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Accidents

Accidents

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Accidents

  1. 1. ACCIDENTS
  2. 2. It is unexpected, unplanned event that produces injury, death, property loss or damage. • An increasing problem in both developed & developing countries. • It is the 2nd leading cause of deaths in developing countries Road traffic accidents Home accidents Occupational accidents Natural disaster Birth injuries Sport injuries War accidents
  3. 3. ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS Injuries such as laceration, contusions, bleeding, paralysis, fractures, and amputation are common. Death is commonly associated with road traffic accidents. Egypt loses about 12 000 lives due to road traffic crashes every year. It has a road traffic fatality rate of 42 deaths per 100 000 population.
  4. 4. RISK FACTORS Road defects: Narrow Crowded Inadequate lightening Lack of traffic signs Vehicle defects: Old models Bad maintenance Variability in size. Host factors (driver): Impaired alertness. Inadequate training. Negligence of wearing seat belts or helmets. Psychic upset. Pedestrian: Extreme of age Impaired alertness Negligence of traffic signals Obesity.
  5. 5. PREVENTION OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS Roads: Town planning. Good lightening. Sufficient traffic signals. Drivers: Proper medical examination before license. Sufficient training. Using seat belt, wearing helmets. Pedestrians: Raising awareness. Vehicles: Periodic maintenance. Strict legislations.
  6. 6. HOME ACCIDENTS Burns • Fire • Boiling fluids • Matches. Falls • On stairs • Striking against furniture • Slippery floor. Electric shock • Neglected maintenance • Exposed wire. Wounds • Sharp knives • Pointed articles. Chemical poisoning • Drugs • Caustic soda • Detergents. Collapse of old buildings. Animal bites
  7. 7. RISK FACTORS Extreme of age. Epilepsy Fainting Loss of consciousness. Over confidence in repairing electric appliance. Unsafe building Bad illumination Slippery floor or stairs.
  8. 8. PREVENTION Storage of medications & toxic substance in closed places. Close windows & balcony Matches, sharp knives should be put in hidden places. Children should not stay with mothers in kitchens. Proper arrangement of furniture & using non slippery tiles. First aid must be present in every house Drying floor. Cover the electric plug opening in the wall
  9. 9. OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS Accidents occurring during work including acts of violence which result in • a) fatal injury • b) non-fatal injury. At risk group • Construction workers, agricultural workers, miners, industrial workers etc… Common body parts injured • Upper & lower limbs, trunk, back, head & neck. Injury nature • Cuts, lacerations, contusions, sprains, strains, fractures, & burns.
  10. 10. Personal factors • Age • Sex • Lack of training • Negligence of wearing PPE • Poor physical & mental health Environmental factors • Poor ventilation • Poor illumination • ↑ or ↓ temperature • Noise • Crowded places. Machinery factors • Unshielded • Exposed electricity • Poor maintenance • Lack of safety measures. Working conditions • Prolonged working hours & inadequate rest hours. • Lack of training. • Lack of supervision. • Poor communication
  11. 11. INDICATORS OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS
  12. 12. IMPACT OF ACCIDENTS ON WORKERS, INDUSTRY, AND ECONOMY Impaired health, disability & handicapping, & death. Psychic problems (PTSD). ↑ absenteeism & ↓ productivity. ↑ expenses on medical care, rehabilitation & compensation.
  13. 13. PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS • Improving work environment. • Good machinery design, safety & good maintenance. • Health education of workers & proper training before work • Prevention of fatigue & solving psychological troubles. • ttt of any illness & good nutrition. • Research studies. 1ry prevention • 1st aid & emergency services for proper management of injuries at all work places. 2ry prevention • Change the job of injured worker & proper training • Artificial limb in amputation & special aids for handicapped workers. 3ry prevention

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