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Dr. Dalia Abdallah El-Shafei
Lecturer, Community medicine department, Zagazig University
WORK STRESS
A Brief History of Job Stress
Occupational stress is a relatively new research domain
that crystallized in the early 1970s.
Hans Selye
“The father of the stress field“
(January 26, 1907 — October 16, 1982)
Canadian endocrinologist
Walter Cannon
1871 -1945 AD.
American Psychologist.
“Fight-or-Flight" response  Cannon advanced the concept of
physiologic homeostasis &
developed an engineering
concept of ...
Richard S. Lazarus
American Professor of Psychology.
1922 – 2002
Stress, Appraisal, and Coping
 Cognitive appraisal: Intrapsychic process that translates
objective events into stressful experiences.
 Subjective fact...
Arthur Kornhauser
American Industrial psychologist
1896-1990
Presidents of the Industrial and Business Section of the
Amer...
occupational stress
NIOSH (1996) identified the "organization of work"
which includes work-related psychosocial stressors,...
Top 10 Most Stressful Jobs for 2013:
1) Enlisted military personnel
2) Police Officer
3) Miner
4) Taxi Driver
5) Firefight...
The 10 Least Stressful Jobs for 2013:
1. University professors
2. Tailors
3. Medical Records Technician
4. Jeweler
5. Medi...
Model of Job Stress and Health
 Over the past 25 years a paradigm of stress was developed
by researchers at NIOSH to guid...
The ‘bucket’ model
• Workload(Qualitative or Ouantitative). - Work pace.
• Degree of decision latitude. - Shift work.
Jobor
task
demands
• Ro...
Karasek job-strain model
Moderating Factors
A number of personal & situational characteristics can Alter
or Modify the way individual workers expos...
• Type A behavior pattern (TABP): intense striving for achievement,
competitiveness, time urgency, excessive drive, & over...
Hardiness
(3Cs)
Commitment
(Sense of inner purpose)
Challenge
(Viewing stressful situations as opportunities for growth &
...
Focus of
coping
Problem-
focused
Emotion-
focused
method of coping
Behavioral methods
Control Escape Social Solitary
Cognitive methods
Control the
stressor
Escape from the
...
A prolonged response to chronic emotional
& interpersonal stressors on the job.
Human service industry.
Emotional exhaustion
Lack of personal
accomplishment
Depersonalization
“Feelings of cynicism &
detachment from the job &
s...
Stress Burnout
Over-engagement Dis-engagement
Emotions are overreactive Emotions are blunted
Produces urgency &
hyperactiv...
Prevention & Intervention
Tertiary
heal traumatized
Secondary
(stress management)
alter the ways to perceive
or respond to...
 Focus primarily on human processes & psychosocial aspects
of the work setting.
 Aim: ↓ stress by changing employees' pe...
Participatory Action Research (PAR)
Employees are involved, jointly with outside experts, in an
empowering process of def...
Socio-technical Interventions
 Focus primarily on changes to objective working
conditions & are considered to have impli...
 Help workers to modify their appraisals of stressful
situations or to deal with the symptoms of stress or
both.
 Typica...
‫وا‬ ‫ائية‬‫الوق‬‫األستراتيجيات‬‫لعالجية‬
‫النفسي‬‫للضغط‬
‫للض‬ ‫والعالجية‬ ‫ائية‬‫الوق‬‫األستراتيجيات‬‫النفسي‬‫غط‬
‫ا‬ ‫حياته‬ ‫في‬ ‫الفرد‬ ‫يواجهها‬ ‫التي‬ ‫الضغوط‬ ‫آثار‬ ‫من‬ ‫...
1-‫البدن‬ ‫النشاط‬‫ي‬:
‫أن‬‫مجرد‬‫وقفة‬‫قصيرة‬‫بعد‬‫كل‬‫نصف‬‫ساعة‬‫من‬‫العمل‬‫الفكري‬‫ال‬‫مجهد‬
،‫ينهض‬‫فيها‬‫الفرد‬‫ويسير...
2-‫اإلسترخاء‬:
-‫تحقيق‬‫إسترخاء‬‫تام‬‫أثناء‬‫النوم‬‫يؤدي‬‫إلى‬‫راحة‬‫كاملة‬.
