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संगणक जगत (माधव शिरवळकर )

  1. 1. gßJUH$ OJV _mYd oeadiH$a
  2. 2. gßJUH$ OJVB©-Amd•Œmr© _mYd oeadiH$a_wI[•>AmoXV oeadiH$agOmdQ> / AjaaMZmA_m{b OmYd(gßJUH$ ‡H$meZ, H$bmod^mJ)qH$_V 125 È[`{‡H$meH$odúZmW ImßXma{gßJUH$ ‡H$meZ5 /6, emßVr oZdmg, gßV am_Xmg am{S>,_wbwßS> ([yd©), _wß]B© - 400081.Xya‹dZr / ∞$∑g : (_wß]B© ) - (022) 25681650/8682B© _{b : sanganak_prakashan@rediffmail.com
  3. 3. amOH$maUm[{jmH$bm, gmohÀ` qH$dm [ÃH$mnaV{¿`m j{ÃmV hm _mUyg AoYH$ a_bm AgVmAgß ¡`m¿`m]‘b _bm Z{h_r dmQ>Vß, À`m oeoea qeX{ ¯m ÒZ{¯mg ..
  4. 4. AZwH´$_oUH$mh∞H$s®JMr [nagr_m : H{$odZ o_Q>ZrH$ ......... 9EH$ `w’ gßJUH$mer ....................... 28A∞_{Pm∞ZMr Jm{Ô>............................ 42"obZ∑gMß am_m`U ....................... 49"]r.E.Ama.gr. _Yrb AmUr]mUr. ......... 58"`mhˇ"Mr Jm{Ô> .............................. 69amI{Vbm o$oZ∑g AmoU Vr B© _{b .......... 75EH$m oM_ `mMß gßJUH$s KaQ>ß .............. 81gm`]a Jw›h{JmarM{ ododY [°by .............. 87gm`]a Jw›h{Jmar ........................... 92
  5. 5. AZwH´$_oUH$m`m{Jm`m{Jm¿`m Jm{Ô>r ........................ 96]Q>mQ>ÁmMm H$sg .......................... 101H$m±fl`wQ>aMß J_^Z ......................... 106Am`.Q>r. AmoU _amR>r .................... 110gmh{]mMr ^mfm AmoU BßQ>aZ{Q> ............. 115e„Xmß¿`m ZßXZdZmV ...................... 119Aer hr ^ßH$g]mOr ...................... 126BoVhmg AmoU ^odÓ` .................... 130EH$odgmÏ`m eVH$m¿`m gwÈdmVrg.. ...... 137
  6. 6. dmMH$hm{, OmZ{dmar 2001 V{ oS>g|]a 2001 ¯m H$mimV "gßJUH$ OJV ZmdmZ{ EH$ gXa_r X°oZH$ "bm{H$gŒmmVyZ obhrb{. Xa ewH´$dmar h{ gXa ‡og’ hm{B© AmoU dmMH$mß¿`m‡oVoH´$`m gH$mir 9 dmOÎ`m[mgyZM _m¬`m B© _{b ]m∞∑g_‹`{ `{D$Z [S>V. df©^amVAem gw_ma{ 3000 B© _{b _bm o_imÎ`m. gß[yU© _hmamÔ≠>mVyZM ZÏh{ Va [aX{emVhrO{W{ O{W{ "bm{H$gŒmm OmV hm{Vm V{WyZhr gd© WamVÎ`m, gd© d`m¿`m Ûr-[wÍ$fdmMH$mßMr EHy$UM gßJUH$ OJVm]‘bMß Hw$Vyhb AmoU _Vß _bm ¯m_wi{ Iy[ OdiyZOmUVm Ambr. À`m —Ô>rZ{ [mhVm "gßJUH$ OJV" ¿`m dmMH$mßZr À`mß¿`m B© _{b_YyZ_mPß EH$ ‡oejUM A‡À`j[U{ KS>dyZ AmUbß. _m¬`m ¯m dmMH$mßM{ _r IaM_Zm[mgyZ Am^ma _mZVm{. "gßJUH$ OJV ¯m gXamVb{ _mP{ EHy$U 52 b{I h{ Xm{Z ‡H$mamV _m{S>Uma{ hm{V{.EH$ ÂhUO{, EHy$UM gßJUH$m¿`m OJmVÎ`m V{Ïhm¿`m Vm¡`m KS>m_m{S>tdaM{ obImUÀ`mV Amb{ hm{V{. CXmhaUmW©, Q>{oZg[Qy> A∞Zm Hw$oZ©H$m{dm¿`m ZmdmZ{ À`m dfu EH$Ïhm`ag Ambm hm{Vm. dV©_mZ[ÃmVyZ À`m¿`m ]mVÂ`m R>iH$[U{ ‡og’ PmÎ`m hm{À`m.¯m ]mV_rMm d{Y K{Umam ‡mgßoJH$ b{I _r À`md{ir "gßJUH$ OJV gmR>r obhrbm.‡mgßoJH$ b{I h{ H$mhr H$mimZßVa Iam{IarM oZ_m©Î`mgmaI{ hm{D$Z OmVmV. Ag{oei{ dmQ>Uma{ VmÀH$mobH$ b{I gm{S>Vm gw_ma{ 30 b{I Ag{ hm{V{ H$s ¡`mV oZdS>H$-oQ>[H$ AmoU H$m`_ gßJ´m¯ Aer C[`w∫$ gm_wJ´r hm{Vr. "bm{H$gŒmmVÎ`m _m¬`m ¯mgXambm OmJ{Mr _m{R>rM _`m©Xm hm{Vr. I{arO Aem ÒVß^mß]am{]a oMÃ{ dm N>m`moMÃ{X{ `mMr [’V À`md{ir "bm{H$gŒmmV ZÏhVr. À`m_wi{ gXamVrb gd© b{I h{ H{$di_OHw$amM{M AgV. H{$odZ o_Q>ZrH$ ¯m OJ‡og’ h∞H$aMr gÀ`H$Wm _r ¯m gXamVyZgmßoJVbr V{Ïhm AZ{H$ dmMH$mß¿`m B© _{b AmÎ`m H$s hm "H{$odZ o_Q>ZrH$ oXgVm{ H$gmh{ AmÂhmbm [hm`M`. VwÂhr À`mMm $m{Q>m{ N>m[m. [U dmMH$mßMr Vr _mJUr V{Ïhm$m{Q>m{ C[b„Y AgyZhr [yU© H$aVm Ambr ZÏhVr. ¯m [wÒVH$mV _mà V{ O_b{ Amh{.OdiOdi ‡À`{H$ b{Imgm{]V À`mM{er gß]ßoYV oMà d N>m`moMÃ{ AmdOy©Z X{ `mMrH$miOr ¯m [wÒVH$m¿`m ‡H$meZmM{ d{ir OmUrd[yd©H$ K{Vbr Amh{. ¡`m H{$odZ o_Q>ZrH$Z{ h∞H$s®J¿`m Amam{[m_wi{ gVV [mM df} VwÍß$JmMr H$miH$m{R>S>r[mohbr Vm{ o_Q>ZrH$ AmO 2003 _‹`{ H$m` H$arV Amh{, AmoU 2004 d 2005_‹`{ À`mMr OJ `mMr arV H$m` amhUma Amh{ hm ^mJ ¯m [wÒVH$mV V[erbdmaAmbm Amh{. H{$odZ o_Q>ZrH$ VwÍß$JmVyZ gwQ>Î`mZßVa H$mhr H$mimZ{ À`mZ{ ÒdVïMr EH$Ï`mdgmo`H$ gßÒWm H$mT>br. ¯m gßÒW{¿`m _m‹`_mVyZ AmO Vm{ OJmbm h∞H$s®J[mgyZAm[Î`m gßJUH$mßM{ gßajU H$g{ H$amd{ h{ oeH$dV AgVm{. À`mZ{ Am[Î`m ¯m gßÒW{Mr
  7. 7. (Hß$[ZrMr) d{] gmB©Q>hr BßQ>aZ{Q>da AmUbr Amh{. hr d{]gmB©Q> H$mhr h∞H$g©Zr h∞H$H{$br AmoU À`mda "d{bH$_ ]∞H$ H{$odZ Agm ÒdmJV[a gßX{e Q>mH$bm. H{$odZo_Q>ZrH$¿`m ]m]VrV Aem ‡H$ma{ oZ`VrZ{ Am[br Hw$er H$er ]Xbbr `mMr hH$sJV¯m [wÒVH$mV Ambr Amh{. ¯m [wÒVH$mVb{ AZ{H$ b{I h{ gßJUH$ OJVmMm _Zm{aßOH$ BoVhmg oQ>[Uma{ Amh{V.H$mhr H$mZ_ßà X{Uma{ Amh{V. `mV Hw$R>{hr H$mÎ[oZH$ Ag{ H$mhrhr Zmhr. ¡`m Amh{VÀ`m gÀ`H$Wm Amh{V. oZ`Vr H$Î[Z{Vhr `{Uma ZmhrV Aem Jm{Ô>r gÀ`mV H$em AmUVAgV{ h{ OmU `mgmR>r gßJUH$m¿`m j{ÃmgmaI{ Xwga{ j{à Zmhr. À`mVyZM `mhˇ"MrJm{Ô>, "A∞_{Pm∞ZMr Jm{Ô>, "H{$odZMr Jm{Ô> dJ°a{ Jm{Ô>r ¯m [wÒVH$mV AmÎ`m Amh{V. [wÒVH$mVrb b{Imß]am{]aMr N>m`moMÃ{ o_iodU{ d [wÒVH$mMr _mßS>Ur H$a `mgmR>r_mP{ ghH$mar A_m{b OmYd d odÌdZmW ImßXma{ `mßZr A[ma _{hZV K{Vbr Amh{.À`mMm CÑ{I AmdOy©Z H$am`bmM hdm. [wÒVH$mVrb _OHy$a V[mgU{ d AmdÌ`H$À`m gwYmaUm gwMod `mM{ _hŒdmM{ H$m_ ‡gmX [mR>H$, oOV|– MÏhmU, eßH$a [a] d[´emßV oS>Mm{bH$a `mßZr H{$b{. _mPm _wbJm AmoXV `mZ{ [wÒVH$mM{ _wI[•> H$Í$ZoXb{. [wÒVH$m¿`m odVaUmgmR>r _{hZV K{UmË`m odbmg [Í$i{H$a `mßMm CÑ{IhrH$am`bmM hdm. Aem ‡H$ma{ gdm™M{ EH$oÃV ‡`ÀZ ZgV{ Va H$XmoMV h{ [wÒVH$ ZKS>V{. ¡`mß¿`m ‡{aU{Z{ h{ gma{ b{I obhrb{ J{b{ V{ bm{H$gŒmm" M{ V{ÏhmM{ gß[mXH$AÍ$U oQ>H{$H$a `mßMm CÑ{I A[nahm`© Amh{. À`md{ir bm{H$gŒmm"V Agb{b{ ¡`{>[ÃH$ma dgßV qeX{ d XŒmm [ßMdmK h{ _m¬`m b{Imß¿`m hÒVoboIVmM{ [ohb{ dmMH$AgV. hÒVoboIV dmMyZ À`mßZr d{im{d{ir Iy[ _m{bm¿`m gyMZm H{$Î`m `mMr Zm|XhrBW{ H$am`bm hdr. dmMH$hm{, gßJUH$ ¯m odf`mdaM{ _mP{ h{ [mMd{ [wÒVH$ Am[Î`mg_m{a R>{dVmZm_ZmV AmZßX Amh{. _amR>rV ¯m odf`mda OmÒVrV OmÒV obhrb{ Omd{, AJXr VmbwH$md J´m_rU [mVirda V{ [m{hm{Mmd{ AmoU gßJUH$mMr XwoZ`m Am[Î`m gd© _amR>rAm]mbd•’mßZm [wÒVH$m¿`m _m‹`_mßVyZ Var OdiyZ oXgmdr Ag{ Co‘Ô> "gßJUH$‡H$meZ Z{ R>{db{{ Amh{. gßJUH$modf`rM{ EHy$U AkmZ EH$m O›_mV Xya hm{Uma{ Zmhr.kmZ K{V Im{b Im{b OmV amohbm{ H$s AkmZmMr Im{br [mVmim¿`mhr [brH$S>{[gaÎ`mMr OmUrd hm{V{. _bm gm[S>b{b{ ¯m [wÒVH$mVb{ kmZmM{ H$U d{MÎ`mZßVaEIm⁄m dmMH$mbm Oar gßJUH$m¿`m kmZmMr Jm{S>r bmJbr Va ¯m [wÒVH$mM{ MrOPmb{ Ag{ _r ÂhU{Z.. Email : mshirvalkar@indiatimes.com
  8. 8. h∞H$s®JMr [nagr_m: H{$odZ o_Q>ZrH$ 1994 ¿`m 25 oS>g|]aMr Jm{Ô>. oºg_gMm oXdg. A_{naH{$Vrb g∞ZoS>EJm{_Yrb gwQ>m{_w er_m{_wamM{ gßJUH$ emßV hm{V{. Vg{ V{ H$YrM emßV ZgV. [UgwQ>m{_w er_m{_wam hm _yi O[mZr dßemVbm [U A_{naH{$V ÒWmo`H$ Pmb{bm AÀ`ßV]wo’_mZ Agm H$m±fl`wQ>a ‡m{J´m_a J{b{ Xm{Z oXdg o[H$oZH$bm J{bm hm{Vm. ]mamhr_ohZ{ gVV gßJUH$mda ‡`m{J, ZdZd{ H$m{S>g≤ em{YU{ `mV er_m{_wam JwßJ Pmb{bmAg{. ¯m C⁄m{JmVyZ Xm{Z oXdg ]mOyg hm{D$Z ]mh{aJmdr Omdß AmoU odlmßVrø`mdr Agm odMma H$Í$ZM er_m{_wamZ{ g∞Z oS>EJm{ gm{S>bß hm{Vß. Am[b{ gßJUH$Am[Î`m ghH$mË`mda gm{[dyZ Vm{ À`m oXder M∑H$ ]m{Q>tJ H$arV hm{Vm. Am[Î`mJmdm[mgyZ oH$À`{H$ _°b AßVamda ]m{Q>rM{ dÎh{ _maUmË`m er_m{_wam¿`m g_m{a [mUrAmoU da oZa^´ AmH$me oXgV hm{Vß. ]m{Q>tJ H$Í$Z Vm{ X_bm hm{Vm. oH$ZmË`mda`{ `mMr d{i Pmbr hm{Vr, V{dT>ÁmV g_m{Í$Z er_m{_wamMm o_à _m{R>_m{R>ÁmZ{ Am{aS>VÀ`mbm hmH$m _maVmZm À`mZ{ [mohbm. hm o_Ãhr odlmßVrgmR>r er_m{_wam]am{]a oVW{Ambm hm{Vm. er_m{_wamZ{ ]m{Q> KmB©KmB©Z{ oH$ZmË`mda AmUbr. o_à AOyZhrAm{aS>VM hm{Vm ""H$_ $mÒQ>, H$_ $mÒQ>@@ `wda H$m±fl`wQ>g© Ama h∞∑S>... er_m{ _ w a m¿`m M{ h { Ë `mda Jß ^ raVm AmoU amJ Xm{ › hr EH$X_ AdVab{ .er_m{_wam¿`m ghH$mË`mZ{ g∞Z oS>EJm{dÈZ $m{Z H{$bm hm{Vm, AmoU h∞H$s®J PmÎ`mMr]mV_r À`mZ{ Ym[m Q>mH$sV oXbr hm{Vr. H$m±fl`wQ>a AmoU Z{Q>dH©$ H$›gÎQ>›gr hmer_m{_wamMm Ï`dgm` hm{Vm. Am[Î`m odf`mV Vm{ AÀ`ßV oZÓUmV hm{Vm. À`mM{A⁄`mdV H$m±fl`wQ>g© [mgdS>© AmoU gßajH$ q^VtZr `w∫$ Ag{ AgV. EIm⁄m]•hÒ[Vrbmhr À`m¿`m H$m±fl`wQ>g©_‹`{ oeaU{ e∑` ZÏhV{, AmoU AMmZH$ hm gßJUH$ OJV 9
