuron is covered by
sheaths which are modified cell
membranes of schwann cells in PNS
an...
Schwann
cells
Axon
Schwann cells undergo
spiraling around the axon
Myelination in the CNS by oligodendrocyte
Function of myelination
• It acts as an insulator
• Helps in impulse conduction
Ganglia
a collection of nerve cell bodies out side the
CNS
1. sensory ganglia of spinal nerves
(posterior root ganglia) an...
Nucleus: a collection of nerve cell bodies of
neuron in the CNS is called nucleus
Example:
Dorsal nucleus of vagus
nucleus...
Grey matter
White matter
Nucleus
What is synapse?
• The synapse is the specialised
junctions between two or
more adjacent neurons.
How impulse go from one neuron to
another ?
What are the types of synapses?
According to the location of synapse in the post
synaptic neurons
• How nervous system is
worked ?
Simple reflex arc
Reflex arc
• A reflex may be define as an involuntary response
to a stimulus. It depends on the integrity of the
reflex ar...
Structural organization of reflex may be two
types
•Monosynaptic reflex
Incoming axons of
the unipolar
primary sensory
neu...
Polysynaptic reflex
Types of reflex
• Reflex may be divided into 4 groups:
1) superficial (or skin and mucous membrane) reflexes
Corneal refle...
Nervous system easy introduction
Nervous system easy introduction
Nervous system easy introduction
Nervous system easy introduction
Nervous system easy introduction
Nervous system easy introduction
Nervous system easy introduction
Nervous system easy introduction
Nervous system easy introduction
Nervous system easy introduction
Nervous system easy introduction
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Nervous system easy introduction

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an easy introduction of nervous system. Detail theoretical information purposefully avoided. At the beginning of medical course, also biology student need to know about nervous system. Within short time this presentation give a simple overview of NS.

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Nervous system easy introduction