-‫تهدئ‬‫الجهاز‬‫العصبي‬‫و‬‫تنظم‬‫التنفس‬‫و‬‫ا...
3-‫اليوغا‬:
‫تهدئ‬‫نبضات‬‫القلب‬‫وحركة‬‫التنفس‬،‫محدثة‬‫ش‬‫ع‬‫ورا‬‫باإلست‬‫رخاء‬،
‫ليبلغ‬‫حد‬‫النعاس‬‫أو‬‫النوم‬.
‫فتمارين...
4-‫الصالة‬:
‫يؤكد‬‫الطب‬‫النفسي‬‫أن‬‫الصالة‬‫واإليمان‬‫العميق‬‫يقلالن‬‫من‬
‫تأثيرات‬‫المشاغل‬‫والقلق‬‫و‬‫الضغط‬‫والمخاوف‬‫...
5-‫الفيزيائي‬ ‫العالجات‬‫ة‬:
‫الصو‬ ‫بجميع‬ ‫الماء‬ ‫استخدام‬ ،‫بالتدليك‬ ‫أو‬ ‫بالماء‬ ‫العالج‬‫وفي‬ ‫ر‬
‫أو‬ ، ‫الماء‬ ‫...
6-‫المعرفي‬ ‫العالج‬‫السلوكي‬:
‫تغيير‬‫إدراك‬‫الموقف‬‫الذي‬‫يعتبر‬،‫مجهدا‬‫فتتغير‬‫بذلك‬‫اس‬‫تجابة‬
‫العضو‬‫الفسيولوجية‬‫و...
7-‫الصحي‬ ‫الغذاء‬
‫أوميجا‬–3:‫السمسم‬ ‫وزيت‬ ‫الكتان‬ ‫بذرة‬ ‫وزيت‬ ‫األسماك‬.
‫فيتامين‬6B:‫ا‬ ‫زيادة‬ ‫عن‬ ‫المسئول‬ ‫السيروتونين‬ ‫هرمون...
World pillow fight day
‫املخدات‬ ‫لضرب‬ ‫العاملي‬ ‫اليوم‬”6‫يل‬‫ر‬‫اب‬“
‫ال‬ ‫مئات‬ ‫احتشد‬ ‫ان‬ ‫بعد‬ ‫ومدرسين‬ ‫العمل‬ ‫رؤساء‬ ‫أسماء‬ ‫تحمل‬ ‫...
Individual-oriented strategies:
 Often easier to implement,
 Can be evaluated in the short term
 Not require disruptio...
Organizational-oriented strategies:
 Require an assessment of the work conditions that
generate stress & knowledge of th...
 Cognitive-behavioral skills training: effective in ↓
psychological symptoms of stress
 Muscle relaxation training: main...
 Therapeutic treatment of physical, psychological or
behavioral consequences of exposures to job stressors.
Medical Care...
The goals of an EAP are to restore employees
to full productivity
Identifying employees with drug abuse, emotional, or
b...
Cost-effectiveness of EAP programs:
Reduced health claims, financial savings, lower
absenteeism rates & overall return on...
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Occupational Stress

  1. 1. Dr. Dalia Abdallah El-Shafei Lecturer, Community medicine department, Zagazig University WORK STRESS
  2. 2. A Brief History of Job Stress Occupational stress is a relatively new research domain that crystallized in the early 1970s.
  3. 3. Hans Selye “The father of the stress field“ (January 26, 1907 — October 16, 1982) Canadian endocrinologist
  4. 4. Walter Cannon 1871 -1945 AD. American Psychologist.
  5. 5. “Fight-or-Flight" response  Cannon advanced the concept of physiologic homeostasis & developed an engineering concept of stress and strain.
  6. 6. Richard S. Lazarus American Professor of Psychology. 1922 – 2002 Stress, Appraisal, and Coping
  7. 7.  Cognitive appraisal: Intrapsychic process that translates objective events into stressful experiences.  Subjective factors play larger role in stress experience than objective events.  Any objective event can at once be perceived positively by one person & negatively by another "One person's meat is another person's poison".