  9. 9. gßJUH$V¡k oe_m{_wam amÃßoXdg Am[Î`m gßJUH$mßda ]marH$ bj R>{dyZ Ag{. Varhr EImXr gamB©V Ka$m{S>r Ïhmdr Vg{ À`mM{ gßJUH$ Hw$UrEH$ AkmV Ï`∫$s dmaßdma h∞H$ H$arV hm{Vr...h∞H$s®JMm Kmbm [S>bm hm{Vm. er_m{_wam¿`m O[mZr M{h{Ë`mdaMm amJ À`m¿`m AY©dQ>o_Q>∑`m S>m{˘`mßVyZhr Ò[Ô> oXgV hm{Vm. ""h{ À`mM{M H$m_ Amh{ er_m{_wam_ZmVÎ`m _ZmV [wQ>[wQ>bm.""Mbm, gw≈>r gß[br. H$mhr VmgmV Am[Î`mbm g∞ZoS>EJm{bm [m{hm{Mm`M` er_m{_wamZ{ VamVam $_m©Z gm{S>b{ AmoU ^am^am Am[Î`m]∞Jmhr ^aÎ`m. odlmßVr odgÍ$Z er_m{_wamMm [aVrMm [´dmg gwÍ$ Pmbm hm{Vm. g∞Z oS>EJm{bm [m{hm{MVm{` H$Yr, AmoU Am[b{ gßJUH$ [mhVm{` H$Yr AgßÀ`mbm Pmbß hm{Vß. AI{arg er_m{_wamMm gße` Iam R>abm hm{Vm. "Vm{ ]h˛Ym "Vm{Mhm{Vm. ¡`m [’VrZ{ À`m¿`m gßJUH$mda AmH´$_U Pmb{ hm{V{ Vr [’V er_m{_wam¿`mAm{iIrMr hm{Vr. À`m [’Vrer o_iVm-OwiVm gmam ‡H$ma hm{Vm. da "_yI©]ZodÎ`m]‘b er_m{_wamMr oIÎbr CS>db{br hm{Vr AmoU ""]¿M{, Vw_ ∑`m hm{?Vw_ h_ VH$ H$^r Zhr [h˛±M [mAm{J{. b{oH$Z h_ VwÂh{ gVmV{ ah|J{ Aem ‡H$maMrY_H$shr À`mZ{ _mJ{ R>{dyZ oXbr hm{Vr. oH$VrVar Vmg er_m{_wam Am[bm gßJUH$V[mgV hm{Vm. ododY Qy>Îg dm[Í$Z d{Jd{J˘`m MmßM `m H$arV hm{Vm. ""Vw_ h_VH$ H$^r Zhr [h˛±M [mAm{J{ hr X[m}∫$s AmoU Y_H$s er_m{_wambm gVmdy bmJbrhm{Vr. À`mZ{ VÀjUr oZ¸` H{$bm _r bdH$aM H{$odZbm [H$S>{Z. gßJUH$ OJV 10
  10. 10. [U er_m{_wam H{$odZbm H$gm [H$S>Uma hm{Vm? H{$odZbm A_{naH{$Mr OJ‡og’Jw·h{a gßKQ>Zm E$.]r.Am`.hr [H$Sy> eH$br ZÏhVr. H{$odZ o_Q>ZrH$ oH$À`{H$_ohZ{ $amar hm{Vm AmoU {$S>ab B›Ïh{ÒQ>rJ{eZ „`wam{ H{$odZbm [H$Sy> eH$brZÏhVr. e{dQ>r H{$odZ o_Q>ZrH$Mr _mohVr X{UmË`mbm 50 bmI È[`mßM{ [´MßS> ]jrgOmhra H$a `mßV Amb{ hm{V{. hr a∑H$_ $ma _m{R>r hm{Vr. EH$sH$S>{ H{$odZ $amarhm{Vm [U XwgarH$S>{ À`mM{ C⁄m{J Mmbb{b{M hm{V{. _m{]mB©b $m{Z Q>m∞dadaM{ H$m{S>g≤Vm{Sy>Z À`mMm C[`m{J À`mZ{ odoMà naVrZ{ H{$b{bm hm{Vm. AZ{H$mßZm ]{H$m`X{era[U{_m{]mB©b $m{Z H$Z{∑e›g À`mZ{ Mm{aQ>{[UmZ{ oXbr hm{Vr. H$am{S>m{ È[`mßMm AmoUbmIm{ S>m∞bg©Mm A[hma AmoU V{dT>{M O]aXÒV ZwH$gmZ _m{]mB©b $m{Z¿`mHß$[›`mßZm gm{gmd{ bmJb{ hm{V{. _m{]mB©b Q>m∞daM{ H$m{S>g≤ Vm{S> `mgmR>r AoVoXÏ`]wo’_Œmm AgU{ JaO{M{ hm{V{. Aer AoVoXÏ` ]wo’_Œmm _wimVM _mZdmV ZgV{.[U H{$odZ o_Q>ZrH$Z{ hm g_O Im{Q>m [mS>bm hm{Vm. _m{]mB©b Q>m∞daM{ H$m{S>g≤ VwQ>b{hm{V{. hr H{$g E$.]r.Am`.bm S>m{H{$XwIrMr Pmbr hm{Vr. A_{naH$Z gaH$maMm $ma_m{R>m X]md À`mß¿`mda hm{Vm. ¯m ‡H$aUmV H{$odZM Amh{ h{ XmIdUma{ AZ{H$ [wamd{À`mßZm gm[S>b{ hm{V{, $∫$ H{$odZ gm[S>V ZÏhVm. Vgm 1988 gmbr H{$odZ [H$S>bm J{bm hm{Vm. Amam{[ H$m±fl`wQ>a ´$m∞S>MmM hm{Vm.›`m`mYre _mna`Zm {$ÎPa `mß¿`mg_m{a H{$odZMm IQ>bm Mmbbm. ›`m. {$ÎPaAm[Î`m oZH$mb[ÃmV ÂhUmÎ`m "" EIm⁄mbm S≠>ΩO qH$dm _mXH$ –Ï`mßM{ Ï`gZAg `m[{jm h{ gßJUH$mM{ Ï`gZ VwbZ{Z{ _r MmßJb{ ÂhU{Z. Ag{ _V Ï`∫$ H$Í$Z›`m`_yVuZr H{$odZbm H°$X{Mr odoMà oejm oXbr. H°$X{V AgVmZm gßJUH$ AmoUQ>{ob$m{Z À`mZ{ dm[am`Mm Zmhr EdT>rM AQ> ›`m`mYremßZr KmVbr hm{Vr. ¯m[{jm_m{R>r oejm H{$odZgmR>r Xwgar H$m{UVrhr Agy eH$V ZÏhVr. ¡`mbm gßJUH$mM{Ï`gZ, À`mZ{ À`m[mgyZM Xya ahm`M{ ? $maM H$R>m{a oejm! [U H{$odZbm Vr EH$df© ^m{Jmdr bmJbr. hr oejm ^m{JVmZm À`mM{ d` hm{V{ AdK{ [ßMdrg dfm™M{. Vg{ ›`m`mYremg_m{a C^{ amhU{ À`mhr d`mV H{$odZbm Zd{ ZÏhV{. d`m¿`mAdø`m 17 Ï`m dfu À`mbm ›`m`mYremg_m{a C^{ ahmd{ bmJb{ hm{V{. Amam{[ V{ÏhmhrgßJUH$odf`H$ Jw›¯mMmM hm{Vm. "[∞ogo$H$ ]{bhr _m{R>r Q>{ob$m{Z Hß$[Zr. EH$m[{ $m{ZdÈZ ÂhUO{ gmd©OoZH$ Xya‹dZrMm dm[a H$Í$Z H{$odZZ{ 17 Ï`m dfu[∞ogo$H$ ]{b Hß$[ZrM{ H$m{S>g≤ H∞´$H$ H{$b{. À`mß¿`m H$m±fl`wQ>a_‹`{ oeÍ$Z À`mZ{ ÒdV:M{Q>{ob$m{Z o]b H$_r H$ÈZ K{Vb{. ZßVa BVamßMr o]b{ H$_r H$Í$Z X{ `mMm C⁄m{J gßJUH$ OJV 11
  11. 11. gwÍ$ H{$bm. _J Xya‹dZr H|$–mV oeÍ$Z g∞Z ´$mßogÒH$m{¿`m XwgË`m EH$m Hß$[ZrMmgw_ma{ 1 H$m{Q>r È[`mßMm S>{Q>m Mm{abm. ¯m Amam{[mgmR>r 17 dfm™Mm AÎ[d`rZJw›h{Jma ÂhUyZ H{$odZMm IQ>bm ¡`wd{ZmB©b H$m{Q>©[wT>{ ÂhUO{ ]mbH$mß¿`m›`m`mb`mV Mmbbm. ›`m`mYremßZr À`mbm oejm R>m{R>mdbr H$s À`mZ{ _m{R>Ám_mUgm‡_mU{ ghm _ohZ{ H$m_ H$amd{. hr gOm g∫$ _Owar ZÏhVr. [U À`mV OmMhm{Vm. EH$m AoYH$mË`mM{ H$aS>{ bj H{$odZda gVV Ag{. hr oejm gß[dyZ H{$odZ]mh{a [S>bm. XwgË`m oXder À`m H$aS>Ám AoYH$mË`mMm Q>{ob$m{Z ]ßX [S>bm hm{Vm.À`mM{ Xya‹dZr H$Z{∑eZ Hß$[ZrZ{ H$m[b{ Amh{ Agm gßX{e À`mbm E{Hy$ `{V hm{Vm.À`mZ{ Q>{ob$m{Z Hß$[ZrH$S>{ VH´$ma H{$br V{Ïhm Hß$[ZrH$S>{ À`mMm Q>{ob$m{Z H$m[Î`mMrH$gbrhr Zm|X ZÏhVr. Hw$UrVar Q>{ob$m{Z H$m[yZ ZßVa Zm|Xrhr o$adÎ`m hm{À`m.gßJUH$mVrb ¯m Zm|Xr o$ad `mMr A∑H$b H{$odZoedm` Hw$Umbm AgUma hm{Vr?H$aS>Ám AoYH$mË`mbm 17 dfm™¿`m H{$odZZ{ R>m{R>mdb{br Vr ]mobe gOm hm{Vr. er_m{_wamMm gßJUH$ h∞H$ Pmbm V{Ïhm df© hm{V{ 1994. ÂhUO{ H{$odZ V{Ïhm 32dfm™Mm hm{Vm. oH$À`{H$ _ohZ{ Vm{ $amar hm{Vm. Jw·h{a gßKQ>Zm À`m¿`m _mJmda hm{VrAmoU AmVm À`mZ{ er_m{_wambm AmÏhmZ oXb{ hm{V{. er_m{_wamMr ]wo’_Œmm odÈ’H{$odZ o_Q>ZrH$Mr ]wo’_Œmm Agm O]aXÒV gm_Zm AmVm gwÍ$ Pmbm hm{Vm.H{$odZbm [H$S> `mMr ‡oVkm er_m{_wamZ{ H{$br hm{Vr AmoU 50 bmImM{ ]jrgAmVm qOH$m`M{M h{ À`mZ{ _Zm{_Z R>adb{ hm{V{. gßJUH$ OJVmVbm hm O]aXÒVgm_Zm [wT>{ AZ{H$ diU{ K{V K{V aßJV J{bm. "H$m±fl`wQ>a og∑`warQ>r hm er_m{_wamMm Img AmdS>rMm odf` hm{Vm AmoU À`modf`mV ª`mVr o_idy Z Vm{ EH$ gw ‡ og’ gÎbmJma R>abm hm{ V m. AemgÎbmJmambmM H{$odZZ{ "Jma H{$Î`mZ{ AmVm h{ [´H$aU ‡oV>{M{ ]Zb{ hm{V{. H{$odZo_Q>ZrH$ ¯m $amar h∞H$aMr ]wo’_Œmm _m{R>r H$s er_m{_wam ¯m gÎbmJmamM{ Z°[w `_m{R>{ Aer MMm© AmVm gwÍ$ hm{Uma hm{Vr. er_m{_wam AmVm H{$odZbm em{YUmam Jw·h{a]Zbm hm{Vm. bT>mB© gwÍ$ Pmbr hm{Vr. gVV Xm{Z oXdg er_m{_wam h{ em{YV hm{Vm H$s H{$odZ OmVm OmVm H$mhr [wamd{_mJ{ R>{dyZ J{bm Amh{ H$m` ? er_m{_wamMm gßVm[ AmUIr dmT>dUmar EH$ KQ>Zm 27oS>g|]a am{Or KS>br. H{$odZ [w›hm À`m¿`m gßJUH$mV oeabm EdT>{M ZÏh{ Va OmVmOmVm À`mZ{ EH$ dm∞B©g _{b ÂhUO{ AmdmO _mJ{ R>{dbm. `mV er_m{_wamMr M{Ô>m> gßJUH$ OJV 12
  12. 12. hm{ V r. dm∞ B © g _{ b _‹`{ oMÃodoMÃAmdmO H$mTy>Z "" h{ h{ h{@@@ `wdaQ>{∑ZrH$ BO Zm{ JwS>, `wda Q>{∑ZrH$ BOZm{ JwS> Aer oIÎbr CS>db{brhm{Vr. ¯m ‡H$mamZ{ er_m{_wam amJmZ{bmb]wßX Pmbm. 30 oS>g|]a am{Or [w›hmEH$Xm hm ‡H$ma Pmbm. [w›hm AmUIrEH$ dm∞ B © g _{ b . [w › hm oIÎbrCS>db{br. 25 oS>g| ] abm er_m{ _ w a m¿`mgß J UH$mVy Z H$mhr B© _{ b , H$mhrgm∞‚Q>d{Ag© Jm`] Pmbr hm{Vr. EdT>ßam_m`U KSy>Z J{Î`mZßVa H$mhr oXdg_mJ{ [S>b{ . À`m XaÂ`mZ h∞ H $aZ{ h∞H$abm [H$S> `mgmR>r Am[UH$gbmhr C[X≤Ï`m[ H{$bm ZÏhVm. H$m` H$m` H{$b{ `mMr hH$sJVÀ`m_wi{ À`mMm em{Y K{ `mV er_m{_wam oe_m{_wamZ{ Am[Î`m "Q>{H$ S>mD$ZH$gbrhr [´JVr H$Í$ eH$bm ZÏhVm. ¯m [wÒVH$mV obohbr Amh{.OmZ{dmar¿`m oVgË`m AmR>dS>ÁmVer_m{_wamM{ Zer] À`m¿`mda Iwf Pmb{. H∞$ob$m{oZ©`mVrb "d{b ¯m Hß$[ZrMm$m{Z er_m{_wambm Ambm. d{b hr Am∞ZbmB©Z g{dm [wadUmar AÀ`ßV ‡og’ Hß$[Zr.À`mßZm À`mß¿`m gßJUH$modf`r gße` `{D$ bmJbm hm{Vm. Hw$UrVar h∞H$a Am[Î`mogÒQ>Âg_‹`{ oeaVm{`, [U À`mMm ZrQ> _mJ_yg bmJV Zmhr Ag{ À`mßM{ ÂhUU{hm{V{. ¯m gßX^m©V d{b Hß$[ZrZ{ er_m{_wambm gÎbm-_gbVrgmR>r [mMmaU H{$b{hm{V{. er_m{_wamZ{ "d{bM{ gßJUH$ V[mgb{ V{Ïhm 25 oS>g|]abm Mm{arg J{b{brÀ`mMr gm∞‚Q>d{Ag© V{Wrb EH$m AH$mDß$Q>_‹`{ À`mbm AMmZH$ gm[S>br.er_m{_wam¿`m gßJUH$mMm h∞H$a AmoU d{b Hß$[ZrMm h∞H$a hr EH$M Ï`∫$s Amh{ h{À`m_wi{ Ò[Ô> Pmbß hm{Vß. _mà "d{b Hß$[Zr¿`m gßJUH$mVrb "V{ AH$mDß$Q> ]m{JgZmdmZ{M hm{V{. "d{b Hß$[ZrMm C[`m{J EIm⁄m Ï`mg[rR>mgmaIm H$Í$Z Vm{ h∞H$a"_m{Q>m{am{bm, "A∞[b, "∑dmbH$m∞_ Aem S>PZ^a ª`mVZm_ Hß$[›`mß¿`mgßJUH$mV _wemo$ar H$aVm{` h{ er_m{_wam¿`m bjmV Amb{. AmVm À`mbm V[mgmMr gßJUH$ OJV 13