  1. 1. • General anatomy of nervous system
  2. 2. Nervous system • Nervous system integrates these sensory information, store information as memory Nervous system receives sensory information •From external environment (temperature, vision, sound etc.) •From body (touch, pressure, pain etc.) Nervous system makes an appropriate response, ex: movement of muscles
  3. 3. Simple flowchart of nervous system function Skin > touch > nerve (sensory nerve/afferent fibre/ascending tract) Brain  nerve(motor nerve/efferent fibres/descending tract)  muscle> movement
  4. 4. CNS : PRINCIPLES ROLES • Integrate and coordinate incoming and outgoing neural signals • Carry out higher mental functions such as thinking and learning
  5. 5. Division of nervous system • Structurally, • Central nervous system Brain Spinal cord • Peripheral nervous system Cranial nerves, Spinal nerves, Autonomic nerves
  6. 6. Functional division Somatic nervous system, is the part of nervous system which control voluntary activities Autonomic nervous system, is the part of nervous system concerned with the innervation of involuntary structures, such as the heart, smooth muscle, and glands within the body
  7. 7. What is the composition of nervous tissue? 1. Neuron ( nerve cell ) 2. Neuroglia Nerve cell body Processes Dendrite Axon
  8. 8. Nerve cell body Nerve cell processes Dendrite Axon
  9. 9. Histological feature of neuron nerve cell body A centrally placed spherical, unusually large , euchromatic (pale-staining) nucleus with a prominent nucleolus,
  10. 10. Nissl body unique feature of neuron Nissl bodies are basophilic granular areas formed by the rER , iron & free ribosomes.
  11. 11. Golgi complex arranged around the periphery of the nucleus.
  12. 12. Mitochondria are found through out of the cell body, dendrites, and axons. They are spherical or rod shaped.
  13. 13. Axon hillock : it is the area of cell body which is free of large cytoplasmic organelles. It is a landmark to distinguish between axons and dendrites in both light & TEM microscopes.
  14. 14. • Dendrites are receptor processes that receive stimuli from other neurons or from the external environment • Axon are effector processes that transmit stimuli to other neurons or effector cells
  15. 15. What is gray matter and white matter?
  16. 16. Grey matter Nerve cell body Neuroglia Blood vessel White matter Nerve processes Neuroglia Blood vessels Neuroglia Blood vessels
  17. 17. • Gray matter: Neuron cell bodies Neuroglial cells Blood vessels • White matter: Processes of neuron Neuroglial cells Blood vessels
  18. 18. Location of gray & white matter in the CNS • Cerebrum and cerebellum , • Outer gray matter • Inner white matter • Spinal cord, • outer part white matter • Inner gray matter
  19. 19. Gray matter matter
  20. 20. Classification of neuron According to the polarity
  21. 21. According to function Sensory neuron Motor neuron
  22. 22. Neuroglia • The neuron of the central nervous system are supported by several varieties of non excitable cells, which together are called neuroglia. • They are smaller than the neuron • Number of them 5-10 times greater than the neuron
  23. 23. There are four types of neuroglial cells in CNS & two types in PNS: CNS 1. Astrocytes (a) fibrous (b) protoplasmic 2. Oligodendrocytes 3. Microglia 4. Ependyma • PNS 1. Schwann cells 2. Satellite cells.
  24. 24. Protoplasmic Astrocytes Fibrous Astrocytes
  25. 25. Oligodendrocytes Microglia
  26. 26. Ependyma
  27. 27. Schwann cells: It have the same function as oligodendrocytes but are located around axons in the peripheral NS. Axon
  28. 28. Functions of neuroglia Name of the neuroglia Functions Astrocytes Formation of blood brain barrier Oligodendrocyte Myelination of nerve fibers in the CNS Ependymal cells secrete, circulate and absorbed CSF Microglia Phagocytic function in inflamed brain (They are inactive in normal brain) Schwann cells Myelination of nerve fibers in the PNS
  29. 29. Development of neuroglia Name of the neuroglia Functions Astrocytes Neuroectoderm Oligodendrocyte Neuroectoderm Ependymal cells Neuroectoderm Microglia Mesodermal in origin Schwann cells Neural crest
  30. 30. What is myelin sheath? • Axon of neuron is covered by sheaths which are modified cell membranes of schwann cells in PNS and oligodendrocytes in CNS
  31. 31. Schwann cells Axon Schwann cells undergo spiraling around the axon
  32. 32. Myelination in the CNS by oligodendrocyte
  33. 33. Function of myelination • It acts as an insulator • Helps in impulse conduction
  34. 34. Ganglia a collection of nerve cell bodies out side the CNS 1. sensory ganglia of spinal nerves (posterior root ganglia) and cranial nerves 2. autonomic ganglia
  35. 35. Nucleus: a collection of nerve cell bodies of neuron in the CNS is called nucleus Example: Dorsal nucleus of vagus nucleus ambiguous, nucleus of tractus solitarius
  36. 36. Grey matter White matter Nucleus
  37. 37. What is synapse? • The synapse is the specialised junctions between two or more adjacent neurons.
  38. 38. How impulse go from one neuron to another ?
  39. 39. What are the types of synapses? According to the location of synapse in the post synaptic neurons
  40. 40. • How nervous system is worked ?
  41. 41. Simple reflex arc
  42. 42. Reflex arc • A reflex may be define as an involuntary response to a stimulus. It depends on the integrity of the reflex arc . A reflex arc consists of the following anatomical structures: Location 1) a receptor organ Skin, muscle, or tendon 2) an afferent neuron Posterior root ganglion 3) an effector neuron Example: Lower motor neuron located in the ventral horn of spinal cord 4) an effector organ Example: Skeletal muscle
  43. 43. Structural organization of reflex may be two types •Monosynaptic reflex Incoming axons of the unipolar primary sensory neurons synapse directly on a motor neuron. Example: tendon jerks •Polysynaptic reflex In these reflex one or more interneurons, excitatory or inhibitory, intervene between sensory and motor neurons.
  44. 44. Polysynaptic reflex
  45. 45. Types of reflex • Reflex may be divided into 4 groups: 1) superficial (or skin and mucous membrane) reflexes Corneal reflexes, gag reflexes 2) deep (or myotatic) reflexes Jaw jerk, knee jerk 3) visceral ( or organic) reflexes Pupillary reflex 4) pathological (or abnormal) reflexes Ankle clonus, Babinski’s sign

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