  8. 8. Arthur Kornhauser American Industrial psychologist 1896-1990 Presidents of the Industrial and Business Section of the American Association for Applied Psychology (AAAP) {1941-1943} “Psychological tests in business” (1924) “When Labor Votes: a Study of Auto Workers" (1956) "Mental Health of the Industrial Worker" (1965).
  9. 9. occupational stress NIOSH (1996) identified the "organization of work" which includes work-related psychosocial stressors, as one of 21 national OSH research priorities.
  10. 10. Top 10 Most Stressful Jobs for 2013: 1) Enlisted military personnel 2) Police Officer 3) Miner 4) Taxi Driver 5) Firefighter 6) Commercial Pilot 7) Newspaper Reporter 8) Photojournalist 9) Loss prevention officer 10) Mental Health Case Manager 11) Medical professional 20) Teacher
  11. 11. The 10 Least Stressful Jobs for 2013: 1. University professors 2. Tailors 3. Medical Records Technician 4. Jeweler 5. Medical lab technician 6. Audiologist 7. Dietitian 8. Hairstylist 9. Librarian 10. Drill Press Operator
  12. 12. Model of Job Stress and Health  Over the past 25 years a paradigm of stress was developed by researchers at NIOSH to guide efforts at examining the relationship between working conditions and health consequences.
  13. 13. The ‘bucket’ model
  14. 14. • Workload(Qualitative or Ouantitative). - Work pace. • Degree of decision latitude. - Shift work. Jobor task demands • Role stressors: role ambiguity & role conflict • Management styles: lack of participation in decision making & effective consultation & excessive restrictions • Career development: over or under promotion, lack of job security & fear of task redundancy, job obsolescence, & early retirement. • Poor relationships: aggression, violence (U.S. workers; 6% physical violence, 41% nonphysical aggression). Organizational factors • Excessive noise. - Heat or cold. • Poor ventilation. outbreaks of MSI • Inadequate lighting. - Ergonomic design deficiencies. Physical conditions Job Stressors & Their Consequences
  15. 15. Karasek job-strain model
  16. 16. Moderating Factors A number of personal & situational characteristics can Alter or Modify the way individual workers exposed to a work environment Perceive or React to it.
  17. 17. • Type A behavior pattern (TABP): intense striving for achievement, competitiveness, time urgency, excessive drive, & over commitment to vocation or profession. • Hardy personality: optimistic appraisals of events • Internal locus of control: a general belief that events in life are controlled by their actions. • Stage of career development: work experience (job tenure) Individual Factors •Interpersonal, marital, financial, & child-rearing stressors. Workers clearly do not leave their family & personal problems behind when they go to work, nor do they forget job problems on returning home. Nonworkor Extra Occupational Factors • Social Support: work & nonwork sources • Coping (educational level & income): Maladaptive coping (such as working harder, but making more mistakes). But resistance of may be due to the impersonal nature of work & lack of worker control over this class of stressors (Personality Hardiness). • Lifestyle Factors: physical fitness & exercise, smoking cessation, sound nutrition habits, and stress management (Health promotion). BufferFactors (↓oreliminatetheeffects ofjobstressors)
  18. 18. Hardiness (3Cs) Commitment (Sense of inner purpose) Challenge (Viewing stressful situations as opportunities for growth & development of individual abilities) Internal locus of Control (Having power over owns life & attitude)
  19. 19. Focus of coping Problem- focused Emotion- focused
  20. 20. method of coping Behavioral methods Control Escape Social Solitary Cognitive methods Control the stressor Escape from the stressor
  21. 21. A prolonged response to chronic emotional & interpersonal stressors on the job. Human service industry.
  22. 22. Emotional exhaustion Lack of personal accomplishment Depersonalization “Feelings of cynicism & detachment from the job & sense of ineffectiveness” 3 key dimensions of Multidimensional model of burnout phenomenon.