  13. 13. oe_m{_wam d pÒ‡®Q> Hß$[ZrMm VßÃk Or_ _$s© `m Xm{KmßZrhr h∞H$abm [H$S> `mgmR>r gm[im aMbm ...oXem gm[Sy> bmJbr. d{b Hß$[ZrV À`mMm ]amM d{i OmD$ bmJbm. H{$odZbm [H$S> `mgmR>r Am[U H$m` H$m` H{$b{ `mMr hH$sJV er_m{_wamZ{Am[Î`m "Q>{H$ S>mD$Z¯m [wÒVH$mV obohbr Amh{. À`mV er_m{_wam ÂhUVm{,""EH$_m{]mB©b $m{Z, EH$ _m∞S>{_ AmoU BßQ>aZ{Q>Mm dm[a H{$odZ H$aVm{` h{ _r OmUb{hm{V{. _m{]mB©b $m{Z_wi{ Vm{ Z{_H$m Hw$R>{ Amh{ h{ OmUUß AdKS> hm{Vß pÒ‡ßQ> ¯m_m{]mB©b $m{Z Hß$[ZrMm VßÃk Or_ _$s© er_m{_wam¿`m Am{iIrMm hm{Vm. À`mbmer_m{_wamZ{ JmR>b{. À`m¿`m _XVrZ{ _m{]mB©b $m{ZM{ H$m`© AmoU pÒdM{g `mßMmA‰`mg À`mZ{ Mmby H{$bm. ¯m pÒdM{ger I{iUß hm H{$odZMm J{br [ßYam df}C⁄m{J Amh{ h{ er_m{_wambm _mhrV hm{V{. O{Ïhm er_m{_wam ¯m pÒdM{g¿`m V[erbmVoeabm V{Ïhm À`m¿`m bjmV Amb{ H$s h{ pÒdM{g ÂhUO{hr EH$ ‡H$maM{ H$m±fl`wQ>g©Mhm{V{. Q>{ob$m{Z Hß$[›`mßM{ VßÃk Am∞ZbmB©Z amhˇZ À`mßM{ H$m`© V[mgV, EdT>M ZÏh{Va XwÈÒVrhr H$aV AgV. À`mgmR>r ¯m pÒdM{gZm S>m`b-A[ [m{Q>©g≤ hm{Vr. ¯mpÒdM{g_YyZ EH$ H$mÎ[oZH$ Zß]a V`ma H$Í$Z H{$odZ Am[b{ ^´_U H$arV Ag{.[U Or_ _$s©M{ ÂhUU{ hm{V{ H$s hr Ae∑` H$m{Q>rVbr Jm{Ô> Amh{. _mà er_m{_wamAmVm _$s©¿`m IZ[Q>rbmM ]gbm hm{Vm. "pÒ‡ßQ> AmoU _m{Q>m{am{bm Hß$[›`mß¿`mgßJUH$mV _m{]mB©b $m{Z¤ma{ H$m{U H$m{U oeaH$md H$aV` `mH$S>{ er_m{_wamZ{ bjH|$o–V H{$b{. H$mhr d{imZßVa bjmV Amb{ H$s EH$ H$m∞b Iy[ d{imZ{ ∑brH$ @ ∑brH$ gßJUH$ OJV 14
  14. 14. @@ AmdmO H$arV bmJVm{ Amh{, AmoU H$m∞b bmJ `m[ydu q‡Q>aMm "H$a›MH$ @H$a›MH$ @@ Agm AmdmO `{Vm{ Amh{. er_m{_wamM{ O[mZr S>m{i{ odÒ$mab{. Vm{oXdg hm{Vm JwÈdma, 9 {$]´wdmar 1994. ""C⁄m ewH´$dmar Vy bj R>{d, AmoU 35 o_oZQ>mß[{jm AoYH$ d{i "pÒ‡®Q>,"d{bAmoU "Z{Q>H$m∞_ H$S>{ OmUma{ H´$_mßH$ Zm|XdyZ R>{d er_m{_wamZ{ _$s©bm gmßoJVb{.Xwga{ oXder Xm{KmßMr [w›hm ^{Q> Pmbr. ewH´$dmar Xw[mar gmS>{VrZ dmOVm Z{Q>H$m∞_bm(404) 5557332 ¯m H´$_mßH$mdÈZ gß[H©$ Pmbm hm{Vm AmoU Vm{ 44 o_oZQ>{Mmbbm hm{Vm. amÃr 8.22 dmOVm (612) 5556400 ¯m H´$_mßH$mdÈZ Pmb{bmgß[H©$ 49 o_oZQ>{ Mmbbm hm{Vm. h{ gma{ gß[H©$ Zm∞W© H∞$am{obZm_Yrb amb{ ¯moR>H$mUmhˇZ PmÎ`mMß _$s© `mZ{ ZH$mem [mhˇZ gmßoJVbß. er_m{_wamZ{ Z{_Hß$odMmaÎ`mda _$s© ÂhUmbm H$s ""od_mZVimOdi g{b Zß]a 19 Amh{. V{WyZM h{H$m∞Îg J{b{b{ hm{V{. ""Vw¬`mH$S>{ g{∑Q>a B›$_}eZ Amh{ H$m ? er_m{_wamZ{ [wT>bm ‡˝ odMmabm.H$maU H$mhr g{Î`wba $m{Z Hß$[›`m H$m∞qbJ $m{ZMr oXem Q≠>m›go_Q>a¤ma{ OmUyeH$VmV hr _mohVr er_m{_wamZ{ o_idbr hm{Vr. "" _m¬`mH$S>{ Vr _mohVr Zmhr, [U Am_¿`m $m{Z¿`m g{b gmB©Q>¿`m [yd}bm"A_ÒQ>{S> ÒQ>{Q> [mH©$ hr B_maV Amh{, AmoU dm`Ï`{bm od_mZVi Amh{. BVag{b gmB©Q>¿`m bm{H{$e›g [mhVm ]h˛Ym amb{ od^mJmVÎ`m XojU dm [o¸_{H$S>¿`m^mJmVyZ h{ $m{›g `{V Amh{V Agß dmQ>Vß Or_ _$s©Z{ _mohVr [waodbr. ]amM d{i _$s© AmoU er_m{_wam MM}Mm Ib H$arV ]gb{. [U À`mVyZ h{ $m{ZO{WyZ hm{V hm{V{ Vm{ Z{_H$m od^mJ er_m{_wamZ{ OmUbm hm{Vm. MMm© H$aVm H$aVm[hmQ> Pmbr hm{Vr. ""C⁄m _r ^Î`m gH$mir od_mZmV ]gUma, AmoU amb{bm OmUma er_m{_wam_$s©bm ÂhUmbm. aoddmar 13 {$]´wdmar 1994 am{Or er_m{_wam amb{bm [m{hm{MbmV{Ïhm Xw[ma Pmbr hm{Vr. Vm{ CVab{Î`m hm∞Q>{b_‹`{ Xwga{ oXder gH$mir 7.30dmOVm er_m{_wamMm ghH$mar _mH©$ g{S>Z `mMm $m{Z Ambm. _mH©$ g{S>ZZ{ [S>b{Î`mAmdmOmV er_m{_wambm gmßoJVb{ H$s ""H∞$ob$m{oZ©`mVrb "BßQ>aZ{∑g Hß$[ZrM{gßJUH$ H{$odZZ{ h∞H$ H{$b{ Amh{V. er_m{_wam "BßQ>aZ{∑g Mmhr gÎbmJma hm{Vm. gßJUH$ OJV 15
  15. 15. hm Om∞Z _mH$m©$. ›`w`m∞H©$ Q>mB©ÂgMm ª`mVZm_ [ÃH$ma. `mZ{ Am[Î`m b{ I mV H{ $ odZ o_Q>ZrH$da Q>r>H{ $ M{ dm^mS>{ H$mT>b{ hm{V{. _mH$m©$Mm B© _{b A∞S≠>{g h∞H$ H$Í$Z d À`mMm [mgdS>© OJm[wT>{ R>{dyZ H{$odZZ{ Q>r>H{$Mm ]Xbm K{ V bm hm{ V m. À`mMm amJ e{ d Q>r _mH$m© $Z{ oe_m{ _ w a mbm _XV H$Í$Z H$mT>bm."BßQ>aZ{∑g Hß$[Zr¿`m gßJUH$mV "›`y`m∞H©$ Q>mB©ÂgMm [ÃH$ma Om∞Z _mH$m©$`mM{ B© _{b AH$mDß$Q> hm{V{. V{ h∞H$ H$ÈZ H{$odZZ{ V{ M∑H$ OJm[wT>{ [mgdS>©odZmIwb{ H{$b{ hm{V{. Hw$Urhr "Om∞Z _mH$m©$¿`m B© _{b dmMy eH$V hm{Vm. ¯mM Om∞Z_mH$m©$Z{ H$mhr dfm™[ydu H{$odZ o_Q>ZrH$da EH$ b{I obohbm hm{Vm AmoU À`mVH{$odZ H$gm "IVaZmH$ Amh{ `mMr _mohVr oXbr hm{Vr. ]h˛Ym H{$odZZ{ "›`y`m∞H©$Q>mB©Âg _Yrb À`m b{ImMmM gyS> K{Vbm hm{Vm. gm{_dmaMm 14 {$]´wdmarMm oXdg amb{_‹`{ er_m{_wamZ{ AÒdÒWV{V H$mT>bm.amÃr "E$]rAm`Mm AoYH$mar brdS>© ]›g© À`mbm hm∞Q>{b_‹`{ ^{Q>bm. ]›g©H$S>{H$m±fl`wQ>a H´$mB©_ oS>Q>{∑eZ od^mJ hm{Vm. amÃr Xm{K{OU O{dU K{V AgVmZm [ÃH$maOm∞Z _mH$m©$hr V{W{ [m{hm{Mbm. amÃr ]a{M Ceram "E$]rAm`Mr a{oS>Am{ gÏh}b›gQ>r_ amb{V [m{hmM{br. À`mß¿`mH$S>{ g{Î`wba $m{ZMm d{Y K{Umam "Ò[m` EßQ>{Zmhm{Vm. _ßS>ir AmVm H{$odZ o_Q>ZrH$¿`m oXe{Z{ [wT>{ [wT>{ gaH$V hm{Vr. AZ{H$ B_maVrAmOy]mOyg hm{À`m. Z{_∑`m H$m{UÀ`m B_maVrV Vm{ Amh{ h{ _mà AOyZ H$im`M{hm{V{. h{ hm{V AgVmZm AMmZH$ EßQ>{ZmZ{ oXem XmIdbr AmoU H{$odZ "d{b ¿`mgßJUH$mV oeaV AgÎ`mMr _mohVr `ßÃmdÍ$Z H$ibr. H{$odZZ{ V{W{ Zd{ AH$mDß$Q>CKS>b{ hm{V{ AmoU OwZ{ oS>brQ> H$ÈZ Q>mH$b{ hm{V{. EH$sH$S>{ h{ hm{V AgVmZm"E$]rAm`Z{ H{$odZ¿`m AQ>H{$Mr V`mar H{$br hm{Vr. gm‹`m d{fmVrb AoYH$mar gßJUH$ OJV 16
  16. 16. AmoU A›` $m°O$mQ>m bmß] AßVamda odIÍ$Z V`ma hm{Vm. `mV 24 Vmg CbQy>ZJ{b{ hm{V{. KmB© H$a `mßV AW© ZÏhVm H$maU "E$]rAm`¿`m dm`ab{g JmS>ÁmZ{_∑`m Hw$R>{ Amh{V `mMr _mohVrhr H{$odZ Am∞ZbmB©Z amhˇZ o_idVm{ AmoUh˛bH$mdUr X{D$Z [gma hm{Vm{ Agm AZw^d hm{Vm. [U AmVm oeH$ma Q>flfl`mV Ambrhm{Vr. H{$odZ O{W{ Am[Î`m gßJUH$mda ]gbm hm{Vm À`m¿`m ]am{]a g_m{a er_m{_wamAmoU "E$]rAm`M{ Xm{Z AoYH$mar Am[m[Î`m dmhZmV ]gyZ EßQ>{ZmM{ græb[hmV hm{V{. AOyZ er_m{_wamZ{ H{$odZbm [mohb{b{ ZÏhV{. H$Yr ^{Q>M Pmbr ZÏhVr.g_m{amg_m{a Amb{ Var V{ EH$_{H$mßZm Am{iIy eH$b{ ZgV{. oe_m{_wam d E$]rAm`¿`m Om˘`mV gm[S> `m¿`m gw _ mamg K{ V b{ b m H{$odZMm $m{Q>m{ Odi Odi VrZ amÃr er_m{_wam Pm{[bm ZÏhVm. H$ma_‹`{ ]gÎ`m ]gÎ`m Vm{grQ>da H$bßS>bm. À`mbm JmT> Pm{[ bmJbr. amÃr EH$ XrS>Mm gw_ma hm{Vm. H{$odZ Am[Î`m Im{brV gßJUH$mda ]gyZBßQ>aZ{Q>Mr _wemo$ar H$arV hm{Vm. À`mMm _m∞S>{_ S>{Q>m Z{-AmU H$arV bwH$bwH$Vhm{Vm. ]mh{a _ZÒdr emßVVm hm{Vr. Eadr JO]OUmam amb{Mm [naga emßV hm{Vm.AMmZH$ XmamdaMr ]{b H$H©$Ì` dmObr. amÃr XrS> dmOVm ]{b? H{$odZ ]{gmdYhm{Vm. XmamOdi `{D$Z À`mZ{ o[[hm{b_YyZ [mohb{. O{ g_Om`Mß V{ Vm{ g_Obm. ]{ b dmOVM hm{ V r. B_maVr¿`m AmOy ] mOy b m H{ $ odZZ{ ZOa Q>mH$br.E$]rAm`Mm d{T>m [S>bm hm{Vm. gwQ>H$m Ae∑` hm{Vr. ]{b gVV dmOV hm{Vr. XadmOm CKS>bm OmV ZÏhVm. AmV hmbMmb OmUdV gßJUH$ OJV 17
  17. 17. hm{ V r. gß J UH$mVbm O{ d T>m O_{ b V{dT>m S>{Q>m H{$odZ [wgyZ Q>mH$V hm{Vm. [w a md{ H$g{ ZÔ> H$am`M{ `mV Vm{ dmH$]Jma hm{ V m. AmVm XadmOm CKS>bm Zmhr Va E$]rAm` XadmOm $m{Sy>Z AmV `{B©b h{ H{$odZZ{ OmUb{. À`mZ{ emßV _ZmZ{ Xadm¡`mMr H$S>r gaH$dbr. g_m{a gmjmV AQ>H$ C^r hm{Vr. Aer AQ>H$ H$s Or À`mbm 35 dfm™Mr g∫$_Owar X{D$ eH$V hm{Vr. Vm{ oXdg 15 {$]´wdmar 1995 hm hm{Vm. [U [wT>br ghm df} ÂhUO{ 1995,1996,1997,1998,1999 AmoU 2000 gmb hr gmar df} H{$odZ A_{naH{$V gVV JmOVM amohbm. gwQ>m{_w er_m{_wam¿`m VßÃHw$eb XßS>m]{S>r KmVb{Î`m H{$odZbm [mR>bmJmZßVa 15 {$]´wdmar 1995 ›`m`mb`mV Z{VmZm .... am{Or A_{naH{$Vrb Zm∞W© H∞$am{obZmVrbamb{ od^mJmV [hmQ>{ Xm{Z dmOVm E$.]r.Am`.¿`m AoYH$mË`mßZr H{$odZ o_Q>ZrH$bmAQ>H$ H{$br AmoU 16 {$]´wdmar am{Or gH$mir 10 dmOVm H{$odZbm ›`m`mb`mg_m{ahOa H$a `mV Ambß. [ohÎ`m XhmVrb EH$ "_m{ÒQ> dm±Q>{S> E$.]r.Am`. Z{ [H$S>bmhm{Vm, [U H{$odZda H$m{UV{ Amam{[ R>{dm`M{ AmoU Z{_∑`m H$m{UÀ`m H$m`⁄mMm ^ßJÀ`mZ{ H{$Î`mM{ XmIdm`M{ h{ [m{obgmß[wT>{ EH$ _m{R>{ AmÏhmZ hm{V{. gßJUH$ odf`H$Jw›¯mß¿`m Ò[Ô> VaVwXr AgUma{ H$m`X{ V{Ïhmhr VwQ>[wßO{ AmoU AÒ[Ô> hm{V{. ¯mgßX^m©Vrb Jw›¯mßgmR>r [wamd{ C^{ H$aUß h{hr Im`Mß H$m_ ZÏhVß. H{$odZZ{Omo_ZmgmR>r AO© H{$bm AgVm Va Vm{ ghO _ßOya Pmbm AgVm. C[b„YH$m`⁄mZwgma H{$odZbm Om_rZ ZmH$maUß h{ ›`m`mb`mbmhr e∑` ZÏhVß. [UH{$odZbm Oa Om_rZ o_imbm Va Vm{ [w›hm hmVmV `{Uß Xwam[mÒV AmoU À`mhr[{jmOmo_Zmda amhˇZ Vm{ ]mh{Í$Z O{ C⁄m{J H$arb V{ Wm{[dUß Ae∑`, `mMr H$Î[Zm[m{obgmßZm hm{Vr. [m{obgmßMm oZ¸` hm{Vm H$s H$m{UÀ`mhr [napÒWVrV H{$odZ gßJUH$ OJV 18
