Chris Treadaway & Mari Smith - Facebook Marketing

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Chris Treadaway & Mari Smith - Facebook Marketing

  1. 1. Facebook ® Marketing Chris Treadaway and Mari Smith SERIOUS SKILLS. A N H U R A D A YA N H U R A D A Y INSIDE: Get your free ticket to an online Facebook Marketing Workshop with the authors!
  2. 2. Advance Praise for Facebook Marketing: An Hour a Day Not only does FBMHD provide a practical framework for Facebook marketing, but it also offers a 360-degree perspective on how social media connects with a cross-section of marketing disciplines. By reading and using FBMHD, social-savvy marketers gain the strategies, tactics, and tools to cross the chasm from a hope-it-works community to a well-performing channel for marketing and communications. —Adam Weinroth, VP of Strategic Marketing, Demand Media Facebook is a powerful new marketing platform and thanks to this book it, just got a whole lot easier to understand and tap. —John Jantsch, author of The Referral Engine This is the only book that walks you through every step of creating, implementing, measuring, and optimizing a successful strategy for engaging on Facebook. Featuring proven strategies and techniques, this approachable guide walks the walk. It shows mar- keters at all levels how to roll up their sleeves, jump in, and get winning results quickly. —Brian Goldfarb, director, Microsoft The best marketing engages buyers with valuable information at the precise moment they are receptive. That’s why my chiropractor shares video exercises with me on Facebook! And it’s darned effective, too. If you want to learn how to tap the com- munications tool of choice for hundreds of millions of people around the world, study Facebook Marketing. The real-world examples from organizations of all kinds are especially valuable for those who still need to be convinced (like your boss). —David Meerman Scott, bestselling author of The New Rules of Marketing  PR, now published in 24 languages Even though (or perhaps because) it’s transforming the way businesses interact with cus- tomers and prospects, Facebook is often confusing and counterintuitive. Not anymore. Chris and Mari have created the Holy Grail, a book where nearly every page is worthy of an underline, highlight, or dog ear. With some companies posting to Facebook twice a month, and others posting banalities four times daily, the content strategy guidelines alone make this book indispensable. Buy two copies—keep one for yourself and mail one to a company whose unfocused Facebook approach drives you crazy.  —Jay Baer, Convince Convert Mari Smith quickly became THE go-to expert before the crowds flocked to Facebook, realizing how powerful this channel is for business. Mari, teamed up with Facebook analytics expert Chris Treadaway, have created an absolute masterpiece! Facebook
  3. 3. Marketing: An Hour a Day is long overdue, and every reader is lucky to have this book at their fingertips so they can tap into the mind of these pioneers and accelerate their success on Facebook by applying these tips. If you want to know exactly how to position yourself as the go-to expert among the millions of users on Facebook and drive droves of paying clients to your website, you must get a copy of this book! —Deborah Cole Micek, aka: @CoachDeb, founder of and author of Twitter Revolution and Secrets of Online Persuasion The social media world is full of people saying they know this tool or that tool. But there’s a reason “Mari Smith” is the first name people think of when they think “Facebook marketing.” This book shows you how the world’s largest social network can be leveraged for your business. And it’s written by one of few people out there who actually has shown companies how to succeed on Facebook. If you’re trying to leverage Facebook to reach your customers, this book should be on your shelf. It’s on mine. —Jason Falls, Social Media Explorer Every marketer knows they need to be on Facebook and other social networks, but few know how to do it right. Chris and Mari have created what is essentially a user’s manual for anyone managing a brand or advertising a business on Facebook. Whether you’re new to social networking or a savvy user, this book provides the tools every marketing professional needs, from getting set up the right way to managing success- ful, targeted advertising campaigns. The book’s step-by-step format makes what many consider a daunting undertaking seem more like a manageable process for even the busiest marketers by helping you prioritize your time online. —Peter VanRysdam, Chief Marketing Officer, 352 Media Group Mari and Chris have written an excellent, easy-to-read guide on using Facebook to grow your business. Chapter 7, “Advanced Tactics and Campaign Integration” is alone worth well more than the price of this book. —Dave Kerpen, CEO, theKbuzz I love books that start with strategic planning. Just about every Facebook title I’ve seen is obsessed with secret tips and tricks, without ever encouraging the reader to identify what they’re trying to accomplish in the first place. Chris and Mari have done a splendid job putting those tips and tricks into a meaningful context, and I know I’ll be studying my copy to improve my own Facebook presence. If you’re looking for the full picture—the “why” along with “what” and “how”—then this is your book. —Dave Taylor, online entrepreneur, Mari and Chris have a unique gift in that they can take the very complex and sophisti- cated paradigm of marketing on the world’s largest social networks and present it in a way that anyone can understand and, more importantly, put into practice. —Brian Solis, author of Engage: The Complete Guide for Businesses to Build and Measure Success in the New Web
  4. 4. Facebook® Marketing An Hour a Day Chr is Tr eadaway Mar i Smith
  5. 5. Senior Acquisitions Editor: Willem Knibbe Development Editor: Alexa Murphy Production Editor: Liz Britten Copy Editors: Judy Flynn and Kim Wimpsett Editorial Manager: Pete Gaughan Production Manager: Tim Tate Vice President and Executive Group Publisher: Richard Swadley Vice President and Publisher: Neil Edde Book Designer: Franz Baumhackl Compositor: Kate Kaminski, Happenstance Type-O-Rama Proofreader: Word One, New York Indexer: Ted Laux Project Coordinator, Cover: Lynsey Stanford Cover Designer: Ryan Sneed Copyright © 2010 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published simultaneously in Canada ISBN: 978-0-470-56964-1 No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechani- cal, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, or online at Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this work and specifically disclaim all warranties, including without limitation warranties of fitness for a par- ticular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales or promotional materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for every situation. This work is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional services. If professional assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought. Neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom. The fact that an organization or Web site is referred to in this work as a citation and/or a potential source of further information does not mean that the author or the publisher endorses the information the organiza- tion or Web site may provide or recommendations it may make. Further, readers should be aware that Internet Web sites listed in this work may have changed or disappeared between when this work was written and when it is read. For general information on our other products and services or to obtain technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at (877) 762-2974, outside the U.S. at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available from the publisher. Send FM to Brand Review, they will edit the following paragraph if necessary. TRADEMARKS: Wiley, the Wiley logo, and the Sybex logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates, in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without written permission. Facebook is a registered trademark of Facebook, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Wiley Publishing, Inc., is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Treadaway, Chris, 1974– Facebook marketing : an hour a day / Chris Treadaway, Mari Smith. — 1st ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-470-56964-1 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Internet marketing. 2. Social networks—Computer network resources. 3. Facebook (Electronic resources) I. Smith, Mari, 1966- II. Facebook (Firm) III. Title. HF5415.1265.T74 2010 658.8’72—dc22 2010004712 TRADEMARKS: Wiley, the Wiley logo, and the Sybex logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates, in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without written permission. Twitter is a registered trademark of Twitter, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Wiley Publishing, Inc., is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  6. 6. Dear Reader, Thank you for choosing Facebook Marketing: An Hour a Day. This book is part of a family of premium-quality Sybex books, all of which are written by outstanding authors who combine practical experience with a gift for teaching. Sybex was founded in 1976. More than 30 years later, we’re still committed to producing consistently exceptional books. With each of our titles, we’re working hard to set a new standard for the industry. From the paper we print on to the authors we work with, our goal is to bring you the best books available. I hope you see all that reflected in these pages. I’d be very interested to hear your com- ments and get your feedback on how we’re doing. Feel free to let me know what you think about this or any other Sybex book by sending me an email at If you think you’ve found a technical error in this book, please visit Customer feedback is critical to our efforts at Sybex. Best regards, Neil Edde Vice President and Publisher Sybex, an imprint of Wiley
  7. 7. For my mother, Mary Ellen Treadaway, who taught me the values of honesty, integrity, and sincerity that help me every single day. I love you, and I miss you. —Chris For my awesome Facebook friends and fans and you, our readers— it’s an honor to share and create this journey with you to a whole new frontier! —Mari
  8. 8. Acknowledgments Writing a book on a topic as dynamic as Facebook is perhaps one of the most difficult things I’ve ever done. It wouldn’t have been possible without my co-author, Mari Smith, whose contributions certainly turned a good idea into a great book. Thank you also to Giovanni Gallucci who contributed several of the anecdotes that appear in this book. Special thanks also goes out to the world-class team at Wiley that I’ve had the pleasure of working with for five years now. In particular, I should mention Ellen Gerstein, Jennifer Webb, Katie Feltman, and others at Wiley who, among other things, encouraged me to write this write this book. I’d also like to thank the edito- rial staff at Sybex. Without hands-on help from Willem Knibbe, Alexa Murphy, Pete Gaughan, Liz Britten, and countless others, this book would have been obsolete by the time it hit the shelves! This book is a collection of thoughts and ideas from hours upon hours of experience spent with clients who have different interests, different motivations, and different levels of expertise. I’d like to thank all the people at Microsoft, the City of Austin, Land Rover, and other organizations that I’ve supported in the two years I’ve done consulting work. Interactions with you have made this book a better product and a true “practitioner’s guide” to using Facebook for marketing purposes. I’d be remiss if I didn’t thank the different people who have taught me valuable school and life lessons along the way. In particular, I’d like to thank teachers from St. George Catholic School in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and Northwest Rankin High School in Brandon, Mississippi. They all, in their own ways, instilled enthusiasm, confidence, and (tough as it may have been at times) grace in me throughout the for- mative years of high school. I’d also like to thank Jim Nolen and Dr. John S. Butler of the University of Texas, two instructors from the business school, whose ongoing support and interest in me and my career continues to help in countless ways. Special thanks also to my business partner at Notice Technologies, Robert Starek, who has been patient and supportive despite long hours of writing, editing, and improving this book. Most importantly, I’d like to thank my parents and grandparents for raising me in a healthy, happy, and supportive home; without your sacrifices for and undying confidence in me, I’d be ill-equipped to deal with life’s difficulties, and I wouldn’t be the person I am today. I’d like to thank my wife, Kimberly Toda Treadaway, for her love, support, and patience. I love you dearly. And finally, I’d like to thank God for all the opportunities and blessings he shares with me every day. —Chris