  23. 23. Stress Burnout Over-engagement Dis-engagement Emotions are overreactive Emotions are blunted Produces urgency & hyperactivity Produces helplessness & hopelessness Loss of energy Loss of motivation, ideals & hope Leads to anxiety disorders Leads to depression “mood disorders” Primary damage is physical Primary damage is emotional May kill you prematurely May make life seem not worth living
  24. 24. Prevention & Intervention Tertiary heal traumatized Secondary (stress management) alter the ways to perceive or respond to job stressors Primary ↓ or eliminate risk factors or job stressors • Medical Care • Psychological Counseling & Therapy • Individual-oriented strategies. • Organizationally oriented strategies. • Psychosocial interventions • Socio-technical interventions
  25. 25.  Focus primarily on human processes & psychosocial aspects of the work setting.  Aim: ↓ stress by changing employees' perceptions of work environment (modifications of objective working conditions). Psychosocial Interventions
  26. 26. Participatory Action Research (PAR) Employees are involved, jointly with outside experts, in an empowering process of defining problems (identifying stressors), developing intervention strategies, introducing changes that benefit employees, and measuring outcomes. Methodology in which researchers & workers collaborate in a process of data-guided problem solving for the dual purposes of improving the organization's ability to provide workers with desired outcomes & contributing to the general operational knowledge.
  27. 27. Socio-technical Interventions  Focus primarily on changes to objective working conditions & are considered to have implications for work- related stress.  Aimed at eliminating job stressors by making change to objective working conditions or environment.  Involved the modification of workload, work schedules, & work processes.
  28. 28.  Help workers to modify their appraisals of stressful situations or to deal with the symptoms of stress or both.  Typically, Prescriptive & person-oriented  Relaxation-based techniques: 1. Biofeedback, 2. Progressive muscle relaxation, 3. Meditation, 4. Self-hypnosis 5. Cognitive-behavioral skills training.
  29. 29. ‫وا‬ ‫ائية‬‫الوق‬‫األستراتيجيات‬‫لعالجية‬ ‫النفسي‬‫للضغط‬
  30. 30. ‫للض‬ ‫والعالجية‬ ‫ائية‬‫الوق‬‫األستراتيجيات‬‫النفسي‬‫غط‬ ‫ا‬ ‫حياته‬ ‫في‬ ‫الفرد‬ ‫يواجهها‬ ‫التي‬ ‫الضغوط‬ ‫آثار‬ ‫من‬ ‫للتخفيف‬، ‫ليومية‬ ‫أو‬ ‫إدارتها‬ ‫أو‬ ‫منها‬ ‫الحد‬ ‫أو‬ ‫عليها‬ ‫السيطرة‬ ‫على‬ ‫مساعدته‬ ‫أي‬ ‫معها‬ ‫والتكيف‬ ‫تحملها‬.
  31. 31. 1-‫البدن‬ ‫النشاط‬‫ي‬: ‫أن‬‫مجرد‬‫وقفة‬‫قصيرة‬‫بعد‬‫كل‬‫نصف‬‫ساعة‬‫من‬‫العمل‬‫الفكري‬‫ال‬‫مجهد‬ ،‫ينهض‬‫فيها‬‫الفرد‬‫ويسير‬‫في‬‫الحجرة‬‫مع‬‫قيامه‬‫بحركات‬‫ت‬‫نفسية‬ ،‫عميقة‬‫أو‬‫شد‬‫جسمه‬‫على‬‫الكرسي‬‫مع‬‫اإلنحناء‬‫على‬‫الظهر‬ ‫والتنفس‬،‫بعمق‬‫يضمن‬‫ذلك‬‫زيادة‬‫في‬‫إمكانات‬‫العمل‬‫الفكر‬‫ي‬ ‫وإنتاجيته‬‫بشكل‬‫ملموس‬.
  32. 32. 2-‫اإلسترخاء‬: -‫تحقيق‬‫إسترخاء‬‫تام‬‫أثناء‬‫النوم‬‫يؤدي‬‫إلى‬‫راحة‬‫كاملة‬. -‫تهدئ‬‫الجهاز‬‫العصبي‬‫و‬‫تنظم‬‫التنفس‬‫و‬‫النبض‬. -‫التخلص‬‫من‬‫التعب‬‫الناتج‬‫عن‬‫العمل‬. -‫توقف‬‫الحركات‬‫اإلرادية‬‫للعضالت‬‫و‬‫تخفض‬‫النشاط‬‫النف‬‫سي‬. -‫التمكن‬‫من‬‫التحكم‬‫في‬‫الذات‬‫والوعي‬‫بها‬.