  18. 18. o_Q>ZrH$bm Om_rZ o_iy ⁄m`Mm Zmhr. À`mbm VwÈßJmVM oIV[V R>{dm`M{. hmoZ¸` [m{obgmßZr VS>rg Z{bm. H{$odZ o_Q>ZrH$ ¯m VÈUmbm [m{obgmßZr 1995{$]´wdmar V{ OmZ{dmar 2000 hr [mM df} VwÈßJmV Ajae: oIV[V R>{db{. À`mbmÀ`mVb{ EH$ [yU© df© AkmVdmgmV R>{d `mV Amb{. gßJUH$, Xya‹dZr `mß¿`moedm`H{$odZ _memgmaIm VS>$S>V Ag{. AZ{H$Xm AmO©d AmoU _mJUr H$Í$Zhr H{$odZbmh{ gma{ ZmH$ma `mV Amb{. [wamd{ O_od `mM{ H$m_ Mmby AgÎ`mM{ XmIdyZ H{$odZMmVwÈßJdmg [m{obgmßZr gVV dmT>dV Z{bm. H{$odZ O{Ïhm VrZ dfm™Mm hm{Vm V{Ïhm À`m¿`m AmB©doS>bmßMm KQ>Ò$m{Q> Pmbm.AmB© EH$m hm∞Q>{b_‹`{ d{Q≠>{gM{ H$m_ H$am`Mr. VrZ dfm™Mm H{$odZ AßJmZ{ ÒWybAmoU emßV [U AmVÎ`m JmR>rMm dmQ>mdm Agm hm{Vm. emi{V AgVmZm À`mZ{]g¿`m Hß$[›`m oVH$sQ> H$g{ [ßM H$aVmV `mM{ oZarjU H{$b{ AmoU odoeÔ> [’VrZ{[ßM H{$Î`mg EH$M oVH$sQ> Am[U [w›hm [w›hm dm[Í$Z w$H$Q> ‡dmg H$È eH$Vm{ h{em{YyZ H$mT>b{. _yb ]wo’_mZ hm{V{, [U À`m¿`m ‡oV^{bm oXem X{ `mgmR>r _mVm-o[À`mMr _m`m d gßÒH$ma À`m¿`m dmQ>Ámbm `{V ZÏhV{. AmoU, À`mVyZM H{$odZo_Q>ZrH$Mr Jm{Ô> KS>V J{br hr dÒVwpÒWVr Amh{. H{$odZ gßJUH$s Jw›h{Jma ]ZbmAmoU À`mMm gªIm ^mD$ h{am∞B©Z ¯m _mXH$ –Ï`mMm A_`m©X S>m{g K{VÎ`mZ{AH$mbr _•À`y [mdbm. EH$sH$S>{ H{$odZ o_Q>ZrH$bm Om_rZ ZmH$mabm OmV hm{Vm, gßJUH$ ZmH$mabmOmV hm{Vm, AmoU XwgarH$S>{ gwQ>m{_w er_m{_wam Am[bß "Q>{H$ S>mD$Z h{ [wÒVH$ obhrVhm{Vm. ›`w`m∞H©$ Q>mB©ÂgMm [ÃH$ma Om∞Z _mH$m©$ AmoU er_m{_wam"Q>{H$ S>mD$Z ¯m[wÒVH$mM{ ghb{IH$ Amh{V. Xm{KmßZmhr H{$odZMr Jm{Ô> gmßoJVÎ`m]‘b ¯m[wÒVH$mgmR>r ^br _m{R>r a∑H$_ ÂhUO{ ‡À`{H$s 7,50,000 S>m∞bg© ( gw_ma{ 3H$m{Q>r È[`{) o_imb{. [wÒVH$ ]{ÒQ> g{ba Pmb{. A_m[ ‡og’r o_imbr. er_m{_wamMmg›_mZ "gm`]aÒÎ`wW Aem oH$Vm]mZ{ Pmbm. hrM Jm{Ô> gmßJUmar AmUIr Xm{Z[wÒVH{$ (oX ‚`woOQ>rÏh J{_ d oX gm`]aWr$ A±S> gm_wamB©) [wT>{ obohbrJ{br. hmVm{hmV I[br. b{IH$ _mbm_mb Pmb{. X°dXwod©bmg H$gm AgVm{ [hm.oXemhrZ Vw È ß J dmgmbm Hß $ Q>miy Z AmoU doH$bm¿`m gÎÎ`mZ{ H{ $ odZZ{E$.]r.Am`.er EH$ H$ama H{$bm. À`m H$amamZwgma À`mZ{ EH$ gmYm Amam{[ _m›`H{$bm. ¯m Amam{[mZwgma À`mbm hm{Umar Or oejm hm{Vr V{dT>r Va À`mZ{ ^m{Jb{brMhm{Vr. hm Amam{[ _m›` H{$Î`mg ›`m`mb` oZU©` X{B©b d H$mhr _oh›`mV H{$odZ gßJUH$ OJV 19
  19. 19. H{$odZMr H$Wm gmßJUmar hr AmUIr Xm{Z "]{ÒQ> g{ba [wÒVH{$VwÈßJmVyZ gwQ>{b Agm hm H$ama _mM© 1999 _‹`{ Pmbm. H{$odZbm À`mZwgma 46_oh›`mßMr VwÈßJdmgmMr gOm Pmbr, À`mV À`mZ{ ^m{Jb{bm VwÈßJdmg diVmH$a `mßV `{D$Z OmZ{dmar 2000 _‹`{ H{$odZZ{ [ohÎ`mßXm VwÈJm]mh{aM{ OJ [mohb{. ß[U ›`m`mYremßZr oXb{bm ›`m` _hm^`ßH$a hm{Vm. VwÈßJmVyZ gwQ>Î`mZßVaMr VrZdf} H{$odZbm gßJUH$ AmoU _m{]mB©b $m{Z dm[a `mg ]ßXr Kmb `mV Ambr hm{Vr.[wT>br gmV df} À`mbm ÒdV:M{ AmÀ_Mnaà oboh `mghr H$m{Q>m©Z{ ]ßXr KmVb{brAmh{. ¡`mMr Jm{Ô> gmßJyZ er_m{_wamZ{ bmIm{ È[`{ o_iodb{ À`mbm _mà ÒdV:MrJm{Ô> gmßJUß hm Jw›hm Amh{ Agm odoMà I{i oZ`oVZ{ I{ibm. H{$odZ¿`m ¯m Jm{Ô>rdaXm{Z oMÃ[Q>hr `{D$Z J{b{V. ›`m`mb`mZ{ H{$odZbm gßJUH$odf`H$ H$m{UVmhrÏ`dgm` dm H$›gÎQ>›gr H$a `mghr _ZmB© H{$br Amh{. ¯mda H{$odZbm À`mMr‡oVoH´$`m odMmabr AgVm [ÃH$mamßZm À`mZ{ gmßoJVb{ H$s AmVm _r H{$di]mJH$m_mgmaI{ EImX{ H$m_ H$Í$ eH$Vm{. {$]´wdmar 1995 V{ OmZ{dmar 2000 hm H$mi H{$odZ VwÈßJdmgmV AgVmZmA_{ n aH{ $ V ´ $ s$ H{ $ odZ ZmdmMr EH$ MidiM C^r amohbr.www.kevinmitnick.com AmoU www.freekevin.com gmaª`m d{]gmB©Q>g≤ C‰`m amohÎ`m. h∞H$a _ßS>itZr H{$odZ¿`m gwQ>H{$gmR>r AmH$me [mVmi gßJUH$ OJV 20
  20. 20. H{$odZ¿`m AQ>H{$ZßVa gw_ma{ 5 df} À`mbm Om_rZ o_imbm Zmhr. H{$odZMr gwQ>H$m Ïhmdr AWdm À`mbm Om_rZ o_imdm ¯m _w⁄mda A_{naH{$V Midi C^r amohbr. dmhZ{ dJ°a|da "´$s H{$odZM{ hOmam{ ÒQ>rH$g©, gd©Ã ^b{ _m{R>{ $bH$, freekevin.com ZmdmMr d{ ] gmB© Q > `m¤ma{ _m{ M } , YaU{ , E$]rAm`Mr d{]gmB©Q> h∞H$ H$aU{ Ag{ CJ´ Í$[ `m MidirZ{ YmaU H{$b{ hm{V{.EH$ H$a `mg gwÈdmV H{$br. ¡`mßZr H{$odZda oMÃ[Q> H$mT>bm À`mßZr H{$odZM{oMÃU Jw›h{Jma ÂhUyZ H$È Z`{ `mgmR>r "o_am_∞∑g o[∑Mg©¿`m H$m`m©b`m]mh{a]{_wXV YaU{ Ya `mßV Amb{. "o´$ H{$odZ Aer hOmam{ [m{ÒQ>g© AmoU ÒQ>rH$g©oR>H$oR>H$mUr A_{naH{$V PiH$b{. IwZr AmoU ]bmÀH$mar ZamY_ ‡d•Œmr¿`m gßJUH$ OJV 21
  21. 21. Jw›h{JmamßZm Oa Om_rZ o_iVm{ Va Vr gßYr H{$odZbm H$m Zmhr hm ‡˝ H$mhr ‡og’X°oZH$mßZrhr odMmabm. H{$odZ¿`m odam{YmV 1400 [mZ{ b{Ir [wamdm, 1700 ‡À`jXÒVmd{Or [wamd{ AmoU 9 oJJm]mB©Q>g≤ ÂhUO{ Am[Î`m gw_ma{ 9000 N>m{Q>Ám‚bm∞[rO ^aVrb EdT>m gßJUH$s VmßoÃH$ [wamdm E$.]r.Am`.Z{ Jm{im H{$bm hm{Vm.[U Am[Î`modÈ’Mm hm gßJUH$s [wamdm [mh `mgmR>r d ÒdV:Mm ]Mmd V`maH$a `mgmR>r H{$odZbm VwÈßJmV gßJUH$ X{ `mg _mà [m{brg V`ma ZÏhV{. H{$odZZ{ÒdV:Mm dH$sb oXbm ZÏhVm. _J e{dQ>r H$m{Q>m©Z{M a∞S>m∞Î$ ¯m doH$bmMr À`m¿`m]MmdmgmR>r Z{_UyH$ H{$br. H{$odZ gwQ>mdm ÂhUyZ H$mhr h∞H$g©Zr 1998 gmbr `mhˇS>m∞Q> H$m∞_ hr gmB©Q> h∞H$ H{$br AmoU À`mda ´$s H{$odZ Agm gßX{e Q>mH$bm. H$mhtZrM∑H$ "›`y`m∞H©$ Q>mB©Âg Mr gmB©Q> h∞H$ H$ÈZ V{W{hr AgmM ]mdQ>m bmdbm. `wZm{Mr`woZg{$Mr gmB©Q>hr h∞H$g©Zr H{$odZgmR>r Am{T>br. H{$odZ¿`m ]MmdmgmR>r OJ^aß$S> O_m H{$bm OmD$ bmJbm. amÔ≠>m‹`j p∑b®Q>Z `mß¿`mda BVa X]md H$_r ZÏhV{ÂhUyZ H$s H$m` hm H{$odZ X]mdhr À`mß¿`mda dmaßdma AmUbm OmV hm{Vm. H{ $ odZda IQ>bm Mmby AgVmZm EH$Xm "E$.]r.Am`.¿`m doH$bmZ{›`m`mb`mV `wo∫$dmX H$aVmZm gmßoJVb{ H$s H{$odZZ{ gßJUH$mMr gw’m _m{S>Vm{S>H{$br Amh{. Am[Î`mdaMm hm Im{Q>m Ami E{H$VmM H{$odZ Amam{[r¿`m q[OË`mVC^m amohbm hm{Vm, AmoU ÂhUmbm hm{Vm ""H•$[m H$Í$Z H$mhrhr ]m{bm, H$gb{hrAmam{[ bmdm, [U _r gßJUH$mMr _m{S>Vm{S> H{$br Agß ]m{by ZH$m. V{ H$YrM e∑`Zmhr Agß ÂhUVmZm H{$odZ¿`m S>m{˘`mVyZ Aly Amb{ hm{V{. VwÈßJdmgmVyZ gwQ>Î`mZßVa gflQ>|]a 2000 _‹`{ 29 VmaI{bm H{$odZ ‡W_M[ÃH$mamßg_m{a Ambm. [ÃH$mamßZr ‡MßS> JXu H{$br hm{Vr. H{$odZ H$mim gyQ> AmoUbmb Q>m` ¯m d{fmV hgV_wImZ{ [ÃH$mamßZm gm_m{am J{bm. _m{R>Ám Hß$[›`mßM{ gÏh©g©H$g{ gwaojV amImd{ `mda À`mZ{ N>m{Q>{g{ ^mfUM oXb{. [ÃH$ma Am[Î`m ]mV_rVÂhUVmV "hr dm∞O ga‡m`oPßJbr [m∞brÌS>, H$m∞›$sS>›Q> A±S> JwS> ¯x_S>©. ""gßJUH$VßÃkmZ AmVm _bm MmßJÎ`m H$m_mgmR>r dm[am`M{ Amh{, Ag{ CX≤Jma À`mZ{ ¯m[ÃH$ma [nafX{V H$mT>b{. H{$odZ¿`m [ÃH$ma [nafX{VÎ`m ¯m dmVm©bm[mZ{ À`mMr^odÓ`H$mimMr oXem H$m` Ag{b `mMr AßYwH$er H$Î[Zm `{V hm{Vr. bdH$aMH{$odZ h∞H$s®J AmoU gm`]a Jw›h{JmarVyZ ]mh{a [S>{b Agm VH©$ À`mdÈZ H$aVm`{V hm{Vm. [U Jw›h{Jma gwYma `mMr CXmhaU{ $ma H$_r AgVmV. Am`wÓ`mMr[mM df} VwÈßJmV oIV[V [S>b{bm H{$odZ À`mMß Am`wÓ` [yU© ]XbyZ CbQ>Ám gßJUH$ OJV 22
  22. 22. ‡dmgmbm bmJ{ b h{ H$mhtZm AJXr Ae∑`‡m` dmQ>V hm{V{. [U _mUgmbm Ae∑` dmQ>UmË`m Jm{Ô>r e∑` H$ÈZ XmIdyZ À`mbm MH´$mdU{ hm oZ`VrMm EH$ AmdS>Vm C⁄m{J Amh{. AmO 2003- 2004 gmbmVb{ H{$odZM{ C⁄m{J [mohb{ H$s Am[U oZ`Vr Zmdm¿`m A—Ì` eo∫$bm AMßo]V hm{D$Z hmV Om{S>Vm{. Am[U "oZ`Vr Zmdm¿`m A—Ì` e∫$s]‘b ]m{bV hm{Vm{. H$er Jß_V AgV{ [hm, H{$odZ o_Q>ZrH$M{ The Art of Deception ZmdmM{ [wÒVH$ Am∞∑Q>m{]a 2002 _‹`{ ‡H$moeV Pmb{ . 304 "oX AmQ>© Am∞$ oS>g{fleZ [wÒVH$mM{ _wI[•>.. [mZmß¿`m ¯m [wÒVH$mV H{$odZ o_Q>ZrH$Z{ Hß $ [›`mß Z r Am[b{ gÏh© g © ÂhUO{ H$m±fl`wQ>g© `mßM{ h∞H$g©[mgyZ gßajU H$g{H$amd{ `mM{ H$mZ_ßà obohb{ Amh{V. h{ [wÒVH$ oboh `mgmR>r H{$odZbm H$m±fl`wQ>aMrJaO hm{Vr. OmZ{dmar 2000 _‹`{ VwÈßJmVyZ gwQ>Î`mZßVa À`m¿`mda H$mhr ]ßYZ{hm{Vr. H$m±fl`wQ>a dm[am`Mm Zmhr h{ À`mVb{ EH$ ]ßYZ hm{V{. The Art ofDeception h{ [wÒVH$ oboh `mgmR>r Am[Î`mbm H$m±fl`wQ>a dm[a `mMr [admZJro_imdr Agm AO© H{$odZZ{ A_{naH$Z gaH$maH$S>{ H{$bm. À`mbm ¯m [wÒVH$mgmR>rdS>© ‡m{g{ga dm[a `mMr [admZJr o_imbr. Am[Î`m ¯m [wÒVH$mV H{$odZZ{Social Engineering hm ZdmM _w‘m _mßS>bm. ¯m [wÒVH$mV Vm{ obohVm{ H$s""Hß$[›`mßZr Am[Î`m H$_©MmË`mßZm gd©‡W_ gmß^mimd{. H$m±fl`wQ>g©gß]ßYrMrOm{I_rMr _mohVr À`mß¿`mH$Sy>ZM ‡W_ ]mh{a OmV AgV{. Jw›h{Jma ¯mH$_©MmË`mßH$Sy>Z _mohVr o_iod `mgmR>r Social Engineering ¿`m VßÃmMmdm[a H$arV AgVm{. ¯m H$_©MmË`mßH$Sy>Z Oa _mohVr o_imbr Zmhr Va VmßoÃH$_mJm™Zr Vr o_idU{ h{ h∞H$a¿`m —Ô>rZ{ OrdK{U{ d Ae∑`‡m` Ag{ H$m_ AgV{.Hß$[›`mßZr Am[Î`m H$_©MmË`mßZm À`m —Ô>rZ{ AmdÌ`H$ V{ ‡oejU oXb{ [mohO{.EH$sH$S>{ H{$odZ h{ [wÒVH$ obohV hm{Vm AmoU XwgarH$S>{ Defensive Thinking gßJUH$ OJV 23