  9. 9. First, huge props to my awesome coauthor, Chris Treadaway—it’s a delight to team with you, and I look forward to a long and lasting friendship! I’m also grateful to the exceptional team at Sybex (big virtual hug to Willem Knibbe!). A special mention to my wonderful mentors, teachers, and friends, all of whom have directly or indirectly helped shape my successful career in the social media industry over the past several years: John Assaraf, Jim Bunch, Jack Canfield, Ali Brown, Lorrie Morgan Ferrero, Alexis Martin Neely, Ann Handley, Joel Comm, Ken McArthur, Yanik Silver, James Malinchak, Fabienne and Derek Fredrickson, Adam Urbanski, Lisa Sasevich, Carrie Wilkerson, Kevin Nations, Larry Benet, Nick Nanton, Scott Martineau, Chris Knight, Gary Goldstein, Ellie and Charlie Drake, Kim Castle, David Tyreman, Scott Hallman, Gary Gil, Greg Habstritt, Peggy McColl, Stephanie Frank, Stefanie Hartman, T. Harv Eker, Bill Glazer, Dan Kennedy, David Finkel, Rick Calvert, Dave Cynkin, Dan O’Day, Paul Lemberg, and Declan Dunn. Thank you for your support, your friendship, and the opportunity to speak on your stages and contribute to your peeps! I am also indebted to my business partner, Mark Eldridge, and our team at the International Social Media Association—Lyn-Dee Eldridge, Elsom Eldridge, Tripp Eldridge, Sica Martin, and all our founding members and grads of Mentor With Mari. A huge acknowledgment to my friend and social media partner, Michael Stelzner—it’s a true joy to collaborate with you. Thank you for the opportunity to contribute my best Facebook posts to your subscribers! I’d also like to thank these social media professionals whom I admire greatly for leading with heart, soul, and integrity: Chris Brogan, Guy Kawasaki, Gary Vaynerchuk, Jeremiah Owyang, Charlene Li, Brian Solis, Lee Odden, Pete Cashmore, David Armano, Erik Qualman, Liz Strauss, Jason Falls, Jay Baer, Dave Kerpen, Louis Gray, Loic LeMeur, Jesse Stay, Nick O’Neil, Laura Fitton, Sarah Evans, and Beth Kanter. My deepest gratitude goes to my spiritual mentor, Esperanza Universal, who opened a door for me and changed my life forever in the spring of 2009. To my dear girlfriends for always believing in and encouraging me: Ashley Mahaffey, Dorcy Russell, Baeth Davis, DC Cordova, Laura Rubinstein, Amy Porterfield, Angie Swartz, and Deborah Cole Micek, aka @CoachDeb (you encouraged me to write a Facebook how-to book for years!)—I heart you all! Finally, my dear Facebook and Twitter community—I am blessed to be con- nected to you. And, if I missed anyone, it was unintentional—send me a tweet or write on my Facebook Wall, and I’ll happily acknowledge you! —Mari
  10. 10. About the Authors Chris Treadaway is the founder and CEO of Notice Technologies, a provider of local, real-time advertising platforms for newspapers, television, and technology companies. He is also managing director of Ultrastart, a social media consulting firm that has consulted for major companies such as Microsoft, Land Rover, Wiley Publishing, and the City of Austin, Texas. Prior to his work at Notice Technologies, Chris spent almost four years at Microsoft Corporation where he was the group product manager for web strategy in the Developer division and the business lead on the first launch of Silverlight. Chris has worked in the Internet marketing field for more than 15 years and in three start-ups— Cruising Speed, Infraworks, and, where he built the company’s first portal, which was profiled in Time Magazine and other international publi- cations. He has an MBA from the University of Texas at Austin and a BA from Louisiana State University. He blogs regularly about entrepreneurship and social media issues at http://treadaway and on Twitter at Mari Smith is the president of the International Social Media Association, an organization dedicated to providing cutting-edge social media resources, training programs, certification classes, and a collaborative community. dubbed Mari “the Pied Piper of Facebook,” and ClickZ named Mari one of the 20 Social Media All-Stars. Mari is an in-demand interna- tional social media keynote speaker and trainer, and she runs her own vibrant social media consultancy specializing in help- ing business owners, authors, and celebrity clients increase their profits with Facebook and Twitter integration. She has a popular Facebook fan page at, blogs at, and is very active on Twitter at http://
  11. 11. Contents Introduction xvii Chapter 1 Internet Marketing 1985–2010 1 The Humble Beginnings of Social Marketing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 The Emergence of Social Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Social Media by the Numbers and by Feel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 What Social Media in 2010 Tells Us about the Future of Marketing . . . 16 Realistic Social Marketing Expectations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 A Few Thoughts Regarding Consumer Engagement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Chapter 2 What Is Facebook? 23 Social Networking and Social Media Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Social Network Landscape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Seven Truths of Social Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 What You Want: Viral Marketing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Other Opportunities in Social Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Campaign Ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Facebook Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Friending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 The News Feed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Chapter 3 Develop a Facebook Strategy and Measure Success 47 Defining Your Facebook Presence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Close-Up of a Successful Social Media Campaign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Defining Your Social Media “Product” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Your Facebook To-Do List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Chapter 4 Month 1: Create the Plan and Get Started 61 Week 1: Lay the Groundwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Week 2: Draft and Present the Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Week 3: Establish a Presence with the Facebook Profile and Friends . . 75 Week 4: Use Basic Facebook Features to Promote Yourself . . . . . . . . . 85
  12. 12. xiv Contents■ Chapter 5 Month 2: Establish Corporate Presence with Pages and Groups 93 Week 1: Learn About Pages and Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Week 2: Determine and Execute Content Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Week 3: Add and Experiment with Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Week 4: Monitor and Modify the Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Chapter 6 Month 3: Create Demand with Facebook Ads 127 Week 1: Learn the Basics of Facebook Advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Week 2: Build the Dashboard and Collect Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Week 3: Refine Your Campaign Using A/B and Multivariate Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Week 4: Analyze and Adjust the Campaign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Chapter 7 Month 4: Advanced Tactics and Campaign Integration 157 Week 1: Understand Essential Advanced Tactics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Week 2: Learn About Facebook Connect, Widgets, Fan Boxes . . . . . 164 Week 3: Integrate Your Efforts with Multichannel Marketing . . . . . . 169 Week 4: Conduct Advanced Analytics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Chapter 8 Customized Experiences via Facebook Applications 185 Facebook Applications: A Brief History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Facebook Apps Today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Optimize Your Fan Page with Apps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 What You’ll Need to Build a Facebook Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Monetize Your App . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 The Future: Applications on Mobile Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Chapter 9 The Analytics of Facebook 213 Keep Score with Metrics and Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Facebook Return on Investment and the Mayo Medical School . . . . 222 Measure Engagement with Insights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 When Facebook Isn’t Quite Enough: Landing Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Chapter 10 Organizational Considerations 235 Roles and Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 How Facebook Works in Different Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
  13. 13. xv ■ Contents Appendix A Resources 257 Some Final Tips on Facebook for B2B Marketing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 Companion Website . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 Other Reading Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 Social Media Tools You Can Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 Appendix B The Future of Facebook 261 Dave Kerpen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 Scott McCaskill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 Lauren Cooney . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 Jesse Stay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Nick O’Neill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Kevin Tate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 Glossary 273 Index 279
  14. 14. xvii ■ Introduction Introduction Over the past five years, the social media business has grown from a sleepy, sophomoric way for college kids to communicate to perhaps the future of how people will share information and bring their offline lives online. It’s truly been amazing to see how much the Internet business has evolved as a result of Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, and other social media technologies. I originally took a great interest in social media in business school at the University of Texas in 2003. A classmate, Cory Garner, and I had just heard of this new thing called LinkedIn, and we were instantly captivated by the possibilities. Social relationships were becoming more and more transparent, and they were moving online. We worked like crazy to encourage classmates to get on the social network. Our fear, at the time, was that we would lose the opportunity to get people to sign up, and in so doing we’d lose our captive audience. We succeeded in the “membership drive” of sorts, but it didn’t turn out to be that important in the end. We had no appreciation for the fact that social media was a tsunami that would eventually encourage just about everyone to create a profile and establish relationships—even the Luddites in our class. That same tsunami hit consumers in 2006 with MySpace and later with Facebook. I was at Microsoft running Web 2.0 developer strategy and messaging when Facebook had a mere 40 million users. Even then, it was apparent to me that this Facebook thing was poised to redefine the Web, Internet advertising, and possibly even web development. I worked aggressively inside Microsoft to shed light on the new paradigm. I looked around and saw a variety of business opportunities in and leveraging social media. So, I left Microsoft to start a new company in March 2008, where I could spend all my time thinking of new business opportunities and helping clients with their social media problems. Over the past 18 months, I’ve interacted with countless entrepreneurs, visionaries, and managers and executives of large corporations in an attempt to learn about how peo- ple view and want to utilize social media. That experience alone has been rewarding— the best and brightest people from a variety of disciplines are redefining the Web in their own little way with social media at the forefront of those changes. Interestingly, since leaving Microsoft, I’ve also reviewed and edited books on Facebook and social media marketing. The one common theme across all these books is that, to date, they’ve all been heavy on the ideas, the theory, and the trends that social media brings to bear. That’s great, but now there are perhaps far too many books that explain social media marketing from an “academic” perspective.