  33. 33. 3-‫اليوغا‬: ‫تهدئ‬‫نبضات‬‫القلب‬‫وحركة‬‫التنفس‬،‫محدثة‬‫ش‬‫ع‬‫ورا‬‫باإلست‬‫رخاء‬، ‫ليبلغ‬‫حد‬‫النعاس‬‫أو‬‫النوم‬. ‫فتمارينها‬‫تصل‬‫إلى‬‫عمق‬‫األعضاء‬‫المختلفة‬،‫خاصة‬‫الغدد‬‫الص‬‫ماء‬ ‫والدورة‬‫الدموية‬‫و‬‫الشكل‬‫السليم‬‫للعمود‬،‫الفقري‬‫وبإمكان‬‫ا‬‫لفرد‬ ‫الممارس‬‫لها‬‫أن‬‫يصل‬‫إلى‬‫التحكم‬‫اإلرادي‬‫ألي‬‫عضلة‬‫من‬ ‫عضالت‬‫جسمه‬.
  34. 34. 4-‫الصالة‬: ‫يؤكد‬‫الطب‬‫النفسي‬‫أن‬‫الصالة‬‫واإليمان‬‫العميق‬‫يقلالن‬‫من‬ ‫تأثيرات‬‫المشاغل‬‫والقلق‬‫و‬‫الضغط‬‫والمخاوف‬‫على‬‫الف‬‫رد‬.
  35. 35. 5-‫الفيزيائي‬ ‫العالجات‬‫ة‬: ‫الصو‬ ‫بجميع‬ ‫الماء‬ ‫استخدام‬ ،‫بالتدليك‬ ‫أو‬ ‫بالماء‬ ‫العالج‬‫وفي‬ ‫ر‬ ‫أو‬ ، ‫الماء‬ ‫كدوش‬ ‫مختلفة‬ ‫حرارة‬ ‫درجات‬‫حمام‬‫الب‬‫خ‬‫ار‬ (‫الساونا‬) ‫الغضب‬ ‫نار‬ ‫يطفيء‬ ‫الوضوء‬
  36. 36. 6-‫المعرفي‬ ‫العالج‬‫السلوكي‬: ‫تغيير‬‫إدراك‬‫الموقف‬‫الذي‬‫يعتبر‬،‫مجهدا‬‫فتتغير‬‫بذلك‬‫اس‬‫تجابة‬ ‫العضو‬‫الفسيولوجية‬‫واالنفعالية‬‫وال‬‫يحدث‬‫إجهاد‬. ‫المشكلة‬‫ف‬‫نفس‬ ‫الحدث‬ ‫في‬ ‫وليس‬ ‫للحدث‬ ‫تقييمنا‬ ‫كيفية‬ ‫ي‬‫ه‬. ‫عاد‬ ‫عندما‬‫ا‬‫يت‬ ‫مريضا‬ ‫أعرابيا‬ ‫وسلم‬ ‫عليه‬ ‫هللا‬ ‫صلى‬ ‫لرسول‬‫لوى‬ ‫قائال‬ ‫فواسا‬ ،‫الحمى‬ ‫شدة‬ ‫من‬:"‫طهور‬"‫األعرابي‬ ‫فقال‬:‫هي‬ ‫بل‬ ‫الرس‬ ‫فقال‬ ،‫القبور‬ ‫لتورده‬ ، ‫كبير‬ ‫شيخ‬ ‫على‬ ،‫تفور‬ ‫حمى‬‫ول‬ ‫وسلم‬ ‫عليه‬ ‫هللا‬ ‫صلى‬:"‫إذن‬ ‫فهي‬".
