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  2. 2. Hypertension “HPN” is one of the major risk factors for CVDs.
  3. 3. TYPES & RF OF HYPERTENSION 1ry No identified cause (in most cases). Genetic or familial tendency. Middle age Males but equal sex incidence after menopause. ↑Cholesterol & LDL or ↓ HDL. Unhealthy lifestyle Smoking Alcohol intake Physical inactivity Stress, ↑ Salt, ↓ K intake Obesity DM 2ry Renal & endocrine causes Hormonal & drug intake.
  4. 4. SCREENING TESTS FOR HPN For screening purpose in the community-based epidemiological cross-sectional studies, these standards could be used. 2 readings should be taken at least 5 minutes apart & average result represents current Bl.Pr. measurement In the medical settings, diagnosis of HPN depends on findings of Bl.Pr. levels for >2 times few weeks apart.
  6. 6. Life style modifications (key management) as ↓weight, avoidance of smoking & alcohol intake, dietary salt & fat restriction, avoidance of stress & keeping physical exercise. Early detection Frequent blood pressure measurements after age of 40 years. Antihypertensive drugs If the lifestyle modifications are ineffective alone or the level of HPN at the start is so high. Management of causes of 2ry HPM. Prevention