  15. 15. xviii introduction■ Conversely, there aren’t many books that actually tell people how to conduct a social media marketing campaign. I looked around for books that would help people with the day-to-day tasks associated with Facebook marketing, and I was disappointed to find very little that would help a panicked middle manager navigate the breadth of the Facebook platform. So, I had a quick conversation with the people at Wiley, who I had helped with their Facebook presence, and next thing you know, I, along with Facebook marketing expert Mari Smith, am writing this book for Wiley. It is in that sense that this book is written strictly as a “practitioner’s guide” to Facebook marketing. Mari and I wanted to get down on paper all the tips and tricks that we employ when marketing products and services for ourselves or for clients. We specifi- cally did not want to create a feature walk-through like those that appear in so many other Facebook marketing books. We also did not want to write another book about the shift to social media, what is possible in the future, or what it means for society. This book is about the here and now and what you can do for your organization using Facebook today. This book is a summary of all the little things necessary to make a marketing campaign work. It’s specifically for people who get a mandate from a manager, investor, or whoever who says, “This Facebook thing is important—go figure out how to make it work for us!” Those can be stressful situations, and the last thing you need is pressure along with a vague directive and no idea of how to make it work. This book does not pro- vide the creativity necessary to resonate with your customers in clever and unique ways, although we do provide examples in different parts of the book to give you ideas and show you how other people have solved tough problems. —Chris Treadaway Who Should Read This Book This book is for anyone who is charged with the responsibility of owning some part of Facebook marketing for an organization, whether it be a business, a nonprofit, a govern- ment agency, and so on: A• middle manager who needs help executing a marketing campaign on Facebook A• n employee who needs ideas for how to best utilize Facebook for marketing purposes A• business owner who wants to engage better with customers but doesn’t have a lot of time to learn on their own A• manager or executive who needs to know the possibilities and the challenges that employees face when executing campaigns Much of the content of the book is geared to the tactics of building, measuring, and monitoring a Facebook marketing campaign. People who are not directly responsible for executing a campaign will also learn about the possibilities of Facebook and other social media products.
  16. 16. xix ■ Introduction What You Will Learn Facebook has attracted hundreds of millions of users in just a few years. This book will help you learn how to tap into this wealth of consumers for whatever marketing purposes you have. You may need to drive traffic to a web site. You may want to use Facebook to drive awareness of another type of marketing campaign. You may just want to get the word out about your own Facebook presence in what is an increasingly crowded space. This book will teach you how to mine Facebook for the very people you need in order to have a successful marketing campaign, regardless of the goals. What You Need Although we cover Internet marketing basics throughout the book, it will be easier for you to pick up the skills and demands of effective Facebook marketing if you have a basic understanding of Internet marketing metrics and measurement. The only other thing you need is something to market—a product, a service, a brand, and so on. Without it, you won’t be able to run a real campaign. What Is Covered in This Book Facebook Marketing: An Hour a Day is organized to turn you into a social media mar- keting powerhouse while attracting people in your target market to your organization cost effectively. Chapter 1: Internet Marketing 1985–2010   Walks you through the evolution of Internet marketing, from closed services to portals to search and now social media. Chapter 2: What Is Facebook?   Summarizes the Facebook phenomenon, the basics of how Facebook works, and how Facebook fits into the social media landscape. Chapter 3: Develop a Facebook Strategy and Measure Success   Helps you frame your approach in terms of success metrics that will drive your work and inevitable adjustments to your campaign. Chapter 4: Month 1: Create the Plan and Get Started  The first chapter with “hour a day” content, designed to create your first Facebook marketing campaign. Chapter 5: Month 2: Establish Corporate Presence with Pages and Groups   Summarizes the two primary means by which organizations create an “official presence” that is used to communicate with consumers and other target audiences. Chapter 6: Month 3: Create Demand with Facebook Ads   Highlights the wide range of opportunities in promoting a website or Facebook presence using Facebook’s self-serve advertising system, one of the best values in Internet marketing in 2010. Chapter 7: Month 4: Advanced Tactics and Campaign Integration   Includes information on a variety of Facebook platform extensions and features designed to help the marketer create better and more engaging social network marketing campaigns.
  17. 17. xx introduction■ Chapter 8: Customized Experiences via Facebook Applications   A detailed overview of opportunities in custom applications on Facebook and how applications may be used in the future. Chapter 9: The Analytics of Facebook   Summarizes all the metrics that are discussed throughout the book to make it easier for you to understand how to keep score and moni- tor success. Chapter 10: Organizational Considerations   Helps frame Facebook marketing oppor- tunities, risks, and threats as it pertains to specific types of organizations that see the opportunities in Facebook. Contacting the Authors, and Companion Websites One thing is constant with Facebook and life alike: change. The Facebook platform is, to be polite, a moving target. The behavior of Facebook changes, the rules change for com- munications/notifications and the News Feed, and developers are allowed to do things today that they aren’t allowed to do tomorrow. Facebook makes changes rapidly and sometimes without warning. So if you’d like to keep up with these changes, feel free to check out one of the following: includes information on the book, links to destinations on Facebook, links to blog posts that will cover hot issues, contact information for any questions you may have, and information on vendors that can help you with sticky social media marketing problems. links to interesting articles and developments in Facebook marketing, case studies, statistics, and so on. Both sites are operated by the authors and will include updates, podcasts, tips and tricks, and other helpful information that you may need. They’re also places for you to provide feedback. As long as you are respectful and constructive, we’ll answer just about any question. But we won’t do your job for you. Sybex strives to keep you supplied with the latest tools and information you need for your work. Please check its website at, where we’ll post additional con- tent and updates that supplement this book if the need arises. Enter Facebook marketing in the Search box (or type the book’s ISBN, 978-0-470-56964-1), and click Go to get to the book’s update page. Final Note This book is really one part social media marketing, one part Internet marketing. As hot of a topic as social media is, in some ways it is just the next iteration of things that have evolved over the past 15 years. It is Internet marketing with social context. Throughout the next several hundred pages, I will do my best to help you learn what you need to know to succeed with Facebook marketing. Good luck, and let’s get to work!