  37. 37. 7-‫الصحي‬ ‫الغذاء‬
  38. 38. ‫أوميجا‬–3:‫السمسم‬ ‫وزيت‬ ‫الكتان‬ ‫بذرة‬ ‫وزيت‬ ‫األسماك‬. ‫فيتامين‬6B:‫ا‬ ‫زيادة‬ ‫عن‬ ‫المسئول‬ ‫السيروتونين‬ ‫هرمون‬ ‫إلنتاج‬ ً‫ا‬‫ضروري‬ ‫يعتبر‬‫لشعور‬ ‫المخ‬ ‫في‬ ‫بالسعادة‬.‫الغذائية‬ ‫مصادره‬ ‫ومن‬:،‫والسبانخ‬ ،‫والجزر‬ ،‫والسمك‬ ،‫البيض‬‫والدجاج‬ ‫الشمس‬ ‫دوار‬ ‫وبذور‬ ،‫والخميرة‬"‫السوري‬ ‫اللب‬." ‫الشوكوالتة‬:‫الشوكوالتة‬ ‫من‬ ‫صغيرة‬ ‫قطعة‬ ‫أن‬(85‫غرام‬)‫تحسين‬ ‫على‬ ‫تعمل‬ ‫أن‬ ‫كفيلة‬ ‫ما‬ ‫على‬ ‫الكاكاو‬ ‫مسحوق‬ ‫إلحتواء‬ ‫وذلك‬ ‫كبيرة‬ ‫بدرجة‬ ‫المعنوية‬ ‫الروح‬ ‫ورفع‬ ‫المزاج‬‫دة‬ ‫التربيتوفان‬Tryptophan‫والنفسية‬ ‫المزاجية‬ ‫للحالة‬ ‫المنشطة‬. ‫الفاكهة‬:‫كالتي‬ ‫فيها‬ ‫الغلوكوز‬ ‫سكر‬ ‫نسبة‬ ‫بإرتفاع‬ ‫تمتاز‬ ‫الفاكهة‬ ‫من‬ ‫أنواع‬ ‫هناك‬‫والمانجو‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ويحافظ‬ ‫الطاقة‬ ‫من‬ ‫يحتاجه‬ ‫بما‬ ‫الجسم‬ ‫يمد‬ ‫الذي‬ ‫األمر‬ ‫والشمام‬ ‫والبطيخ‬ ‫والعنب‬‫لى‬ ‫له‬ ‫المزاجية‬ ‫الحالة‬ ‫الحار‬ ‫الفلفل‬:‫هرمون‬ ‫زيادة‬ ‫على‬ ‫يحفز‬ ‫الحار‬ ‫الفلفل‬ ‫تناول‬ ‫أن‬"‫اإلندروفين‬"‫ال‬ ‫في‬‫جسم‬‫كما‬ ‫يحتوي‬‫من‬ ‫جيدة‬ ‫نسبة‬ ‫على‬"‫الماغنسيوم‬"‫ا‬ ‫وصفاء‬ ‫المخ‬ ‫تهدئة‬ ‫على‬ ‫يساعد‬ ‫الذي‬‫لحالة‬ ‫الذهنية‬.‫التأث‬ ‫تقاوم‬ ‫ة‬ّ‫ط‬‫بالش‬ ‫الغنية‬ ‫الوجبات‬ ‫أن‬ ‫األبحاث‬ ‫تفيد‬ ‫أخرى‬ ‫جهة‬ ‫ومن‬‫السلبية‬ ‫يرات‬ ‫النفسية‬ ‫الضغوط‬ ‫أو‬ ‫التوتر‬ ‫عن‬ ‫الناتجة‬.