  23. 23. "oS>{$p›gd qWH$s®J S>m∞Q> H$m∞_M{ hm{_ [{OZmdm¿`m Am[Î`m ÒdV:¿`m Hß$[ZrMr H$Î[Zm À`m¿`m S>m{∑`mV Km{iV hm{Vr. 14Am∞∑Q>m{]a 2002 am{Or À`mM{ The Art of Deception C©$ "$god `mMrH$bm h{ [wÒVH$ ]mOmamV Amb{ AmoU dmMH$mß¿`m À`mda CS>Ám [S>Î`m. [wÒVH$mßMr[arjU{ oOH$S>{ oVH$S>{ N>m[br OmD$ bmJbr. OJ^a À`mM{ odVaU gwÍ$ Pmb{.H{$odZMr Am[br ÒdV:Mr Defensive Thinking Hß$[Zr X{Irb AmH$ma K{D$bmJbr. VwÈßJmVyZ gwQ>Î`mZßVa VrZ df} H{$odZbm BßQ>aZ{Q> d B© _{bMm dm[a H$aVm H{$odZ AmoU A∞b{∑g H∞$Ò[a gßJUH$ OJV 24
  24. 24. "Q>{H$ Q>rÏhr¿`m _wbmIVrZßVa K{Vb{bm $m{Q>m{. S>mog© dyS>, H{$odZ AmoU o]b am∞`b`{Uma ZÏhVm. [U Defensive Thinking ¯m Hß$[ZrMr d{] gmB©Q> H$a `mßVVem $maem AS>MUr ZÏhÀ`m. OmZ{dmar 2003 _‹`{ H{$odZM{ BßQ>aZ{Q>dm[a `mgß ] ß Y rM{ ]ß Y Z Xy a Pmb{ . À`mMr http://www.defensivethinking.com hr d{] gmB©Q> BßQ>aZ{Q>da PiH$br AmoUÀ`mZßVa _ohZmhr CbQ>bm ZÏhVm Vm{M oZ`VrZ{ H{$odZ o_Q>ZrH$bm AmUIr EH$PQ>H$m oXbm. H{$odZMr defensivethinking.com hr gmB©Q> h∞H$g©Zr h∞H$ H{$brhm{ V r. h∞ H $g© Z r À`m¿`m gÏh© g © M { [mgdS>© Vm{ S >b{ hm{ V { AmoUdefensivethinking.com da Welcome back to Freedom Mr. KevinAgm gßX{e Q>mH$bm hm{Vm. ""h∞H$s®J[mgyZ gßajU H$g{ H$amd{ h{ OJmbm oeH$dm`bmoZKmb{Î`m H{$odZbmM Am[Î`m gÏh©aM{ gßajU H$aVm Amb{ Zmhr Aer Hw$M{Ô>mH$am`bm H{$odZ¿`m Q>rH$mH$mamßZm MmßJbr gßYr `m_wi{ o_imbr. ¯mZßVa H$mhr oXdgCbQ>b{, AmoU defensivethinking.com _‹`{ [w›hm EH$Xm h∞H$g© Kwgb{.¯md{ir Kwgb{bm h∞H$a A_{naH{$¿`m Q>{∑gmg ‡mßVmVbm hm{Vm. H{$odZ o_Q>ZrH$Z{_bm À`mMm og∑`wnaQ>r Am∞o$ga ÂhUyZ Z{_md{ Aer B¿N>m À`mZ{ Ï`∫$ H{$brhm{Vr. AmVm _mà OJ^a¿`m [ÃH$mamßZr H{$odZbm N>{S>m`bm gwÈdmV H{$br. ""¯mh∞H$g©¿`m odam{YmV VwÂhr E$.]r.Am`. H$S>{ VH´$ma H$aUma H$m` ? Agm [´˝EH$m [ÃH$mamZ{ H{$odZbm odMmabm. H{$odZ ÂhUmbm, "" Zmhr, ¯m h∞H$g©Mm C‘{e gßJUH$ OJV 25
  25. 25. Mm{arMm ZÏhVm. _m¬`m Hß$[ZrM{ H$gb{hr ZwH$gmZ Pmb{b{ Zmhr. À`m_wi{ _rH$gbrhr VH´$ma Zm|XdUma Zmhr. [U AmVm _m¬`m gÏh©g©Mr `m{Ω` gßajU Ï`dÒWm_r AmVm H{$br Amh{. H{$odZM{ h{ oZd{XZ OJ^a¿`m d•Œm[ÃmßV {$]´wdmar 2003_‹`{ ‡og’ Pmb{. 22 OmZ{dmar 2003 am{Or H{$odZ 8 dfm™¿`m ‡XrK© H$mimZßVa ‡W_MBßQ>aZ{Q>da J{bm hm jU "Q>{H$ Q>rÏhr ¯m XyaXe©Z dmohZrZ{ gmOam H{$bm. hm jUXe©H$mßZm, "bmB©Ïh oXgmdm `mgmR>r Am[Î`m ÒQw>oS>Am{V À`mßZr Img Ï`dÒWmH{$br hm{Vr. H{$odZbm ^{Q> X{ `mgmR>r ÒQ>rÏh Ïhm∞PZr`mH$Z{ EH$ A∞[b b∞[Q>m∞[ÒQw>oS>Am{V AmUbm hm{Vm. ÒQ>rÏh Ïhm∞PZr`mH$ hmhr H{$odZBVH$mM IVaZmH$ h∞H$aÂhUyZ ‡og’ Amh{. ÒQ>rÏhZ{ oXb{Î`m A∞[b b∞[ Q>m∞[da H{$odZZ{ [ohbr d{]gmB©Q> [mohbr Vr Am[Î`m Jb©{´ß$S>Mr. www.labmistress.com hr Vr d{]gmB©Q>. H{$odZMr _°ÃrU S>mog© dyS> ¯md{ir C[pÒWV hm{Vr. Am[br d{] gmB©Q>H{$odZ bj[yd©H$ [mhVm{` hm oV¿`m —Ô>rZ{ EH$ _m{R>mM g_mYmZmMm jU hm{Vm."Q>{H$ Q>rÏhrZ{ ¯m H$m`©H´$_mM{ gßMmbZ H$a `mgmR>r "Q>{H$ $m{H$g ¯moZ`VH$mobH$mM{ gß[mXH$ o]b am∞`b `mßZm Am_ßoÃV H{$b{ hm{V{. À`m jUr hm{UmË`mImg H$m`©H´$_mV S>mog© AmoU H{$odZ `mß¿`m]am{]a ]mVMrV H$a `mgmR>r o]bam∞`b `mßM{ Zmd Iw‘ S>mog©Z{M gwModb{ hm{V{. ¯m H$m`©H´$_mV EH$ odZm{X KS>bm.Am[Î`m b∞[Q>m∞[da Am∞ZbmB©Z OmD$Z H{$odZZ{ www.labmistress.com AerAja{ Q>mB©[ H{$br AmoU "EßQ>a ]Q>Umda IQ>H$Z ‡hma H{$bm. gd© OJ AmVyaPmb{ hm{V{ H$s H{$odZbm AmVm Z{_H$s H$m{UVr gmB©Q> oXgUma. [U b∞[Q>m∞[¿`mÒH´$sZda H$mhrM `{B©Zm bdH$aM The page can not be displayed hmgßX{e PiH$Uma Aer oM›h{ oXgy bmJbr. o]b am∞`bZ{ ¯md{ir H$_oe©`b ]´{H$MmAmYma K{Vbm. Pmbß hm{Vß Agß H$s H{$odZZ{ "S>m∞Q>. H$m∞_" Mm "S>m∞Q> Q>mB©[H$a `mE{dOr "H$m∞_m Q>mB©[ H{$Î`mZ{ Vm{ Km{i Pmbm hm{Vm. dÒVwV: oZ`VrZ{ ¯m odZm{Xr oH$ÌemVyZhr EH$ AW©[yU© gßH{$V H{$odZbm oXbmhm{Vm. H{$odZMr oejm AOyZ [yU© Pmb{br Zmhr, À`m oej{bm 2003 _‹`{ H{$diEH$ ÒdÎ[odam_M o_imb{bm Amh{ h{M oZ`Vr gwMdV Agmdr ]h˛V{H$. gwQ>H{$ZßVagmV dfm™Zr H{$odZ Am[b{ AmÀ_Mnaà qH$dm ÒdV:Mr H$Wm obhˇ eH{$b. À`mgmR>rAOyZ H$mhr df} ]mH$s Amh{V. Vr CbQ>br H$s Iam [yU©odam_ o_i{b. AmO VarH{$odZ Am[Î`m Defensive Thinking ¯m H$ß[ZrV a_bm`. ¯m Hß$[ZrV Vm{ gßJUH$ OJV 26
  26. 26. AmoU À`mMm o_Ã Alex Kasper h{ ^mJrXma Amh{V. 2003 M{ ZÏh{ Va 2004d À`m[wT>Î`m dfm™M{ H{$odZM{ oZ`m{OZ d À`mMr ‡oejU oe]ra{ `mßMr AmIUrAmOM V`ma Amh{. Vr Am[Î`mbm À`m¿`m Hß$[Zr¿`m d{] gmB©Q>da AmO [mhVmhr`{V{. "Q>{H$ Q>rÏhr Z{ K{Vb{Î`m S>mog© d H{$odZ¿`m _wbmIVrZßVa "ÒQ>rÏhdm∞PoZ`mH$Z{ H{$odZ¿`m g›_mZmW© e±[{ZMr ]mQ>br $m{S>br. À`m jUr Vr$g$gUmar ew^´ e±[{Z CYibr OmV AgVmZm AIßS> [mM df} odZmIQ>bm AmoUodZmOm_rZ VwÈßJmV H$mT>b{Î`m H{$odZ¿`m _ZmV H$m{UV{ odMma Km{iV AgVrb`mMm AßXmO oZ`Vrbm Var `{V Ag{b H$m? ]h˛Ym ZmhrM. H$maU H{$odZ¿`mAm`wÓ`mV C⁄m H$m` KS>Uma Amh{ h{ ]h˛Ym oVbmM _mhrV Zgmd{. gßJUH$ OJV 27
  27. 27. EH$ `w’ gßJUH$mer... "_mUyg odÈ’ gßJUH$ Agm gm_Zm 1950 V{ 1997 Agm ‡XrK© aßJbm hm{Vm.À`mMr Jm{Ô> _m{R>r _Zm{aßOH$ AmoU úmg am{Im`bm bmdUmar Amh{. "_mUyg odÈ’gßJUH$ h{ O{ `w’ Pmb{ V{ 47 df} aßJb{. ¯mV hŒmr, Km{S>{, CßQ>, fl`mXr Agß gmaß H$mhrdm[a `mV Ambß. EdT>Ám CÎb{ImdÈZ VwÂhr EÏhmZm Am{iIbM Amh{ H$s h{ `w’bT>b{ J{b{ ]wo’]im¿`m [Q>mda. 1997 gmbr ¯m `w’mMm Om{ oZH$mb bmJbm Vm{AZ{H$mßZm A[{ojV ZÏhVm. À`m gmb¿`m `w’mMr aÂ` Jm{Ô> AmoU Vm{ Y∑H$mXm`H$oZH$mb [mh `m[ydu Am[U 1950 ¿`m XeH$mH$S>{ OmD$Z ‡maß^ Z{_H$m Hw$R>{ AmoUH$gm Pmbm h{ [mhˇ. gw‡og’ o]´Q>re gßem{YH$ A∞bZ Q>ÁwatJ `mßZr 1950 gmbr OJmVbm [ohbm gßJUH$ OJV 28
  28. 28. OJmVbm [ohbm gßJUH$s ]wo’]i ‡m{J´m_ V`ma H$aUmam OJ‡og’ o]´Q>re gßem{YH$ A∞bZ Q>ÁwatJ]wo’]i ‡m{J´m_ V`ma H{$bm. ]wo’]i, À`mMm [Q> AmoU I{imM{ oZ`_ `mßMm gß]ßYVm{[`™V $∫$ _mUgmß[waVmM hm{Vm. ]wo’]imV _mUg{ EdT>r aßJyZ OmV H$s "eVaßO H{$oIbmS>r Ia{ Iwa{ `w’hr odgÍ$Z OmV. 1950 gmbM{ gßJUH$ Jm{JbJm`r¿`m d{JmZ{MmbV. Agߪ` _`m©Xmß¿`m d{T>ÁmV A∞bZ Q>ÁwatJ `mßZr ]wo’]im¿`m [Q>mda BVH{$MXmIdyZ oXb{ H$s ¯m I{imM{ oZ`_ g_OyZ K{D$Z gßJUH$ ]wo’]i I{iy eH$Vm{. [UÀ`mM{ I{iU{ h{ _yIm©gmaI{ hm{V{. Vm{ H$mhrhr Mmb I{ir. À`mbm Vmi-_{i AmoUS>md[{M AmIVm `{V ZgV. [wT>{ ∑bm∞S> e∞Zm∞Z ¯m J•hÒWmßZr gßJUH$ MmßJb{ ]wo’]iH$g{ I{i{b `mMm odMma Mmby H{$bm AmnU [wT>{ AmR> dfm™Zr ÂhUO{ 1958 gmbr`w’mVbr [ohbr oR>UJr [S>br. gßJUH$mZ{ ‡W_M _mUgmbm ]wo’]imV hadb{. [UVm{ hab{bm _mUyg ]wo’]im¿`m X•Ô>rZ{ ]w‘z hm{Vm. [ydu Vm{ H$Yrhr ]wo’]i I{ib{bmZÏhVm. À`mbm AMmZH$ ¯m gm_›`mgmR>r AmU `mV Amb{. gm_›`m¿`m EH$ VmgAmYr hm I{i À`mbm oeH$d `mV Ambm. Vgm hm _mUyg ]w’rbm H$mhr H$_r ZÏhVm.H$m±fl`wQ>a ‡m{J´m_g©¿`m EH$m Q>r_Mm Vm{ g{H{´$Q>ar hm{Vm. À`m¿`mer Iw‘ gßJUH$mMrMJmR> [S>br AmoU ZÏ`mZ{ ]wo’]i oeH$b{Î`m ¯m Bg_mbm gßJUH$mZ{ M{H$_{Q> H$ÈZhadb{. ¯m `w’mMr Zem ¯m odO`m_wi{ MmßJbrM MT>br. gßJUH$mbm CŒm_ ]wo’]i[Qy>]Zod `mM{ _J H$mhtZr _ZmdaM K{Vb{. [U H$mhtZr ¯m ‡H$aUmMr ^a[ya M{Ô>mhrH{$br. gßJUH$ H$YrM ]wo’]i[Qy> hm{D$ eH$Uma Zmhr, AmoU _mZdr _|XyMr ]am{]ar gßJUH$ OJV 29