  18. 18. 1 ■ InternetMarketing1985–2010 1 Internet Marketing 1985–2010 Today, computer usage is a pervasive part of our lives. It’s hard to believe that wasn’t so just a little more than a generation ago. Even so, Internet marketing and social media aren’t exactly new concepts. Even the earliest online services included a variety of marketing options to help businesses tap into this vast new marketplace of consumers. How did the industry evolve over the years? Chapter Contents The Humble Beginnings of Social Marketing The Emergence of Social Networks Social Media by the Numbers and by Feel What Social Media in 2010 Tells Us about the Future of Marketing Realistic Social Marketing Expectations A Few Thoughts Regarding Consumer Engagement
  19. 19. 2 chapter1: InternetMarketing1985–2010 ■ The Humble Beginnings of Social Marketing We all enjoy life through a series of defining experiences with friends and loved ones in our social circles: people who attend the same school, live on the same street, work in the same company, or root for the same team. The jeans they wear, the phones they use, and the brands they favor to some extent encourage us to think positively or nega- tively about ourselves and others. They’re consumers just like us, and they shape our thoughts and opinions in profound ways that we rarely notice. All of us have been pitched products in advertising from memorable spokes- people: Spuds McKenzie, Joe Isuzu, the lonely Maytag repair guy, Max Headroom, Charlie the Sunkist Tuna, the California Raisins, to name just a few. We remember catchy phrases and sayings like “Just Say No,” “Where’s the Beef?” “Kibbles and Bits and Bits and Bits,” “Calgon, Take Me Away!” and “We thank you for your support.” We respond to their honesty, their humor, and their brute force and take on their mar- keting messages by making subtle, subconscious changes to how we live, what we con- sume, and what we think. For years, experiences were lived largely “offline.” Our interactions have been in person, in front of a television, or through headphones. But times are different. Internet technologies and social media have enhanced our online experiences. We enjoy inter- activity, video, audio, and pictures just as much from computer screens as from offline experiences. We want to learn, share, and interact from the comfort of our computers and mobile devices more than ever. For me, it started when my parents bought a Commodore 64 in 1984 along with a 300 baud modem. Connecting to other users in the “online world” was a novel concept at the time—it was 1985 after all! But we wanted to experience the future firsthand. Our first taste of social computing was on a service called Quantum Link (Figure 1.1). Q-Link was one of the very first online services that combined electronic mail, public file sharing, and games. It was fascinating. To play games, I didn’t need to get per- mission from my parents to invite people over. I could do it from the comfort of my own bedroom and at any time of the day or night. The only problem was the pesky usage fees. Mom and Dad didn’t seem too excited about a big bill for “plus” services. Nonetheless, I got my first taste of social computing on Q-Link. Figure 1.1 ​Quantum Link home page
  20. 20. 3 ■ TheHumbleBeginningsofSocialMarketing Online Services v1 Three major competitors—Prodigy, CompuServe, and America Online (AOL)— evolved over the following few years. All three took online services to an entirely different level with improved user interfaces made possible by advances in computer hardware and operating systems. Some of the first real-time online services were made available via Prodigy in the early 1990s—news, sports scores, weather, and so on. It was the primary way I kept up with my favorite baseball team, the Chicago Cubs, for a few seasons. Prodigy also offered premium content from the Mobil Travel Guide and Zagat’s Restaurant Ratings, to name a few. But perhaps most important, Prodigy had very well-integrated message board and e-mail services that allowed people to meet, discover similar interests, and communicate with one another. These were the “killer apps” behind the growth of the Internet in the early 1990s. They were, in effect, the first generation of modern social networks. Figure 1.2 is a screen shot of the Prodigy login screen, which may be familiar to those of you who used the service many years ago. Figure 1.2 ​Prodigy login screen While Prodigy, CompuServe, and AOL were pioneers in the online services busi- ness, none of them were particularly interesting channels for e-commerce or Internet marketing. Most notable was Prodigy’s classified ad experiment with USA Today, whereby Prodigy offered advertisers the opportunity to reach parts of the Prodigy user base for as little as $60/month for an approximately 250-character text advertise- ment. Prodigy also made screen space available to advertisers through “teasers,” or what would be viewed today as banner advertising, at the bottom of each screen. If a consumer was interested in the advertisement, they could click the advertisement to
  21. 21. 4 chapter1: InternetMarketing1985–2010 ■ get more information via a larger version of the ad and then buy the product or service being offered. But neither advertising option became sufficiently popular and effective for Prodigy or any other online service. Internet advertising was only a $55 million industry worldwide in 1995; it was just too early for people to respond well to the advertising of goods and services on the Internet. Compare that to the $25.7 bil- lion Internet marketing business in 2009 and it probably seems a lot smaller. Because Internet advertising was so ineffective early on, Prodigy, CompuServe, and AOL focused primarily on growing consumer subscription revenue by increasing subscribers in the mid-1990s. Emergence of the World Wide Web The proliferation of proprietary first-generation online services came to a stunning halt with the emergence of Mosaic, the first widely available web browser. In 1994, with Mosaic and a web connection via an ISP (Internet service provider), a user could spend an unlimited amount of time surfing the Internet and send an unlimited number of e-mail messages. This was a departure from existing services that relied upon tiered hourly service and other usage upcharges for profitability. Fueled by the wealth of new online services, applications, and a proliferation of websites, consumers moved to the World Wide Web en masse starting in 1995. As users flocked to the Internet, the first experiments in Internet marketing were already underway. HotWired, an online Web magazine, was the first company to sell banner advertising to corporations, in late 1994. Figure 1.3 is the first banner ad ever sold, an ATT advertisement. Banner ads were long, rectangular advertisements usu- ally 468 pixels wide by 60 pixels tall with information and/or graphics designed to entice a reader into clicking them to visit another website. They were sold for a flat rate per 1,000 impressions or views, which is now referred to CPM (cost per mil). Around the same time, a number of experiments popped up to guarantee clicks and not just impressions. The idea was that advertisers wanted visitors and not just views. Figure 1.3 ​The first banner ad ever displayed on the Internet The mid-1990s was a revolutionary period for the Internet as millions of people got online. The possibilities were endless, as were questions about how advertising could be used to build new businesses, new opportunities, and new communities. How would people interact with each other? How much would the Internet change purchase behavior? How would business be conducted differently in the age of the Internet? What new business opportunities would be possible? All of the possibilities led to an unprecedented level of entrepreneurial activity from both new companies and
  22. 22. 5 ■ TheHumbleBeginningsofSocialMarketing established corporations. Everyone wanted an opportunity to participate, to reap the spoils. As a result, the Internet advertising business grew tremendously through ban- ner advertising. Sites could devote a certain amount of space to banners to generate revenue. It was a good deal for advertisers as well because at the time it was the best way to reach people and get them to learn about another site on the Internet or a prod- uct, service, or other offer. For no less than five years, banner advertising was the best Internet marketing opportunity available to people who wanted to connect with con- sumers on the Web. This dynamic led the developers of many early popular websites to turn their sites into portals, sites that would help users get a wide range of information that would be helpful in a personal and sometimes professional context. By building an effective portal, a company could create a thriving and growing Web property that would generate revenue and profits through banner advertising. Search and the Decline of Banner Ads The number of websites continued to proliferate well beyond people’s expectations. Consumers needed a way to sort through all the noise to find exactly what they needed at any given time. A number of companies built sites to help with this exact problem. Yahoo! indexed sites by subject matter and added a rudimentary search function that helped users find resources quickly. Others didn’t rely on a proprietary directory but instead depended on scanning the full text of web pages to determine relevance for a particular search term. Popular search engines from this period included Magellan, Excite, Inktomi, AltaVista, and Lycos. Later, other search engines such as MetaCrawler and Dogpile emerged, combining search results from individual search engines to provide more accurate and complete results to users. Over time, these search engines became the “starting point” for many users. Rather than logging into a portal like or MSN to get information, users began to frequent search engines. Before long, it became apparent that users preferred an effective, powerful search engine to all other means of finding relevant information on the Internet. Enter Google. I remember the first time I used Google in early 1999. I was stunned by how it so easily and quickly pointed me to the exact information I needed at the time and, more important, how consistently effective the search engine was regardless of the search term used. It took just a few times for me to realize that Google was revolution- ary. Like a lot of other Internet users, I ditched every other search engine I had used before and converted to Google. Contrary to popular belief, Google did not immedi- ately revolutionize Internet advertising. It was primarily a great search engine for sev- eral years while the company experimented with a variety of different business models. The world continued to buy and sell banner advertising as the primary means for generating demand on the Internet, although banner advertising certainly peaked in the late 1990s for a few reasons. For one, the proliferation of websites meant that
  23. 23. 6 chapter1: InternetMarketing1985–2010 ■ the number of advertising options increased significantly. Less scarcity = lower prices. Negotiating power shifted from the publisher to the advertiser, who now had more available options for ad spend. Second, the novelty of Internet advertising wore off to some extent. Click-through rates on banners dropped from as high as 2 percent to well below 0.5 percent, and with that drop came a reduction in prices. No longer were companies blindly sinking thousands of dollars into banner advertising. Advertisers demanded results, which was increasingly working against banner advertising. Third, consumers experienced some level of banner ad fatigue. These ads were everywhere on the Internet by 1999, which also made them somewhat easy to ignore. This created an environment ripe for the emergence of a new, effective, and trackable way to reach consumers. The Rise of Google and Clickthrough Ads Around this time, Google emerged as perhaps the world’s greatest and most accurate search engine. In just a few years’ time, it launched a search engine that was superior to rivals such as HotBot, AltaVista, Lycos, and others. It quickly gained market share but ironically launched an impression-based advertising business in 2000. Advertisers were tired of spending a lot of money on ineffective banner ads, and consumers were ignoring them. Realizing this, Google abandoned its impression-based advertising program in favor of experiments with click-through advertising, text-based ads for which the advertiser would only pay if a user clicked the ad (Figure 1.4). This invention was named Google AdWords, and the rest is history. Figure 1.4 ​Google AdWords click-through ads appear at the top and down the right side of the search results pages.