  39. 39. World pillow fight day
  40. 40. ‫املخدات‬ ‫لضرب‬ ‫العاملي‬ ‫اليوم‬”6‫يل‬‫ر‬‫اب‬“ ‫ال‬ ‫مئات‬ ‫احتشد‬ ‫ان‬ ‫بعد‬ ‫ومدرسين‬ ‫العمل‬ ‫رؤساء‬ ‫أسماء‬ ‫تحمل‬ ‫وسائد‬ ‫الهواء‬ ‫في‬ ‫تطايرت‬‫صينيين‬ ‫الضغوط‬ ‫عن‬ ‫للتنفيس‬ ‫الوسائد‬ ‫لضرب‬ ‫شنغهاي‬ ‫مدينة‬ ‫في‬.‫يق‬ ‫الذي‬ ‫الحدث‬ ‫واجتذب‬‫للعام‬ ‫ام‬ ‫يتع‬ ‫الذين‬ ‫المحبطين‬ ‫والتالميذ‬ ‫المرؤوسين‬ ‫من‬ ‫متزايدة‬ ‫أعدادا‬ ‫التوالي‬ ‫على‬ ‫الخامس‬‫رضون‬ ‫ال‬ ‫عيد‬ ‫قبل‬ ‫الوسائد‬ ‫لمعارك‬ ‫ليلتين‬ ‫تخصيص‬ ‫الى‬ ‫المنظمين‬ ‫اضطر‬ ‫مما‬ ‫للضغوط‬‫كما‬ ‫ميالد‬ ‫يوم‬ ‫اخرى‬ ‫مناسبة‬ ‫اقامة‬ ‫يعتزمون‬30‫الحالي‬ ‫ديسمبر‬. ‫مواد‬ ‫او‬ ‫مدرسية‬ ‫او‬ ‫العمل‬ ‫في‬ ‫رؤسائه‬ ‫اسماء‬ ‫الوسادة‬ ‫على‬ ‫يكتب‬ ‫ان‬ ‫شخص‬ ‫كل‬ ‫على‬ ‫درجة‬ ‫اقصى‬ ‫الى‬ ‫نفسه‬ ‫عن‬ ‫وينفس‬ ‫ويستمتع‬ ‫االمتحانات‬.«‫الض‬ ‫عن‬ ‫التنفيس‬ ‫بعد‬‫بوسعنا‬ ‫غوط‬ ‫بفرحة‬ ‫جديد‬ ‫من‬ ‫الحياة‬ ‫نواجه‬ ‫ان‬».‫وتن‬ ‫المشاركين‬ ‫على‬ ‫الوسائد‬ ‫توزع‬ ‫الدخول‬ ‫وعند‬‫في‬ ‫طلق‬ ‫الوسائد‬ ‫معركة‬ ‫تبدأ‬ ‫ثم‬ ‫للتحفيز‬ ‫كعامل‬ ‫الروك‬ ‫موسيقى‬ ‫نغمات‬ ‫االجواء‬.
  41. 41. Individual-oriented strategies:  Often easier to implement,  Can be evaluated in the short term  Not require disruptions in production schedules or organizational structure,  Fit nicely with the frequently held management view that stress is an individual rather than an organizational problem  Compatible with the expanding interest of employers in health promotion & disease prevention programs that focus exclusively on individual lifestyle & behavior changes to improve health.
  42. 42. Organizational-oriented strategies:  Require an assessment of the work conditions that generate stress & knowledge of the dynamics of change processes in organizations.  These change strategies can be expensive & disruptive and may make them less appealing to management.
  43. 43.  Cognitive-behavioral skills training: effective in ↓ psychological symptoms of stress  Muscle relaxation training: main effects on physiologic indicators such as muscle activity.  Combinations of techniques, especially muscle relaxation plus cognitive-behavioral skills training, are the most common type of stress management intervention.  These interventions focused on changing the individual worker, not the job-related sources of stress. None of them effective in producing effects on job/organization-relevant outcomes, as productivity, absenteeism, or job satisfaction.
  44. 44.  Therapeutic treatment of physical, psychological or behavioral consequences of exposures to job stressors. Medical Care Psychological Counseling & Therapy  Treat work-related mental health problems.  Behavior & cognitive therapy; Supportive counseling, and Insight-oriented psychotherapy.  Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs): provide a variety of mental health-related services. Employees can refer themselves to the EAP or be referred by management.
  45. 45. The goals of an EAP are to restore employees to full productivity Identifying employees with drug abuse, emotional, or behavioral problems resulting in deviant work performance; Motivating such individuals to seek help Supplying short-term professional counseling assistance. Referral & Directing employees toward best available assistance Providing continuing support & guidance throughout problem-solving period.
  46. 46. Cost-effectiveness of EAP programs: Reduced health claims, financial savings, lower absenteeism rates & overall return on investment. Confidentiality, may limit the use of onsite mental health resources.

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