  29. 29. Om∞Z _∞H$mWu S>{ÏhrS> b{Ïhr _∞H$mWu `m gßJUH$V¡kmZ{ S>{ÏhrS> b{Ïhr `m AmßVaamÔ≠>r` M{g_mÒQ>abm OJmV ‡W_M 1000 [m¢S>mß¿`m [°O{da gßJUH$mer ]wo’]im¿`m [Q>mda bT> `mM{ AmÏhmZ oXb{.H$Í$ eH$Uma Zmhr Agß ¯m Q>rH$mH$mamßMß ÂhUUß hm{Vß. [wT>{ 1978 gmbr AmUIr EH$gm_Zm aßJbm. Vm{[`™V gßJUH$ ]wo’]i I{i `mV MmßJbmM Va]{O Pmbm hm{Vm._yIm©gmaª`m "_wÏh H$aUß À`mZß ]ßX H{$bß hm{Vß. Va]{O _mUgmß¿`m CÀH•$Ô> I{imZ{ Vm{]YV Zg{. À`m_wi{ gßem{YH$mßZm M{d Amb{bm hm{Vm. Chess 4.7 hm ‡m{J´m_ 1978gmbr gwÒWmo[V Pmb{bm hm{Vm. V{Ïhm S>{ÏhrS> b{Ïhr h{ o]´Q>Z BßQ>aZ∞eZb M{g _mÒQ>aCŒm_ ]wo’]i[Qy> ÂhUyZ AmßVaamÔ≠>r` ÒVamda Am{iIb{ OmV hm{V{. ¯m b{Ïhter EH$mgßJUH$V¡kmZ{ [°O bmdbr. ¯m V¡kmM{ Zmd Om∞Z _∞H$mWu . hr [°O 1000 [m¢S>mßMrhm{Vr. a∏$_ À`md{ir Ver KgKerV hm{Vr. Om∞Z _∞H$mWu h{ Artificial Intelligence¯m gßJUH$emÛm¿`m emI{M{ A‰`mgH$ AmoU emÛk hm{V{. S>{ÏhrS> b{Ïhr AmoUChess 4.7 gßJUH$ ‡m{J´m_ `mß¿`mV Q>m{am|Q>m{ `{W{ [mM gm_Z{ I{ib{ J{b{. À`mVbmEH$ AoZoU©V amohbm, EH$ gßJUH$mZ{ oOHß$bm AmoU VrZ gm_Z{ S>{ÏhrS> b{ÏhtZrqOH$b{. EH$ hOma [m¢S>mMr [°O qOH$Î`m_wi{ b{Ïhr Òdm^modH$M Iwf Pmb{, [Uhab{Î`m H$m±fl`wQ>abm H$gbM ^mZ AmoU ^mdZm ZÏhÀ`m. _mZdr _|Xy[wT>{ CŒm_mVbmCŒm_ gßJUH$hr qOHy$ eH$V Zmhr h{ 1978 gmbr og’ Pmbß, [U bT>mB© oVW{ gß[brZmhr. Am`.]r.E_. Hß$[ZrZ{ 1980 gmbr [ohbm [g©Zb H$m±fl`wQ>a ]mOmamV AmUbmAmoU gßJUH$ Am[Î`m ‡`m{Jemi{¿`m _`m©Xm Am{bmßSy>Z Am_ AmX_r¿`m Q>{]bmda gßJUH$ OJV 30
  30. 30. | $ J gy _a{ H∞$Â]{b Wm∞_g AZßVam_Z _mUgmbm ]wo’]imV haodUmË`m "S>r>[ „Î`y gßJUH$mM{ O›_XmV{odamO_mZ Pmbm. "gßJUH$ odÈ’ _mUyg ¯m bT>mB©Vb{ ‡{jH$ hOmam{ [Q>tZr OJ^admT>V J{b{. bT>mB©Mr Iw_Iw_r _mUgmVhr hm{Vr AmoU gßJUH$mVhr hm{Vr. À`m_wi{bT>mB© bdH$a gß[ `mMr oM›h{ oXgV ZÏhVr. gmYmaUV: ¯mM 1975 V{ 1978 ¿`m gw_mamg EH$ emiH$ar _wbJm ¯m bT>mB©VAS>H$bm. À`mMß Zmd _a{ H∞$Â]{b. _a{ hm`ÒHy$b_‹`{ AgVmZmM CŒm_ ]wo’]i[Qy>ÂhUyZ ‡og’ hm{Vm. H∞$ZS>mVrb AÎ]Q>m© od^mJmV Vm{ ahmV Ag{. Hw$R>{hr ]wo’]imMmodf` oZKmbm H$s _a{M{ H$mZ Am[m{Am[ Q>dH$mab{ OmV. EH$Xm À`mbm H$ib{ H$sAÎ]Q>m© od⁄m[rR>mV ]wo’]imM{ Iwb{ gm_Z{ Amh{V. h{ gm_Z{ [mh `mMr gßYr _a{Zßgm{S>Uß e∑`M ZÏhVß. h{M AÎ]Q>m© od⁄m[rR> Am[Î`m Am`wÓ`mbm EH$ H$bmQ>Ur X{UmaAmh{ `mMr H$Î[Zm _mà À`md{ir oH$em{ad`rZ _a{bm ZÏhVr. _a{ O{Ïhm AÎ]Q>m©od⁄m[rR>mV ]wo’]imM{ Iwb{ gm_Z{ [hm`bm J{bm V{Ïhm V{Wrb EH$m —Ì`mZ{ Vm{ W∑H$Pmbm. EH$m I{imSy>er M∑H$ gßJUH$M I{iV hm{Vm AmoU gm_›`mV aßJ ^abm hm{Vm.h{ [mhˇZ _a{ BVH$m [´^modV Pmbm H$s À`mZ{ oVWÎ`m oVW{M R>adyZ Q>mH$b{ H$s Am[UgßJUH$ emÛmM{ oejU ø`m`M{. Am`wÓ`mV ]wo’]imMrhr [mR> gm{S>m`Mr Zmhr. _a{Z{Am[bm hm oZYm©a AJXr e{dQ>[`™V ÂhUO{ AmOhr oQ>H$db{bm Amh{, AmoU "gßJUH$odÈ’ _mUyg ¯m `w’mVrb JmOb{Î`m À`m 1997 gmbmV "_a{ H∞$Â]{b h{ ZmdOJmV gd©Ã JmOb{. _a{Z{ hr bT>mB© H$er JmOdbr V{ [mh `m[ydu Am[U _a{Mr Jm{Ô>gwÈdmVr[mgyZ [mhˇ. _a{Z{ AÎ]Q>m© od⁄m[rR>mVM "H$m±fl`wQ>a gm`›g hm odf` K{D$Z 1981 gmbr gßJUH$ OJV 31
  31. 31. À`mVrb [Xdrhr o_iodbr. AmVm ]wo’]i AmoU gßJUH$ ¯m Xm{›hr Jm{Ô>r À`m¿`mVZmßXy bmJÎ`m hm{À`m. [U ¯m j{ÃmV [rEM.S>r. o_idmdr Aer À`mMr B¿N>m hm{Vr.OJmV H$mZ}Or _{bZ od⁄m[rR>mM{ Zmd gßem{YZmgmR>r Z{h_r K{Vb{ OmV{ h{ _a{bm _mhrVhm{V{. _a{Z{ Am[bm X{e H∞$ZS>m gm{S>bm AmoU Vm{ A_{naH{$V H$mZ}Or _{bZ od⁄m[rR>mV`{D$Z hOa Pmbm. 1987 gmbr _a{Z{ Am[br S>m∞∑Q>a{Q> o_iodbr. [U _YÎ`m dfm©VÀ`mMr _° à r Pmbr Vr | $ J Ò`w ß J gy e r. "gy Mm S>m∞ ∑ Q>a{ Q >Mm odf` hm{ V m -"]wo’]imgmR>r¿`m gßJUH$mVrb VmßoÃH$ aMZm. |$J Ò`wßJ gy AmoU _a{ H∞$Â]{b ¯mXm{KmßZm Om{S>Uma{ Xm{Z [∑H{$ Xwd{ hm{V{. EH$ gßJUH$ AmoU Xwgam ]wo’]i. gyZ{ hr1997 ¿`m bT>mB©V _a{¿`m Imß⁄mbm ImßXm o^S>dyZ H$m_oJar H{$br. _a{ZßVa 1989gmbr gy Z{hr Am[br S>m∞∑Q>a{Q> o_idbr. H$mZ}Or _{bZ od⁄m[rR>mV _a{ AmoU gy`mßMm oVgam o_à hm{Vm Wm∞_g AZßVam_Z. À`mZ{ EH$ N>m{Q>m ]wo’]i ‡m{J´m_ V`maH{$bm hm{Vm. ¯m Q>m∞` ‡m{J´m_da oVKmßM{ H$m_ Mmbb{ hm{V{. ]wo’]i OJ¡O{Vm aoe`mMmJ∞ar H∞$Ò[am{d `m¿`merM Am[br ^{Q> bT>mB©gmR>r hm{Uma Amh{ `mMr gwVam_ H$Î[ZmV{Ïhm ¯m oVKmßZm ZÏhVr. 1985 gmbr _a{ AmoU gy O{Ïhm H$mZ}Or _{bZ od⁄m[rR>mV gßJUH$ AmoU ]wo’]i`mM{ gßem{YZ H$a `mßV JwßVb{ hm{V{ V{Ïhm aoe`mVrb APa]°OmZMm EH$ 22 dfm™Mm`wdH$ _m∞ÒH$m{_‹`{ EH$ ]wo’]imMm gm_Zm I{iV hm{Vm. H$mhr d{imVM Vm{ OJmVbmgdm™V bhmZd`rZ "dÎS>© M∞pÂ[`Z hm{Uma hm{Vm AmoU [wT>{ gVV 11 df} h{OJ¡O{V{[X Vm{ gm{S>Uma ZÏhVm. hm VÈU AWm©VM J∞ar H∞$Ò[am{doedm` Xwgam H$m{UAgUma ? ¡`md{ir J∞arZ{ Am[Î`m OJ¡O{V{[XmMm _wHw$Q> S>m{∑`mda KmVbm À`mMd{ir _a{ AmoU gy `mßMm ]wo’_mZ gßJUH$ O›_mbm Ambm hm{Vm. _a{ AmoU gy `mßZrÀ`mM{ Zmd R>{db{ "oM[Q>{ÒQ>. Am[br JmR> ¯m A_{naH{$VÎ`m "oM[Q>{ÒQ>er H$Yr [S>{bh{ J∞ar¿`m ÒdflZmVhr ZÏhV{ AmoU "oM[Q>{ÒQ> ¿`m O›_XmÀ`mßZm Am[Î`m A[À`mMrbT>mB© C⁄m W{Q> OJ¡O{Vm J∞ar H∞$Ò[am{der hm{Uma Amh{, h{ ‹`mZr_Zrhr Amb{ ZÏhV{.[wT>{ H$mhr dfm™ZrM ¯m bT>mB©Mr gwÈdmV 1989 gmbr Pmbr AmoU J∞arZ{ AJXr_m{O∑`m Mmbt_‹`{M "_a{ AmoU gy¿`m gßJUH$mMm Ajae: H$Mam H$Í$Z Q>mH$bm."_a{ AmoU gy `mß¿`m gßJUH$mMm Km{a [am^d Pmbm hm{Vm. [U _a{ AmoU gy hma_mZUma ZÏhV{. bT>mB© Omar amhUma hm{Vr. |$J gy, _a{ H∞$Â]{b AmoU Wm∞_g AZßVam_Z ¯m oVKmßZr "oM[Q>{ÒQ> hm gßJUH$s]wo’]i[Qy> O›_mbm KmVbm hm{Vm. [U ¯m od⁄mœ`m™Zm V{Ïhm H$gb{hr AmoW©H$ gßJUH$ OJV 32
  32. 32. [mR>]i ZÏhV{. À`mß¿`m A‰`mgmMmhr Vm{ ^mJ ZÏhVm. Vm{ H$m{UmMmhr AoYH•$VAgm ‡H$Î[ ZÏhVm. À`m_wi{ Mmbb{bß h{ H$m_ ÂhUO{ A‰`mg H$aVm H$aVmO[b{br EH$ ‡MßS> hm°g hm{Vr. Iy[ IQ>[Q>r, bQ>[Q>r AmoU H$mQ>H$garV gm‹`m"gZ 3/160 dH©$ÒQ>{eZ gßJUH$mda "oM[Q>{ÒQ> O›_mbm Amb{. ]wo’]im¿`m[Q>mdarb e∑` AmoU gß^mÏ` Aem 50,000 Mmbr Xa g{Hß$Xmbm OmU `mMrVmH$X "oM[Q>{ÒQ> _‹`{ hm{Vr. ÂhUO{ I{imSy> H$mQ>H$garV AmoU od⁄m[rR>m¿`mgßJUH$mda O›_bm Agbm Var MmßJbm VJS>m hm{Vm. 1986 gmb AZ{H$ gwYmaUm H$a `mßV J{b{ AmoU dfm©¿`m AI{ar AI{argZm{Ïh|]a _oh›`mV S>Îbmg ehamV CŒma A_{naH$Z Iwbr ]wo’]i Ò[Ym© OmhraPmbr. ¯m IwÎ`m Ò[Y}V "oM[Q>{ÒQ>bm I{id `mMm oZU©` gy, H∞$Â]{b AmoUAZßVam_Z `mßZr K{Vbm. hr Ò[Ym© JmObr. "oM[Q>{ÒQ>Z{ Xm{Z J{Âg qOH$b{, Xm{ZVm{ habm, EH$mV S>md AoZoU©V amohbm. Am[Î`m I{imSy>bm AmUIr KS>dbm[mohO{ h{ oVKmß¿`m bjmV Ambß. À`m —Ô>rZ{ H$m_ Mmby amohbß. Am∞∑Q>m{]a 1987 ÂhUO{ gmYmaUV: 11 _ohZ{ CbQ>b{ hm{V{. "oM[Q>{ÒQ>_m{R>m Pmbm hm{Vm. AmVm EH$m g{Hß$Xmbm Vm{ 5,00,000 ([mM bmI) gß^mÏ`Mmbr Am{iIm`bm bmJbm hm{Vm. 1985 gmbr 50,000 Mm d{J Va 1987 gmbr[mM bmImMm d{J Aer ‡MßS> ‡JVr Pmb{br hm{Vr. Xg[Q> dmT>b{Î`m "oM[Q>{ÒQ>M{ Zd{ Zmd "oM[Q>{ÒQ>-E_ Ag{ H$a `mßV Amb{. EIm⁄m N>m{Q>Ám _wbmbm Zmdm_mJ{"XmXm" bmdm`bm gwÈdmV H$amdr VgmM hm ‡H$ma hm{Vm. _{ 1988, [yduMm "gZ-3 dH©$ÒQ>{eZ gßJUH$ OmD$Z À`mOmJr "gZ-4gßJUH$ ÂhUO{ [wT>Î`m o[T>rMm gßJUH$ Ambm hm{Vm. À`m_wi{ H$mhr gwYmaUm AmoUd{J dmT>dU{ e∑` Pmb{. AmVm "oM[Q>{ÒQ>-E_ h{ Zmdhr _mJ{ [S>b{ AmoU "S>r[Wm∞Q> h{ Zmd K{ `mßV Amb{. Zm{Ïh|]a 1988 _‹`{ "S>r[ Wm∞Q> Xa g{Hß$Xmbm7,20,000 ( gmV bmI drg hOma) MmbtMm odMma H$È bmJbm hm{Vm. _{ 1989 _‹`{ gy, H∞$Â]{b AmoU AZßVam_Z `mßZr "S>r[ Wm∞Q> bm "dÎS>©H$m±fl`wQ>a M{g M∞pÂ[`Zer[ Ò[Y}V CVadb{. "gßJUH$ ndÈ’ gßJUH$ Ag{ h{OmJoVH$ ]wo’]i gm_Z{ hm{V{. "S>r[ Wm∞Q>Z{ "dÎS>© H$m±fl`wQ>a M{g M∞pÂ[`Z hmoH$Vm] o_iodbm. AmVm "oS>[ Wm∞Q>H$S>{ OJmM{ bj J{b{. "Am`.]r.E_. Hß$[ZrZ{gy AmoU H∞$Â]{b `mßZm Zm{H$ar X{D$ H{$br. H$m_ À`mß¿`m AmdS>rM{M hm{V{. ]wo’]i gßJUH$ OJV 33
  33. 33. "S>r[ „Î`ybm gßJUH$m¿`m `w∑À`m oeH$odUmam AmßVaamÔ≠>r` ª`mVrMm A_{naH$Z M{g_mÒQ>a Om{Eb ]|Omo_ZI{iUmam _hmeo∫$embr gßJUH$ V`ma H$a `mM{. 1989¿`m AI{arg gy AmoUH∞$Â]{b "Am`.]r.E_._‹`{ ÈOy Pmb{. H$mhr oXdgmßZrM {$]´wdmar 1990 _‹`{AZßVam_Zhr "Am`.]r.E_. _‹`{ Ambm. AmVm H$mQ>H$ga gß[br hm{Vr."Am`.]r.E_.Mr ‡MßS> AmoW©H$ VmH$X _mJ{ C^r hm{Vr. "Am`.]r.E_. Hß$[ZrM{›`y`m∞H©$_Yrb "Wm∞_g d∞Q>gZ nagM© g|Q>a A⁄`mdV hm{V{. H$emMrhr H$_VaVmZÏhVr, AmVm "S>r[ Wm∞Q> MmßJb{ ]mig{ YÍ$ bmJbm hm{Vm. Xa g{Hß$Xmbm20,00,000 (drg bmI) ]wo’]im¿`m MmbtMm odMma Vm{ H$Í$ bmJbm hm{Vm.À`m_wi{ ‡MßS> AmÀ_odúmg Amb{bm hm{Vm. Aem ‡w$oÑV dmVmdaUmV OJ¡O{VmJ∞ar H∞$Ò[am{dbm "S>r[ Wm∞Q>er gm_Zm H$a `mgmR>r Am`.]r.E_. Hß$[ZrZ{ ]m{bmdb{.H∞$Ò[am{d "Sr[ Wm∞Q>¿`m odÈ’ Xm{Z J{Âg I{i `mgmR>r ›`y`m∞H©$bm Ambm. "_mUygAmoU gßJUH$ hm gm_Zm ¯md{ir _mUgmMm _|XyM qOH$bm. H∞$Ò[am{dZ{ $∫$ 41Mmbt_‹`{ "S>r[ Wm∞Q>bm MrV H{$b{. H∞$Ò[am{d[wT>{ "S>r[ Wm∞Q> AJXrM qb]y qQ>]yR>abm. AmVm "Am`.]r.E_. Z{hr _Zmda K{Vb{ hm{V{. gVV gßem{YZ MmbV amohb{.‡JVr MmbV amohbr. "gZ dH©$ÒQ>{eZdÍ$Z "S>r[ Wm∞Q> "Am`.]r.E_./6000da Ambm. AmVm Vm{ Xa g{Hß$Xmbm 60 bmI V{ 70 bmI MmbtMm odMma H$arVhm{Vm. Zm{Ïh|]a 1991 _‹`{ "S>r[> Wm∞[-Qy> Ag{ À`mM{ È[mßVa Pmb{. "Am`.]r.E_.Hß$[Zrbm C⁄m{Jj{ÃmV "]rJ „Î`y" ÂhßQ>b{ OmV{. ¯m "]rJ „Î`y" AmoU "S>r[> gßJUH$ OJV 34