  24. 24. 7 ■ TheEmergenceofSocialNetworks Google AdWords was a self-serve advertising service similar to services offered around the same time by competitor, later renamed Overture by Yahoo!. Advertisers would enter the text for a relevant ad that adhered to style guidelines and character limitations. The advertiser would then add the search terms that would trig- ger these ads along with the highest bid they would be willing to pay for the click. The final step was setting a daily budget; without a budget, a lot of money could be spent on these ads! Using an automated auction system, Google would serve ads based on the total bid and the amount remaining in the budget for each bidder. It may seem simple now, but this was a revolutionary shift in Internet advertising for a few reasons. First, an advertiser could effectively guarantee traffic to a website by simply bidding high enough and devoting enough budget on a daily basis to the adver- tisement. Now this wasn’t particularly difficult in 2002—many click-throughs cost as little as a nickel a piece, so 100 new visitors for a website per day could cost as little as $5.00. Not a bad deal. But more importantly, Google realized that the folks clicking on these ads weren’t just any users. They were highly targeted users by virtue of the fact that they had searched for a specific term in a search engine. This was a stark contrast from banner ads, which generally were not targeted to specific users looking for spe- cific things. So in summary, Google took an increasingly large audience and made it available to advertisers on a relatively inexpensive, self-serve basis. It was pure genius. As with any auction model, prices increased significantly as more people jumped in. I remember first getting into Google AdWords in the fall of 2002 with my third startup, a lead generation business that found qualified leads for consumer products from Google. I could buy tons of clicks, send these visitors to a website where I quali- fied them and converted them to leads, and then resell them to customers who wanted incremental business for 5 to 10 times the cost of generating the leads. But in less than a year, I started to see the bids increase substantially as larger corporations, ad agen- cies, and other entrepreneurs had discovered this “new” opportunity. This trend con- tinued for years as Google maintained and grew its search share. From 2003 to 2008, Google was the one place to go to tap into large numbers of Internet users interested in a particular subject matter or topic. The Emergence of Social Networks As Google asserted its click-through dominance, a number of social networks began to emerge and reach mainstream consumer audiences. There wasn’t anything particu- larly new about social networks. Online communities had formed at every evolution of the Internet, dating back to well before the World Wide Web. The difference by 2003 was the fact that people had grown increasingly comfortable with interacting with one another on the Internet, and at times in plain view of other users. Social networks, after all, work better with a larger number of engaged users sharing more and more details about themselves.
  25. 25. 8 chapter1: InternetMarketing1985–2010 ■ The first notable companies from the social networking era were Classmates. com and Friendster. allowed people to associate themselves with cer- tain graduating classes to keep in touch with friends from various schools and points in their lives. The concept of profiles on was very basic, and many features of the site were ultimately hidden behind a paid subscription. Friendster emerged six years after the launch of and exposed more features to users. Friendster was the first social network to successfully integrate the profile con- cept whereby a user could enter personal data, preferences, and so on. Friendster grew aggressively just after its launch in 2002 but endured a number of technical problems that disenfranchised early adopters and new users alike. Further, Friendster exposed profile data and actions to people within several degrees of separation from a user, which later, more-successful social networks did not do. Despite the fact that neither nor Friendster achieved mainstream worldwide success, both sites con- tinue to operate today, each with a large user base. Table 1.1 summarizes the top social networks from 2000 to 2009—note how the early pioneers have faded as Facebook and MySpace now dominate the social media market. P Table 1.1 ​Popular social networks as of July 2009 Social Network # Users Notable Facts Facebook 350 million Most users of any social network in the world. MySpace 125 million Most popular social network from June 2006–April 2008. Twitter 75 million LinkedIn 55 million Most popular social network for business. 40 million + As much as 10% are paid subscribers. Friendster 90 million 90% traffic comes from Asia. Source: comScore,,, official statistics released by each company MySpace in many ways was the beneficiary of Friendster’s inability to turn into a mainstream global phenomenon. The service launched in mid-2003, not as a new startup but rather as a side project of parent company eUniverse. With support and resources from a larger company, MySpace was able to scale from a handful of users to several hundred thousand very quickly. MySpace and Friendster had many of the same features, such as profiles, friends, blogs, and comments, but MySpace did not always share data with friends of friends. A direct friend connection was required to view specific information about a person. Care over sensitive data created an environment in which users were much more willing to add personal information to profiles. MySpace also allowed users to customize their profiles with different types of information, spe- cial layouts, and unique background images. All of this had the impact of fueling the growth of MySpace in a relatively short time. MySpace went from launch in mid-2003 to being the most popular social net- work in the world in 2006. It became very popular with younger demographic groups
  26. 26. 9 ■ TheEmergenceofSocialNetworks in that period of time. comScore estimated that over 60 percent of users of MySpace were under the age of 34 in 2005. As such, it became an essential marketing tool for musicians and bands that sought to engage with fans through the site. Over and above that, users of MySpace got more and more comfortable with the idea of living their lives online—communicating important life events and mundane details to friends on the Internet. See Figure 1.5 for a sample MySpace profile. Figure 1.5 ​Sample MySpace profile Having collected information on users through profile data, MySpace became the “next generation” way to target consumers. Google pioneered learning about consumer interests through search. MySpace did the same in 2006 to 2008 through information such as profile data and interests. Think for a moment about the types of information available through a social media profile: H• ometown C• urrent home D• ate of birth I• nterests L• ikes/dislikes H• obbies M• arital status A• ctivities E• ducation P• olitical views
  27. 27. 10 chapter1: InternetMarketing1985–2010 ■ Access to this amount of information about a person is a marketer’s dream! All of it was unlocked by social networks that created a relatively safe and fun environ- ment in which people were encouraged to willingly share this information with friends. This data has not, to date, been used by advertisers to communicate directly with individual users, but it has been used in the aggregate to target groups of people inter- ested in a certain thing. For example, through social networks, a marketer can do the following: S• end banner ads to the 47,000 users interested in bowling in Ohio U• pdate 2,809 fans of the fictional band Orangebunny Wahoos about a new con- cert tour T• ell 13,287 single New Yorkers interested in kite flying about an upcoming event in Central Park For more information on this phenomenon, I recommend reading “To Aim Ads, Web Is Keeping Closer Eye on You” by Louise Story of The New York Times ( The article does a great job of explaining how different online services compare to each other when capturing consumer data and making it available to advertisers. Emergence of Facebook While MySpace continued to grow between 2004 and 2008, Facebook emerged as its chief rival in dominating the consumer social network industry worldwide. Conceptually, Facebook was very similar; it had just about the same profile data as its predecessors. But it did not allow data and profile backgrounds to be customized by users as MySpace did. This had the impact of providing some standardization to data and the overall experience of browsing profiles. Facebook did offer users a rich set of tools to limit or expose data to only certain people: friends or people in particular net- works. But aside from this, the design philosophy behind Facebook was to make expe- riences consistent. Users could expect similar data and the same look and feel when browsing profiles. Facebook initially launched at Harvard, where its founders originally used it to encourage classmates to get to know each other better. Check out Figure 1.6 for an early screen shot of the Facebook home page. At that time, many colleges actually provided printed facebooks to students that included biographical information, inter- ests, areas of study, and so on. After getting half the undergraduate class at Harvard to create profiles, Facebook expanded to other Ivy League schools. The company later expanded to other colleges and universities, high schools, and finally major corpora- tions before releasing to the general public in late 2006. This strategy of exclusivity in the early years gave Facebook the advantage of gaining critical mass within networks of people who were likely to keep in touch with one another. A high concentration of
  28. 28. 11 ■ TheEmergenceofSocialNetworks people interacting inside Facebook provided great insight into what people would do and how they would share information with one another, and most importantly, it provided an idea of the features and enhancements that would help Facebook compete with rivals. Figure 1.6 ​Early Facebook home page The battle between Facebook and MySpace became yet another in a long line of “Coke vs. Pepsi” battles throughout late 2006 to 2008. In early years, MySpace had a loyal following in younger demographics, but Facebook slowly gained the attention of college students. The visual customization aspects of MySpace made some profiles very difficult to read, while the lack of data standardization meant that users could say any- thing they wanted without necessarily making it readable for the viewer. Others believe that the Facebook/MySpace preference fell along class lines. One such critic was danah boyd, a fellow at the Berkman Center for Internet and Society. In her June 2007 essay, “Viewing American Class Divisions through Facebook and MySpace” ( papers/essays/ClassDivisions.html), Ms. boyd argues that Facebook’s origins in Ivy League schools and its original “by invitation-only” method for signing up new users set it down a path to be the preference for affluent and upper-class early adopters. MySpace was positioned as a place for young people interested in bands and those who were not particularly popular or into extracurricular activities in high school and college. MySpace users were not likely to become Facebook users because their friends were not on that network and vice versa. Forbes ( facebook-myspace-internet-tech-cz_ccm_0723class.html) and other major publications covered Ms. boyd’s observations in great detail. It was, and remains to be, a compelling argument.
  29. 29. 12 chapter1: InternetMarketing1985–2010 ■ A Researcher’s Perspective on Social Networks danah boyd, Ph D, is a researcher at Microsoft Research New England and a fellow at the Harvard University Berkman Center for Internet and Society. She maintains a website at where she blogs and includes links to her latest academic research and essays. Dr. boyd’s dissertation, “Taken Out of Context: American Teen Sociality in Networked Publics,” focused on how American youth use networked publics for sociable purposes. She examined the role that social network sites like MySpace and Facebook play to develop her theories on how social networks reflect social structure and norms. Q: Do you still think the choice between Facebook and MySpace is dictated mostly by class identifi- cation? Has the situation changed significantly? A: Choice was never dictated by class identification. Choice is and continues to be dictated by social relations. People choose to go where their friends are. That said, people’s connections are not random. There’s a concept in sociology called “homophily” which means that “birds of a feather stick together.” People are friends with people who are like them. There are all sorts of social divisions in friend networks and these are reproduced online. Q: You’ve pointed out that class differences are arguably the main difference between Facebook and MySpace. Is there anything necessarily wrong with this? Or does it simply mirror the differences that already exist in society? A: My argument is that Facebook and MySpace are making visible everyday social stratifica- tion based on the patterns by which American teens have adopted these two sites. Self- segregation is a part of everyday life and it is not particularly shocking. But when we treat social network sites as public places, when we expect everyone to be present, we’ve got a problem. For example, when universities only do college recruiting on one site or when politicians only reach out to constituents on one site, we have to think about the ways in which they are biasing the population they’re connecting with. Q: Where do you think we’re headed with the use of social media? I know you don’thaveacrystal ball.ButknowingwhatyouknowaboutFacebook,MySpace, Twitter, and other emerging tech- nologies, will people connect better or will divisions in society be even more apparent as social media matures? A: Technologyisnotgoingtomagicallysolvesocialills,butitwillcontinuetomake visible divisions that exist in society that we may be uncomfortable addressing. As for where things are going ... mobile. And social media will continue to be about friends, not strangers.
  30. 30. 13 ■ TheEmergenceofSocialNetworks After expanding beyond education, Facebook slowly began to eat into MySpace market share for a few reasons. Applications such as Photos, Notes, and Gifts were easy to understand and very well executed—and all three helped encourage users to interact with one another. Status updates and news feeds gave users the opportunity to passively keep in touch with friends. But perhaps the most important development was the May 2007 release of the Facebook Developer Platform, a framework that allowed developers to write custom applications that ran inside and took advantage of each person’s unique social graph. All of a sudden Facebook made its audience available to third-party developers. This opportunity led to a quick pro- liferation of new applications on Facebook. Games were most popular, but all sorts of applications were created over the subsequent 12 months. Two main things contributed to Facebook’s success in this arena: valuable supporting applications and the elegantly executed strategy to encourage developers to write applications for Facebook. Finally in early 2009, Facebook overtook MySpace in several key usage metrics and was poised to be the dominant player in social networking. Rise of the Real-Time Feed and Beyond It’s likely that 2009 will go down as “the year of the real-time feed.” Early in 2009, Facebook redesigned its home page to highlight the News Feed, which is made up almost entirely of status updates, links, photos, and other updates from Friends and Fan pages. This turned Facebook into more of a real-time communication channel for friends to communicate with one another. The change was initially met with major resistance. Reportedly as much as 94 percent of Facebook users did not like the change at first. In fact, several Facebook pages were created to protest the new home page design. One such page has over 810,000 members as I’m writing this chapter! That said, the fury over the site redesign quickly dissipated as people became more familiar with the new approach. A new competitor, Twitter, also began to gain significant customer traction in early 2009. Twitter is a lightweight social network that is built around simple 140- character messages that are ordinarily shared for anyone to read. Figure 1.7 shows these real-time messages from other Twitter users. It is ostensibly the Facebook Status Update, turned into a product with limited functionality and a slightly different policy for becoming a friend of a particular user. According to, Twitter increased its unique users by 400 percent over the first few months of 2009. The suc- cess of Twitter has already resulted in a series of changes for Facebook, and it’s likely to result in further adjustments over time. We’ll talk more about these changes and Twitter later in this chapter. Overall, the Web has evolved into a significantly more transparent and social technology with the evolution of social media over the years. Over time, users have
  31. 31. 14 chapter1: InternetMarketing1985–2010 ■ gotten increasingly more comfortable with sharing personal information online and in social networks. People live their lives offline and report on what happens online. Yesterday’s privacy intrusion is today’s opportunity to share life’s intimate details with friends, acquaintances, and sometimes strangers alike. From a marketer’s perspective, we’ve never had an opportunity like this, where so much information is available about consumers. Information that was once trapped in databases is now accessible in aggre- gate form from Facebook and its competitors. We have an unprecedented opportunity to use these technologies to share the value of our products and services not with the general public, but rather with people who are very likely to be interested in hearing from us. So let’s turn our attention to a snapshot of what we know about social media usage and how we may be able to use social media most effectively when marketing products and services. Figure 1.7 ​Twitter home page
  32. 32. 15 ■ SocialMediabytheNumbersandbyFeel Social Media by the Numbers and by Feel Let’s take a moment to consider just how pervasive social media and particularly Facebook has become for Internet users. An April 2009 study by Harris Interactive revealed that 48 percent of all American adults had either a Facebook or a MySpace account. It took Facebook eight months to go from 100 million to 200 million users. Contrast that to the growth of the United States—it took the good ol’ USA 52 years to go from 100 million to 200 million inhabitants! If Facebook were a country, it would be the fourth most populous country in the world ahead of Brazil, Japan, and the pop- ulations of Germany, France, and Spain combined. But these aren’t just casual users. According to Nielsen Online, people spent 13.9 billion minutes on Facebook in April 2009, up from 1.7 billion in April 2008 for a stunning annual growth rate of 699 percent. In terms of usage, this makes social networking the third most popular computing activity now, ahead of using e-mail. Facebook reaches an estimated 29.9 percent of the global Internet user community. It has clearly become a mainstream phenomenon and the numbers are sure to get bigger from here. For the full Nielsen report, check out this page: Global-Footprint The rise of social media has coincided with a decline in consumer use of tra- ditional media. Social media usage numbers are up while newspaper circulations are down. In many cities, the number of social media users surpassed the stated circulation of venerable newspapers in 2008. eMarketer reports that Internet users consumed far less traditional media in 2008 than 2006 ( It’s safe to say that today, people get far more news, information, and commentary from their friends than from traditional media. It’s great that people are using Facebook and social media, but do these prod- ucts and services impact purchase decisions? It’s probably too early to tell how social media marketing and advertising will compare to search engine optimization and click- through search advertising. But we do intuitively know that we all personally have friends we ask for recommendations: the sports enthusiast, the wine lover, the tech geek, the foodie. We rely on friends and people we trust for feedback and information every day. We similarly listen to our friends when it comes to music, things we do for fun, responses to politics and world events—you name it. We’re influenced on a regular basis by people we know and love. Social media records all those recommendations and makes them visible for friends and friends of friends to see. The history of computing also tells us that opportunity lies in the first place people log in to every day. In the early 1990s, marketers sought ways to take advantage of Prodigy, CompuServe, and AOL. The mid-1990s was dominated Microsoft, when
  33. 33. 16 chapter1: InternetMarketing1985–2010 ■ installed client software was the major opportunity. Companies fought to get a pres- ence on consumers’ desktops. The late 1990s was dominated by the portals such as MSN, Excite, and Yahoo!, where eyeballs were most concentrated. We talked earlier in this chapter about Google and how it created a center of gravity for the Web that cap- tured consumer attention and marketing dollars. Today, many people start their day not by going to, but rather by logging into Facebook. What Social Media in 2010 Tells Us about the Future of Marketing So what does all this mean for marketing in 2010 and beyond? The biggest change in marketing has been the shift from “push marketing” to more of a conversation with customers. In the past, companies were limited to communicating directly with us through radio and television commercials, print advertising, billboards, and other “old media” ways of marketing. But somewhere along the way, we got cynical. We realized that our friends and colleagues were probably more honest about products and services than the self-interested companies that marketed to us. So we started listening to our friends and social networks more and traditional advertising less. At the same time, technology has marched forward relentlessly. TiVo and digital video recorders made it easy for us to bypass and ignore commercials in live television. MP3 players helped us listen to music and podcasts on demand, which similarly mar- ginalized radio advertising. Online retailers realized that they could increase sales by allowing visitors to their site to offer personal recommendations about products they were selling. And, of course, the social media industry was very successful. So how should we frame our thinking when setting the stage for marketing plans today? Five years from now? And how should long-term strategy be structured to give social media a competitive advantage? Allow me to suggest five broad themes that I think will define social media and marketing for years to come: The need to share information. ​If the rise of mainstream social media has proved one thing, it is that a lot of people have an intrinsic need to share things about themselves. Maybe it’s self-importance, maybe everyone needs to feel like a celebrity. I don’t know. But social media today captures a lot of mundane information about users. Sometimes that mundane information can include an experience, positive or negative, with your brand or with your company. Today, everyone can broadcast to their own little social media network of usually a few hundred people. For more on this topic, I recommend read- ing Brad King’s book The Cult of Me (Carnegie Mellon, 2010), which discusses these themes in great detail. Word-of-mouth marketing has become both a threat and an opportunity to modern businesses—social media provides the loudspeaker. Immediacy is here to stay. ​All of the tools provided in social media give people an oppor- tunity to respond immediately to things and share those reactions with friends in real time. It could be a great experience with a restaurant, a terrible interaction with an airline at the airport, you name it. With immediacy comes human emotion—powerful