  34. 34. Wm∞Q>_YyZ Zd{ Zmd Amb{. {$]´wdmar 1993 _‹`{ "S>r[ Wm∞Q> M{ Zd{ Zmd "S>r[„Î`y Ag{ H{$b{ J{b{. AmVm "S>r[ „Î`y bm H$gbmhr Ym{H$m [ÀH$am`Mm ZÏhVm.A_{naH{$Vrb ]wo’]imMm BßQ>aZ∞eZb J´±S>_mÒQ>a Om{Eb ]|Omo_Z `mbm "S>r[ „Î`ygmR>r H$›gÎQ>ßQ> ÂhUyZ Z{_ `mßV Amb{. Vm{ _ohZm hm{Vm oS>g|]a 1995. ]|Omo_Z"S>r[ „Î`y" bm _mUgm¿`m ∑b•flÀ`m oeH$dy bmJbm. {$]´wdmar 1996. _hmeo∫$embr gßJUH$ "Am`.]r.E_. Ama.Eg./6000da "S>r[ „Î`y Òdma Pmbm. AmVm Vm{ Xa g{Hß$Xmbm 10 H$m{Q>r MmbtMm odMma H$Í$bmJb{bm hm{Vm. hm d{J _hm^`ßH$aM hm{Vm. 1985 gmb¿`m "oM[Q>{ÒQ> Mm50,000 MmbtMm d{J Hw$R>{ AmoU 1996 Mm 1,00,000,000 hm AmH$S>m Hw$R>{.[wbmImbyZ ‡MßS> [mUr dmhˇZ J{b{b{ hm{V{. AmVm J∞ar H∞$Ò[am{der [w›hm EH$XmI{imd{ Aer Iw_Iw_r `{D$ bmJbr hm{Vr. Vm{ I{i PmÎ`mI{arO "S>r[ „Î`y Mrh˛emar H$iy eH$Uma ZÏhVr. I{arO 1989 gmbr 41 MmbrV "S>r[ Wm∞Q> bm 1997 gmbr gßJUH$mer ]wo’]imMm gm_Zm I{iVmZm J∞ar H∞$Ò[am{dMrV[Q> H{$Î`mMm S>mJhr YwdyZ H$mT>m`Mm hm{Vm. {$]´wdmar 1996 Mm hm gm_Zm ghm S>mdmßMm hm{Vm. "S>r[ „Î`y ‡W_M J∞arH∞$Ò[am{der I{iUma hm{Vm. À`m AJm{XaMm "S>r[ Wm∞Q> Mm AdVmaM H{$diH∞$Ò[am{d¿`m bjmV hm{Vm. [U [napÒWVrV ‡MßS> $aH$ [S>bbm Amh{ h{ H∞$Ò[am{dbm {_mhrV ZÏhV{. "S>r[ „Î`y AmoU H∞$Ò[am{d `mßM{ h{ ghm S>md I{ib{ J{b{. [ohbm gßJUH$ OJV 35
  35. 35. S>md "S>r[ „Î`y Z{ qOH$bm V{Ïhm H∞$Ò[am{d¿`m M{h{Ë`mdaMr ÃmogH$Vm Vm{ b[dyeH$bm Zmhr. Xwgam S>md H∞$Ò[am{d Ajae: MdVmiyZ I{ibm AmoU qOH$bm.AmVm 1-1 Aer ]am{]ar Pmbr hm{Vr. bm{H$mßZr úmg am{Ib{ hm{V{. oVgam S>md gwÍ$Pmbm. MmßJbm aßJbm. [U Vm{ AoZoU©V amohbm. Mm°Wm S>mdhr VgmM ]am{]arVqH$dm AoZoU©VM gwQ>bm. 1-1 hr ]am{]ar Mma S>mdmßZßVahr H$m`_ hm{Vr. AmVmXm{ZM S>md oeÎbH$ hm{V{. [mMdm AmoU ghmdm. h{ Xm{›hr S>md qOHy$Z H∞$Ò[am{{dZ{"S>r[ „Î`ybm Y∑H$m oXbm. [U Var Pmb{br X_N>mH$ Vm{ b[dy eH$bm Zmhr.[wT>Î`m dfu [w›hm EH$Xm I{i `mM{ AmÏhmZ `md{ir H∞$Ò[am{dZ{ ÒdV: oXb{ AmoU"S>r[ „Î`y ¿`m dVrZ{ "Am`.]r.E_. Z{ V{ ÒdrH$mab{. ¯m AmÏhmZmbm 3 _{ 1997 am{Or gwÈdmV Pmbr. hr _∞M BVH$s MM}V Ambrhm{ V r H$s "Am`.]r.E_.Z{ Vr Am[Î`m d{ ] gmB© Q >da OJmbm XmIdbr."Am`.]r.E_.M{ gÏh©a À`m_wi{ ‡MßS> JXuZ{ Am{Ïhabm{S> hm{D$Z J{b{. ¯m AmÏhmZ_∞M_‹`{ "S>r[ „Î`yMm d{J [ydu[{jm Xwfl[Q>rZ{ dmT>bm hm{Vm. AmVm Vm{ Xa g{Hß$Xmbmdrg H$m{Q>r MmbtMm odMma H$Í$ eH$V hm{Vm. df©^amV À`m¿`mV hm $aH$ [S>b{bmhm{Vm. EHy$U 256 gßJUH$ EH$Ã H$ÈZ À`mßMr EHy$U e∫$s EH$X_ dm[abr VaO{dT>r hm{B©b V{ÏhT>r "S>r[ „Î`yMr VmH$X hm{Vr. Om{Eb ]|Omo_ZZ{ AmUIr Zd{S>md[{M À`mbm df©^amV oeH$db{ hm{V{. ¯m _∞M_Yrb odO{À`mbm gw_ma{ 3 H$m{Q>rÈ[`mßM{ Va C[odO{À`mbm 2 H$m{Q>r È[`mßM{ ]jrg "Am`.]r.E_. Z{ R>{db{ hm{V{.¯m _∞MgmR>r Am`wÓ`mV ‡W_M J∞ar H∞$Ò[am{dZ{ gßJUH$mer I{i `mMm gamdH$am`bm gwÈdmV H{$br hm{Vr. H∞$Ò[am{d À`md{ir "[|Q>r`_ ‡m{ 200" gßJUH$mdaEH$ CŒm_ M{g ‡m{J´m_ dm[a{. H∞$Ò[am{d [ÃH$mamßZm ÂhUmbm H$s ""¯m [|Q>r`_gßJUH$mda _m¬`modÈ’ EH$ Mmb H$am`bm H$Yr H$Yr ghm ghm Vmg gßJUH$K{Vm{. VrM Mmb "S>r[ „Î`y Xm{Z V{ VrZ o_oZQ>mV I{iVm{ "S>r[ „Î`y odÈ’ "H∞$Ò[am{d ¯m AmÏhmZ gm_›`mVbm [ohbm S>md H∞$Ò[am{dZ{qOH$bm. gma{ OJ ¯m I{imZ{ WamÍ$Z J{b{. g{Hß$Xmbm drg H$m{Q>r MmbtMm odMmaH$aUmam "S>r[ „Î`y AmoU À`m¿`mg_m{a g{Hß$Xmbm $ma $ma Va VrZ qH$dm MmaMmbtMm odMma H$aUmam H∞$Ò[am{d qOH$Vm{ ! AmVm gdm™M{ bj XwgË`m S>mdmH$S>{bmJb{. hm S>md "S>r[ „Î`y qOH$bm. ]am{]ar Pmbr. AmVm oVgam S>md. Vm{ AoZoU©Vamohbm. AmVm [wT>Mm Mm°Wm S>md. Vm{hr AoZoU©V. [mMdmhr AoZoU©V. AmoUghmdm? e{dQ>Mm. Vm{ "S>r[ „Î`y Z{ qOHy$Z J∞ar H∞$Ò[am{dM{ AmÏhmZ gß[db{. "S>r[ gßJUH$ OJV 36
  36. 36. OmJoVH$ oH$VuM{ Xm{Z ]wo’]i I{imSy>. S>mdrH$S>{ J∞ar H∞$Ò[am{d AmoU COdrH$S>{ H∞$Ò[am{dbm haodUmË`m "S>r[ „Î`y `m gßJUH$s` _|XyMr Mr[„Î`yZ{ J∞ar H∞$Ò[am{dbm hadb{. _mUyg habm AmoU gßJUH$ qOH$bm... "gr ¯m‡m{J´mq_J ^mf{V obohbm J{b{bm "S>r[ „Î`yMm ‡m{J´m_ _mZdr ]wo’_Œm{da _mV H$aVm{`mMm AW© H$m` ? "AmoQ>©o$oe`b BßQ>{obO›g _mUgm¿`m _|Xy¿`m daVmU H$Í$eH$Vm{? AmoU Vm{ "AmoQ>©o$oe`b BßQ>{obO›g Ambm Hw$Ry>Z? _mUgm¿`mM _|XyVyZZm? _mZdr "‡`ÀZ hr EH$ AO] MrO Amh{. EImXm _mUyg EImX{ H$m_ AWH$[U{ ‡XrK© H$mi H$arV amohbm H$s BVamßH$Sy>ZEH$ Q>rH{$Mm gya Am[m{Am[ C_Q>m`bm bmJVm{. "" Vm{ `ßÃmgmaIß H$m_ H$aVm{,AmOy]mOybm H$m` Mmbb` h{ ]KV gw’m Zmhr Ag{ e{a{ C_Qy> bmJVmV. ¯mV_mUgmZß "`ßà hm{D$ Z`{ Aer A[{jm AgV{. [U 1956 gmbr ArtificialIntelligence Mr H$Î[Zm O{Ïhm ‡W_M OJmZ{ E{H$br V{Ïhm `ßÃmZß _mUgmgmaIß_ZH$dS>ß hm{V H$m_ H$amdß Aer A[{jm À`m_mJ{ hm{Vr. `ßà H$mhrhr H$Í$ eH{$b,oH$Vrhr H$mi H$Í$ eH{$b, $∫$ À`mV "_Z AmoU AmÀ_m ¯m Xm{Z Jm{Ô>r AgUmaZmhrV. ¯m CbQ> H$mhrhr H$aVmZm _mUyg _Z AmoU AmÀ_m ]mOyg R>{dy eH$VZmhr. "H∞$Ò[am{d odÈ’ S>r[ „Î`yhr _∞M 1997 gmbr "S>r[ „Î`y O{Ïhm qOH$bmV{Ïhm hr gmar MMm© aßJmV Ambr. "S>r[ „Î`y AmoU "H∞$Ò[am{d EH$_{H$modÈ’I{imSy> ÂhUyZ I{ib{ Agb{ Var ¯m Xm{Kmß_Ybm $aH$ R>iH$[UmZß Zm|Xbm J{bm.R>iH$ $aH$ hm H$s H∞$Ò[am{dbm _Z AmoU AmÀ_m Amh{, "S>r[ „Î`ybm Vm{ Zmhr. gßJUH$ OJV 37
  37. 37. AI (Artificial Intelligence) oMÃ[Q>mMm oXΩXe©H$ ÒQ>rÏhZ pÒ[b]J© AmoU À`m oMÃ[Q>mM{ EH$ [m{ÒQ>a¯mV Xm{KmßM{hr $m`X{ Vm{Q>{ Amh{V. H∞$Ò[am{d Am[Î`m "_Z AmoU AmÀÂ`m" ¿`mOm{amda "AßV:‡{aUm ¯m ‡MßS> VmH$XrMm dm[a "S>r[ „Î`y ¿`m odam{YmV H$arVhm{Vm. Vr gwodYm "S>r[ „Î`ybm ZÏhVr. XwgarH$S>{, l_mßZr X_N>mH$ PmÎ`mZ{,Hß$Q>mim AmÎ`mZ{, EH$mJ´Vm T>iÎ`mZ{ H∞$Ò[am{d¿`m hmVyZ MyH$ hm{ `mMr e∑`Vmhm{Vr. "S>r[ „Î`y M{ eara X_N>mH$, Hß$Q>mim AmoU EH$mJ´V{¿`m [brH$S>M{ hm{V{._mZ, A[_mZ, ^`, Xw:I AmoU AemM _mZdr ^mdZmß¿`m [brH$S>{ "S>r[ „Î`yhm{Vm. Va, ¯m gmË`m ^mdZm ]am{]a K{D$Z H∞$Ò[am{d Am[Î`m hmVmZ{ Am[Î`mgm|JQ>Ám hbdrV hm{Vm. Am[Î`m KS>Ámim¿`m H$mQ>Ámda bj R>{drV hm{Vm. "S>r[ „Î`y qOH$bm. [U qOH$ `mMm AmZßX À`mbm _mhrV ZÏhVm. O{Ïhm [yduVm{ Xm{Z d{im habm V{Ïhm ha `m_mJM{ Xw:Ihr À`mbm H$ib{ ZÏhV{. h{ Xw:I AmoUhm AmZßX H∞$Ò[am{d Q>miy eH$V ZÏhVm. Artificial Intelligence h{ AmO¿`memÛkmßM{ EH$ ÒdflZ Amh{. EH$ Zm EH$ oXdg gßJUH$ _mUgmbm ]wo’]imV had{bh{ ^mH$sV emÛkmßZr 1956 ¿`m Amg[mg dV©db{ hm{V{. À`md{ir emÛkmßMmAßXmO hm{Vm H$s h{ ÒdflZ 10 dfm©V gÀ`mV CVa{b. [U hm AßXmO V„]b Mma[Q>tZr MwH$bm. gßJUH$mg gm‹`m ]wo’]imV _mUgmda _mV H$am`bm 40 df}bmJbr. AmOhr Artificial Intelligence h{ EH$ ÒdflZM Amh{. ÒQ>rÏhZpÒ[b]J©¿`m A I ¯m oMÃ[Q>mV 2056-2057 gmbMr H$mÎ[oZH$ —Ì`{ XmIodbr gßJUH$ OJV 38