  34. 34. 17 ■ WhatSocialMediain2010TellsUsabouttheFutureofMarketing feelings once shared only in the presence of friends can now be shared immediately with friends, colleagues, acquaintances, and the general public through social media. Sometimes this can work for your business/brand; sometimes it can work against you. Some companies are already seeking ways to communicate with angry or satisfied cus- tomers in real time through social media. So far, it is proving to be a differentiator for a lot of brands that deal proactively with negative social media publicity. Everyone is a source of information, and everyone is biased. ​It’s 2010, so people don’t just hear about news, events, and so on from the local TV news broadcast and/or newspaper. People (not to mention your customers) hear about things from blogs, Twitter, articles, casual conversation. Some people’s opinions on politics are influenced by The Daily Show with Jon Stewart and the Fox News Channel! Let’s face it: The line between fact and opinion is muddy. People today don’t have the interest or the time to learn the dif- ference between the two. Think about this from your own personal perspective. Which friend of yours is known among friends as an expert on food, drink, nightlife, or politics? Do you have friends who want to become known among friends as being an expert? What about the ones who think they are influential about certain topics yet nobody wants to hear from them? One thing is certain about all three groups: They can use social media to say whatever they want. Oftentimes, one opinion is just as good as another, as informed or uninformed as one may be. Noise level. ​Everyone is now a publisher and a celebrity in their own world. So it takes a lot of effort to keep up with it all, if you choose to do so. This can work two ways for marketers—some people will respond to direct engagement that cuts through the clut- ter. Others will instead ignore your noise alongside everyone else marketing a product or service. So the challenge is twofold: A marketer must fit into the noise with interest- ing things for one segment of their customer base while grabbing the attention of the other. The worst thing you can do as a marketer is say something wholly uninteresting or something that doesn’t serve to engage with customers in a meaningful way. The bar is as high as ever today, and consumers don’t have significantly more spare time these days. Melding of worlds. ​Like it or not, the openness of social media means that it is almost impossible for users to keep different parts of their lives distinct. Things done offline invariably find their way online—and it may not even be your doing. And all those things are available for your personal and business contacts to enjoy! Think about how this happens—it’s all too innocent. You get a friend invite from a coworker. You probably don’t want to offend this person, so you decide to accept them as a friend. Now this “friend” is on equal footing with your other friends: college buddies, people you knew in elementary school, and your closest friends. Any one of them can comment on your Facebook profile or send you a tweet, and that comment is out in the open. Any one of them can post embarrassing pictures of you, comment
  35. 35. 18 chapter1: InternetMarketing1985–2010 ■ inappropriately on your status or links you share, and so on. Now some people simply don’t care what happens. But others obsess over their personal or professional image. Customers today live with and accept a degree of transparency into their lives that simply wasn’t there just a few short years ago. Marketers need to remember this when putting together campaigns and customer engagement programs. We are starting to see elements of “social commerce” emerge on the Internet, whereby purchasing decisions are directly influenced by other people and sometimes friends. Epinions was one of the first companies to emerge (in 1999) with a platform for helping consumers share experiences with certain products on the Internet for other consumers to consider. Yelp does similar things for local businesses, and many retailers are now integrating reviews on their websites to increase sales. Similar products have not yet emerged on mainstream social networks, although integration with these third- party websites is gradually increasing. Web Strategist and former Forrester analyst, Jeremiah Owyang, sees the Era of Social Commerce as the last phase of a gradual shift from the anonymous Web to a social Web through maturing social media technologies. For more information, check out his insightful report at It’s a great framework for considering where customers and technology will be in com- ing years. Realistic Social Marketing Expectations Now that we’ve reviewed the background and the trends of where we are, how do you put together a plan that takes advantage of the opportunities? Where is the low-hang- ing fruit? What should you expect when starting a social media effort or campaign? First, let us set the expectation properly: Social media marketing, and particu- larly Facebook marketing, takes time. It isn’t something you just turn on overnight to gain followers, fans, friends, and hoards of consumers saying good things about your brand and/or your company. Facebook will not do your job for you, it won’t sell for you, and it won’t make you creative. Facebook is a set of tools that, if used properly, can give you a way to reach people in a new and exciting way. If it’s used improperly, you are sure to spend a lot of money, get frustrated, and ultimately lose faith in a chan- nel that could be very, very good to you. Every situation is different, so you’ll have to assess how different parts of Facebook could be used in concert to solve your business problems. We will discuss this more in Chapter 3 and other parts of this book. Effective execution on Facebook generally starts with an honest assessment of the metrics you are trying to drive. For example, consider the following questions: D• o you want more direct revenue for your e-commerce effort? A• re you primarily trying to reach new customers? Or are you trying to commu- nicate better with existing customers?
  36. 36. 19 ■ RealisticSocialMarketingExpectations D• o you want to improve your customer engagement or image metrics? A• re you establishing a base from which you can market future products and ser- vices over coming months and years? D• o you need to connect better with people in different demographic groups? A• re you interested in a set of customers on social media that you can benchmark against other customer lists (e‑mail, newsletter subscribers, show/conference attendees)? D• o you want to increase referral business? A• re you trying to reposition your business or brand? The answer to these questions will help determine your tactics, how aggressive you should be, and perhaps most important, the things you want consumers to do. Remember, this is an interactive medium, so you aren’t necessarily just blasting mes- sages to your customers. You can get them to communicate with you and with their friends. This is the power of the medium, and it’s at your fingertips. In terms of workflow, you’ll first have to come to grips with the fact that manag- ing social media will take time, and quite frankly, you have a lot of work to do. You first have to decide what you will promote—a company, a brand, a product? These decisions are typically driven by organizational dynamics, such as what a manager owns or how a company views social media. These conversations can take a lot of time, and the outcome can be based as much on politics as the right thing to do for the customer. Once you’ve determined what you want to do, you need to have the resources set aside to establish the presence. So in summary, you’ll need to ask yourself the following questions as you begin. W• hat do you want to say? H• ow will you say it? D• o you need your own content or will you point to other content on the Internet? W• ho will post the content? W• hat creative is necessary (logos, icons, ongoing graphic design work, custom applications) to fulfill the business objectives? Depending on priorities, these tasks are generally assigned to full-time employ- ees, interns, or even consultants who know the business well and understand how to establish a social media presence quickly. The best situation is to have a trusted employee manage your social media presence. You don’t want to invest time and money in all the learning only to have the person responsible work for someone else or end a contract and take the knowledge with them. After the basic presence is established, you’ll have to maintain your new prop- erty. I like to think of this responsibility as a social “editor-in-chief,” someone who is
  37. 37. 20 chapter1: InternetMarketing1985–2010 ■ responsible for making sure the presence is fresh with updates on a regular basis. This should be a person you trust implicitly; words and thoughts shared on social media can in some cases be permanent! I’ve typically recommended at least one update per day per social network for clients, and no more than 7 or 8 per week. Remember, you don’t want to annoy people. This person is oftentimes the person who will monitor outcomes and man- age analytics for a social media project. In an ideal situation, each business goal you’ve identified will be mapped to a specific success metric. Those metrics should be measurable and recorded in a spreadsheet on a daily basis once your project is estab- lished. Social media projects are relatively new, so you’ll probably have to go above and beyond to ensure that management is supportive of your effort. We’ve had a lot of success when we are able to show data, charts, and details on how the effort results in increased awareness, improved image, or higher revenues. All told, you are trying to create a presence and tweak it into optimal perfor- mance. Very few web properties were perfect upon launch. The optimal combination of design and content for your business goals is determined only after a lot of experimen- tation. Get comfortable trying things out. It’s a common characteristic of the Web, and social media is no different. If you have metrics to back up your assertions, you’ll be a lot more confident because numbers rarely lie. A Few Thoughts Regarding Consumer Engagement Finally, you’re going to have to think deeply about how customers will interact with your company or brand on social media. Put a different way, you have to remember that consumers aren’t necessarily eager or ready to buy from you at all times. So while you may be interested in promoting an offer or a product, doing so over and over again is likely to alienate your customer base. Take, for example, one case that I witnessed recently. I partnered with a market- ing company that was helping a sandwich franchise with their social media presence. Their job was to identify opportunities on Facebook and Twitter that would help the franchise reach more customers, and they managed the client’s Facebook and Twitter accounts in the early stages of the project. Over the first few months, they posted status updates such as these: “Enjoy a meatball sandwich today!” “Our shakes are fantastic!” “It’s hot outside—come enjoy a cold beverage!” What’s consistent across all of these messages? Well, for one, they aren’t par- ticularly informative. Worse yet, these messages were sent out with the franchise’s marketing goals in mind, not the needs/desires/wants of the customer base. Needless to say, this wasn’t a particularly effective campaign. The number of Twitter followers and
  38. 38. 21 ■ AFewThoughtsRegardingConsumerEngagement Facebook fans didn’t increase significantly, which led the franchise to distrust the mar- keting company before it could show its capabilities. To say the least, the marketing company got off on the wrong foot! The company would’ve been better served to mix it up a bit by including an occasionally important or informative message alongside its marketing messages, such as these examples: “Bring your umbrella—storms expected this afternoon in town!” “Get a free drink with any of our great meatball sandwiches today only when you mention Facebook!” “Festival downtown this weekend—get your early-bird tickets at” When in doubt, you should remember the golden rule of social media marketing: “Do unto your customers as you would be happy to have them do unto you.” There is a fine line between informing and annoying your customers—make sure you are providing value to your community through social media. Be thoughtful and informative with everything you share on social media. When someone chooses to become a fan or follower of your company, it’s a privilege and not a right!
  39. 39. 23 ■ WhatIsFacebook? 2 What Is Facebook? So what is this Facebook thing all about anyway? In Chapter 1, we talked about what social media means at a high level and how consumers are changing behavior to share life’s details online. In this chapter, we’ll break down the different social networks and talk about how the individual parts of Facebook come together for a user. Chapter Contents Social Networking and Social Media Defined Social Network Landscape Seven Truths of Social Networks What You Want: Viral Marketing Other Opportunities in Social Networking Campaign Ideas Facebook Basics Friending The News Feed
  40. 40. 24 chapter2: WhatIsFacebook? ■ Social Networking and Social Media Defined Before we discuss the other websites that I want to call to your attention, it is impor- tant that you understand some nuances and some issues in the vocabulary that I will be using when uncovering these topics. In particular, I want discuss a few terms: social media, social networks, and the social graph. Figure 2.1 is an illustration of how all of these fit together. Figure 2.1 ​Social media, social graph, and social networks The term social media refers to the collection of technologies that capture com- munication, content, and so on across individuals, their friends, and their social net- works. Examples of social media include social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter, blogging technologies like TypePad and WordPress, crowdsourcing products like Wikipedia, photo and video sharing sites like Flickr and YouTube, and others. These technologies help users easily create content on the Internet and share it with others. Social media is the infrastructure that helps users become publishers of content that is interesting to them and their friends. Social networks are groups of people, or communities, who share a common interest, perspective, or background. As much as we like to talk about social networks in the context of popular online services such as Facebook, these networks exist offline just as much as they do online. So whether you are talking about Pink Floyd fans, people who attended the University of Texas in 2004, people who enjoy fly-fishing, or Brazilians, these networks exist regardless of whether or not the individuals in them share information and life experiences on social media. The social graph is the broad collection of people, places, and interests that makes us individuals. It’s how and why we’re connected to other people. Think about it—a
  41. 41. 25 ■ SocialNetworkLandscape lot of who we are is defined by who we know, the associations we have made over the years, the schools we’ve attended, the interests that captivate us, and so on. Before social media, information about our social graph was largely difficult to find, lost when we moved to a new place, lost touch with old friends, or stopped participating. Social media keeps us connected to our interests, our past, and our old friends. For this rea- son, many experts believe that Facebook may emerge into a “next generation social operating system” similar to Windows and the Web. Logging into Facebook and other social networks is the first thing a lot of people do every day, and it will only get more important as it attracts more users, more friends, and more data on the social graph of individual users. Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg popularized the term social graph in 2007 when first describing why the company was able to grow so rapidly. For example, I am an entrepreneur, so I’m part of the social network of entre- preneurs. But because I worked at Microsoft for three and a half years, I’m also a member of the social network of Microsoft alumni. I am a member of hundreds of networks from various associations in my life to date, and I’ll likely join others in the future. The collection of my networks is my social graph, and it is as unique to me as my own fingerprint. All of the information across my social graph, including the social networks to which I’ve subscribed, is captured in social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter. These sites collect, organize, and disseminate that information to me and other users in consumable ways. Social Network Landscape So what other social networks compete with Facebook? And how are all of them used? It can be very confusing to navigate the world of social media, especially if you are not an active user or if you’ve just been tasked with becoming an expert in your com- pany. What’s the difference between Flickr and Facebook Photos? What are the differ- ences between each social network? Which social networks are in decline and which are growing? When building a campaign, how much can (and should) you depend on Facebook? And do certain types of campaigns lend themselves to one social network- ing strategy over another? The answers are going to depend entirely on the business metrics you are trying to drive and the demographics you seek. There are no hard-and-fast rules that dictate what you should do. Worse yet, social media preferences and usage changes so fast that there’s a good chance that anything I say in this book will be out-of-date by the time you read it! While qualified consultants can probably help you learn quickly, this isn’t an argument for going that route at all. I think you can educate yourself on social media in a few hours a week, otherwise I wouldn’t write this book!
  42. 42. 26 chapter2: WhatIsFacebook? ■ Facebook Is Not Forever In 2009, this statement seems ridiculous. But in 2007, there was no question that MySpace was the king of the social networks. Additionally, few people saw Twitter as the future of social media when it made its debut. However, Twitter has experienced a growth of almost 1,200 percent growth year over year as compared to 250 percent for Facebook, according to Compete. com ( .com+Twitter). Considering Twitter’s growth, Facebook must be looking in its rearview mirror at Twitter coming up fast from behind. For these reasons, I always recommend to those who ask that they pick a least a couple if not several different social networks as targets for their marketing campaigns, so they don’t get caught spending all their time on yesterday’s social network before they realize it. First, let’s quickly discuss the differences between the different social networks so you know how they differ and how they may evolve in the next few years. While many social networks appear to be independent, most are run or influ- enced by major media or technology companies. Google, Microsoft, Yahoo!, AOL, and other large companies have a stake in the game as they either own the major social networks or work with them officially or unofficially. Maybe you are thinking that this doesn’t matter, but if you are going to create a social media competency in your busi- ness, you’ll want to pay attention. Why? Each of the major players has distinct advantages and disadvantages in the mar- ketplace, all of which will also play out in social media. Microsoft ​Microsoft, for instance, operates a number of Web properties, such as Windows Live Messenger, that are used by millions of people. Data from Windows Live Messenger is used in its social network, Windows Live Spaces. Windows Live Messenger also pulls data from other social networks to make the user experience richer. Figure 2.2 is an example of how Windows Live Messenger pulls in status updates from another social network in the What’s New area. Google ​Google has millions of users of their applications, Google Mail, and YouTube. Google uses login data for these users to enable the quick creation of profiles on other Google properties, an important fact given that many industry experts believe that Google will need to diversify beyond search advertising revenue soon. Yahoo! ​Although Yahoo! is currently second place in search, perhaps more importantly it owns a network of sites that are used by over 500 million people worldwide. Yahoo! representatives have stated many times that they want to integrate more social features into Yahoo! Mail to make it a de facto social network.
  43. 43. 27 ■ SocialNetworkLandscape It’s important to understand the major technology companies because their sites and properties are visited by millions of people and they are as interested in market- ing and advertising as you are. Some of these social networks are frequented by the same people, so to reach more people, you may need to do things in more than just one place. New opportunities will emerge to market your products and services effectively. You will want to know what is on the horizon to better plan your marketing strategy and budget. Three Types of Social Networks There are three types of social media sites: the one size fits all, the one-trick pony, and the hybrid. One Size Fits All The one-size-fits-all social network provides the user with one-stop shopping for all of their online community, entertainment, communication, and social media needs. These websites not only let you connect with friends, they let you upload photos from Figure 2.2 ​Windows Live Messenger displays status updates from a social network.