  38. 38. Amh{V. À`m oMÃ[Q>mVbm 11 dfm™Mm _wbJm hm ‡À`jmV EH$ am{]m{ hm{Vm. gßJUH$mMmEH$ AdVma. AmV ‡m{J´mÂg R>mgyZ ^ab{bm. À`mMß _Z hmhr EH$ ‡m{J´m_M. _wbmMßd{S> Agb{Î`m EH$m _ohb{g odaßJwim ÂhUyZ hm am{]m{ Kar AmUbm OmVm{. À`m 11dfm©¿`m _wbm¿`m Í$[mV Agb{Î`m am{]m{_‹`{ ‡m{J´mq_J Amh{. [U À`m _ohb{Mm[m{Q>Mm _wbJm O{Ïhm H$m{_mVyZ ]mh{a `{D$Z ]am hm{Vm{ V{Ïhm À`m _ohb{bm À`m am{]m{MrJaO Cab{br ZgV{. BVH{$ oXdg _Z naPdUmam, _wbmMr CUrd ^ÈZ H$mT>Umam,AmB©M{ _Z qOHy$ [mhUmam am{]m{ ZH$m{gm Pmb{bm AgVm{. [U À`m_wi{ am{]m{M{ _ZH$g{ ]XbUma? À`mM{ ‡m{J´mq_J Om{[`™V ]Xbb{ OmV Zmhr Vm{[`™V Vm{ VgmMdmJV amhUma. ¯m am{]m{Mr H$Q>H$Q> ZH$m{ ÂhUyZ À`m¿`mVbr ]∞Q>arM H$mTy>Z R>{dbrH$s À`mMß ‡{VM ]ZUma. AmB©Zß oH$Vrhr bmWm KmVÎ`m Var AmVÎ`m ‡m{J´mq_J_wi{Vm{ [w›hm [w›hm oZaW©H$[U{ oVMß _Z qOH$ `mMm ‡`ÀZ H$aUma. `mV Vm{ haUmaZmhr. Vm{ aS>Uma Zmhr. Vm{ ^mßS>Uma Zmhr. _Z Zgb{br H$m`©j_Vm hr Aer AgV{."S>r[ „Î`y $∫$ ]wo’]iM I{iy eH{$b. gm[oeS>r I{iy eH$Uma Zmhr. H$maUÀ`mbm Vr _mZogH$Vm Zmhr. À`mbm $∫$ ‡m{J´mq_JM{ H$m{S> AmoU AmkmM V{dT>ÁmH$iVmV. Aem [napÒWVrV emÛkmßZm A I ‡À`jmV AmUm`M{ Amh{. À`m —Ô>rZ{‡`ÀZ Mmbb{b{ Amh{V. [U J{Î`m 50 dfm©V _wßJr¿`m EH$m [mdbmEdT>rhr ‡JVr¯mV Pmb{br Zmhr hr dÒVwpÒWVr Amh{. `mßoÃH$[UmVbr H$m`©j_Vm AmoU H$m`©j_V{_mJM{ _Z ¯m gßX^m©VbmA_{naH$Z g°›`mgß]ßYrMm EH$ oH$Ògm `{W{ gmßJ `mgmaIm Amh{. pÏhEQ>Zm_ dA_{naH$m `mß¿`m `w’m¿`m d{iMm hm ‡gßJ Amh{. ‡À`j `w’^y_rda ]ßXwH$mßVyZ Jm{˘`mWS>WS>V Amh{V. Vm{$Jm{i{ AmJ Am{H$V Amh{V. g°oZH$ Oo_ZrdÍ$Z ga[Q>VJm{˘`m MwH$drV Amh{V Ag{ —Ì` EH$m M∞Z{bMm `w’dmVm©ha Am[Î`m H∞$_{Ë`mVoQ>[V Amh{. hm `w’dmVm©ha Am[Î`m H$m_mV EdT>m g_o[©V Amh{ H$s oOdmMrhr^rVr À`mbm Cab{br Zmhr. Am[Î`m dmohZrbm CŒm_mVb{ CŒm_ oMÃU X{D$ZAm[br H$m`©j_Vm og’ H$a `mMr EH$ qPJM À`mbm MT>b{br Amh{. EdT>ÁmVÀ`mbm g_m{aM{ —Ì` ÂhUO{ Am[Î`m H∞$_{Ë`mbm EH$ _{OdmZr AgÎ`mMr OmUrdhm{V{. Am[Î`m [mR>rdaMr h∞dag∞H$ gmdaV Vm{ H∞$_{am À`m X•Ì`mda am{IVm{. EH$mpÏhEQ>Zm_r g°oZH$mbm Car Jm{ir bmJb{br AgV{. a∫$mV Vm{ VS>$S>V AgVm{.Vm|S>mZ{ gmaIm [mUr@@ [mUr@@ Mm AmH$mßV H$arV AgVm{. ‡À`j `w’^y_rdapÏhEQ>Zm_r g°›`mMr H$m` AdÒWm Amh{ `mda EH$ CŒm_ ÒQ>m{ar Am[U H$Í$ eHy$, gßJUH$ OJV 39
  39. 39. AmoU H$XmoMV C⁄m À`mgmR>r Am[Î`mbm "[wbrÀPagmaIm EImXm [ÃH$mnaVm[waÒH$mahr o_iy eH{$b Aer ÒdflZ{ À`m `w’ dmVm©ham¿`m ˆX`mV AmVm ZmMybmJb{br Amh{V. Vm{ VS>$S>Umam pÏhEQ>Zm_r g°oZH$ ""[mUr@@ [mUr@@ H$arV‡mU gm{S>Vm{. `w’ dmVm©hamMm H∞$_{am hr gmar VS>$S> AmoU _aUm[yduMm e{dQ>Mmúmghr oQ>[Vm{. Am[b{ H$m_ Pmb{ ¯m Om{emV Vm{ AmVm hr ]mV_r X{ `mgmR>rgagmdV Mmbb{bm AgVmZm EH$m XJS>mer R>{MH$miVm{. [mR>rdaMr h∞dag∞H$Mro[edr h{bH$mßS>V{ AmoU À`mVbr [m `mMr ]mQ>br KaßJiyZ Imbr [S>V{. À`m `w’dmVm©ham¿`m [m`mVbr e∫$sM J{Î`mgmaIr hm{V{. Vm{ _mJ{ diyZ [mhVm{. ""[mUr@@[mUr@@ H$arV _{b{bm Vm{ g°oZH$ À`mbm oXgVm{. Vr Oo_Zrda [S>b{br [m `mMr]mQ>br À`mbm AßV]m©¯ A[amYr _ZmZ{ S>mMy bmJV{. "[mUr _mJUmË`m g°oZH$mbmAm[Î`mH$S>b{ [mUr Z X{Vm Am[U À`m VS>$S>rM{ oMÃU H$arV ]gbm{ `mMrOmUrd À`mbm hm{V{ AmoU Vm{ AmVÎ`m AmV H$m{b_S>Vm{. _Z Zgb{br H$m`©j_Vm H{$di `ßÃm_‹`{M Ag{b Ag{ H$mhr Zmhr. H$Yr H$YrVr _mUgmVhr oXgV{, AmoU _J _mUyg AmoU `ßÃ{ hr Iy[ gmaª`m M{h{Ë`mMroXgy bmJVmV. "S>r[ „Î`y_‹`{ O{ ‡m{J´mn_ßJ Amh{ À`mV fl`mX{ EH$ qH$_VrM{, hŒmr[mM qH$_VrMm, dOra ZD$ qH$_VrMm dJ°a{ o$S>tJ Amh{. amOmbm qH$_V oXb{brZmhr, À`mbm dmMdm`M{ EdT>rM H$_mßS> À`m_mJ{ Amh{. Aem ‡H$ma{ g{Hß$Xmbm drgH$m{Q>r gß^mÏ` Mmbr bjmV K{D$Z O{Ïhm "S>r[ „Î`y I{ibm V{Ïhm À`m_mJ{ _ZZgb{br H$m`©j_Vm hm{Vr. ]wo’]i AmoU `ßà `mß¿`m ZmÀ`mMm EH$ _Zm{aßOH$ YmJm Am[Î`mbm 1760gmbmV Z{Vm{. hm H$mi Z{[m{ob`Z ]m{Zm[mQ>©Mm. Z{[m{ob`Zbm ]wo’]imM{ d{S>. À`mH$mimV "Q>H©$ Zmdm¿`m EH$m `ßÃmZ{ Z{[m{ob`Zbm H{$di 19 Mmbt_‹`{ ]wo’]imVMrV[Q> H{$b{. "Q>H©$ h{ `ßà Jß_VrXma hm{V{. À`mbm {$Q>m hm{Vm. o_em hm{À`m. hmVhrhm{V{. ¯m `ßÃmMm H$Vm© hm{Vm ]∞aZ dwÎ$J±J H|$[brZ hm Bg_. 1760 hm H$mi H$mhrgßJUH$mMm ZÏhVm. H|$[brZMr b]mS>r hr hm{Vr H$s ¯m `ßÃm¿`m AmV EH$ oOdßV_mUyg ]gb{bm Ag{. Vm{ AWm©VM CŒm_ ]wo’]i[Qy> Ag{. [U h{ ahÒ`Z{[m{ob`Zgh H$m{Umbmhr H$ib{{b{ ZÏhV{. H$mhr d{im h{ `ßà haVhr Ag{. ¯m `ßÃmMrhmaOrV [mhˇZ AZ{H$mßZm À`mMm gße` `{D$ bmJbm hm{Vm. `ßà Ag{b Va À`m¿`mhma OrVr_‹`{ H$mhrVar `mßoÃH$[Um Agm`bm hdm Agß ÂhUUmË`mß_‹`{ À`md{irES>Ja A∞bZ [m{ X{Irb hm{Vm. e{dQ>r h{ ahÒ` w$Q>b{ À`md{ir Z{[m{ob`Z X{Irb gßJUH$ OJV 40
  40. 40. gßVm[bm hm{Vm, Aer Zm|X BoVhmgmZ{ H{$br Amh{. AmO gßJUH$ hm _mUgmMm g{dH$ AmoU Jwbm_ Xm{›hr Amh{. EH$odgmÏ`meVH$mVbr À`mMr AmOMr AdÒWm hr AmoX_mZdm¿`m ÒVamdaMr Amh{.AmoX_mZd V{ AmOMm _mZd hr CÀH´$mßVr À`m¿`m dmQ>Ámbmhr `{Uma Zmhr AgßÂhU `mMß H$maU Zmhr. AmO¿`m H$[S>{ Yw `m¿`m `ßÃm[mgyZ V{ j{[UmÛm[`™VAmoU _m{Q>aH$ma[mgyZ V{ od_mZm[`™V gd©Ã À`mM{ ApÒVÀd Amh{. À`mMm AmH$maoXdg|oXdg gw˙_mH$S>{ Mmbb{bm Amh{. oha `H$Ì`[wZ{ ‡ÎhmXmg odMmab{ H$s,""VwPm Zmam`U H$emV Amh{? ‡ÎhmXmZ{ ÂhßQ>b{ H$s, ""Vm{ ‡À`{H$ Jm{Ô>rV Amh{.¯m Imß]mVhr Amh{. V{Ïhm oha `H$Ì`[wZ{ _mab{Î`m bmW{Z{ Vm{ Imß] Xw^mßJbmAmoU À`mVyZ ZaqghmMm AdVma oXgbm Aer [wamUH$Wm Amh{. gßJUH$ Z{_H$mÀ`mM oXe{Z{ dmQ>Mmb H$aVm{ Amh{. À`mMr JmS>r AS>V{ Vr $∫$ Xm{ZM Jm{Ô>ter."_Z AmoU "AmÀ_m `mß¿`mer. "AmoQ>©n$oe`b BßQ>{brO›g ZßVa "AmoQ>©o$oe`boS>ÏhroZQ>r ÂhUO{ H•$oÃ_ X{dÀdm[`™V gßJUH$ OmB©b H$m? Hw$Umg R>mD$H$,OmB©bhr. V{Ïhm VwÂhr AmÂhr Zgbm{ ÂhUyZ H$m` Pmbß? gßJUH$ OJV 41
  41. 41. "A∞_{Pm∞ZMr Jm{Ô> hr H$mhr $ma dfm™[yduMr Jm{Ô> Zmhr. hr Amh{ AJXr AbrH$S>Mr Jm{Ô>. ÂhUO{AJXr J{Î`m 8-9 dfm™VbrM. 1994 gmbr Vm{ $∫$ 29 dfm™Mm hm{Vm. [U›`w`m∞H©$¿`m em∞ A∞›S> Hß$[ZrMm Vm{ ogoZ`a ÏhmB©g ‡{ogS>|Q> hm{Vm. oejUmZ{ Vm{o‡›ÒQ>Z od⁄m[rR>mMm Bb{∑Q≠>rH$b AmoU H$m±fl`wQ>a BßoOZrAatJMm [XdrYa hm{Vm.em∞ A∞›S> Hß$[Zr A_{naH{$VÎ`m AmoW©H$ j{ÃmVrb EH$ Zm_mßoH$V Hß$[Zr hm{Vr. ¯mHß$[ZrV 1990 gmbr Vm{ ÈOy Pmbm hm{Vm AmoU P[mQ>ÁmZ{ EH$ EH$ [X K{V Vm{À`mßMm `eÒdr ogZr`a ÏhmB©g ‡{ogS>|Q> Pmbm hm{Vm. Wm{S>∑`mV, Vm{ AÀ`ßV`eÒdr, MmßJÎ`m [Xmda, MmßJÎ`m Hß$[ZrV ^Ja¿M [Jmamda AmoU [yU©[U{ pÒWahm{Vm. Vm{ oddmohVhr hm{Vm AmoU À`mMr [ÀZr EH$ H$mXß]arH$ma hm{Vr. hm{Vr ÂhUO{AmOhr Amh{. 1994 gmbr À`m¿`m OrdZmbm EH$ ^br _m{R>r H$bmQ>Ur o_imbr. Vm{ _{_oh›`mVÎ`m EH$m gH$mir VmOm [{[a dmMV hm{Vm. EH$m ]mV_rZ{ À`mM{ bj d{YyZK{Vb{ AmoU À`mM ]mV_rZ{ À`mM{ gma{ Am`wÓ`M ]XbyZ J{b{. BVH{$ ]XbyZ J{b{H$s 1999 gmbMm OJmVrb gdm™V bjd{Yr _mUyZ ÂhUyZ "Q>mB_gmaª`moZ`VH$mobH$mZ{ À`mMr oZdS> H{$br. hr oZdS> Pmbr V{Ïhm Vm{ $∫$ 34 dfm™Mmhm{Vm, ÂhUO{ Amh{. 1994 ¿`m _{ _oh›`mVÎ`m À`m gH$mir Vr Aer H$m{UVr]mV_r hm{Vr H$s À`mM{ Am`wÓ` EdT>{ ]Xbb{ AmoU Vm{ OJmVbm gdm™V bjd{Yr_mUyg ]Zbm? Ag{ H$m` KS>b{ À`m¿`m Am`wÓ`mV? H$gbr ]mV_r hm{Vr Vr? -AmoU _wª` ÂhUO{ hm _mUyg H$m{U? Vr ]mV_r hm{Vr "BßQ>aZ{Q>Mm ‡gma Xadfu 2300 Q>∑H{$ d{JmZ{ hm{Vm{ Amh{ hr. gßJUH$ OJV 42
  42. 42. hr ]mV_r dmMyZ À`mM{ S>m{H{$ JaJab{. Vm{ ÒdV:er ÂhUmbm, ""_r BW{ H$m` H$aVm{Amh{ ¯m gwIdÒVy Zm{H$arV MmaMm°KmßgmaIm! _bm H$mhrVar d{Ji{ H{$b{[mohO{ ! À`mZ{ EH$mEH$s AmoU VS>H$m$S>H$s Zm{H$ar gm{S>br. [wT>{ H$m` H$am`Mßh{ H$mhrhr Z R>adVm. hm Iaß Va AÏ`dhma hm{Vm. [U ]h˛Ym AÏ`dhmamVyZ `e,h{M À`mMß `emMß g_rH$aU Agmdß. H$maU J{br AmR> df} ¯mM AemM AÏ`dhmamVyZVm{ Mmbbm Amh{ AmoU Varhr OJmVbm gdm™V bjd{Yr _mUyg R>aVm{ Amh{. hß, VaÀ`m¿`m Jm{Ô>rH$S>{ [w›hm diVm{. À`mZ{ Zm{H$ar gm{S>br AmoU M∑H$ ›`w`m∞H©$gm{S> `mMmhr oZU©` K{Vbm. Hw$R>{ Om`Mß h{hr R>ab{bß ZÏhVß. Zm{H$arVyZ AmoU]MVrVyZ gmR>b{br Wm{S>rer [wßOr À`m¿`mH$S>{ hm{Vr, [U A_{naH{$VÎ`m Ò[Ym©erbOJmV Ï`dgm` H$am`bm Vr AoO]mV [wa{er ZÏhVr. Vm{ AmoU À`mMr H$mXß]arH$ma[ÀZr À`m¿`m H$ma_‹`{ ]gb{. À`mMr [ÀZr H$ma MmbdV hm{Vr AmoU e{Omar hmAm[bm _m{]mB©b $m{Z H$mZmer YÍ$Z AmoU _mßS>rda b∞[Q>m∞[ H$m±fl`wQ>a K{D$ZH$mhrVar H$a `mV JwßVbm hm{Vm. ›`w`m∞H©$ gm{S>Î`mZßVa Z{_Hß$ Ka Hw$R>{ ø`m`Mß h{R>ab{bß ZgÎ`mZ{ À`m¿`m KamVbß $oZ©Mahr M∑H$ Kam]mh{a ZÏ`m KamMr dmQ>[hmV hm{Vß. H$ma d{JmZ{ oXemhrZ OmV hm{Vr. ""Am[Î`mbm grA∞Q>b¿`m oXe{Z{Om`M`, Vm{ Am[Î`m [ÀZrbm ÂhUmbm. ""]m[ a{ @@ EdT>m ‡MßS> ‡dmg H$Í$ZOm`Mß Hw$R>{ AmoU H$am`Mß H$m` À`m¿`m [ÀZrbm ‡˝ [S>bm. oVbm h{ Hw$R>{ _mhrVhm{Vß H$s Vm{ EH$ Xm{Z dfm™VM gw_ma{ 1500 H$m{Q>r È[`mßMm _mbH$ AmoU OJmVbmEH$ ‡MßS> _hŒdmMm _mUyg ]ZUma Amh{. JmS>r grA∞Q>b_‹`{ [m{hm{Mbr. _mJyZÀ`mM{ Kagm_mZ AmnU $oZ©Mahr hiyhiy `{V hm{V{. dmhVyH$ Hß$[Zrbm h{ gm_mZHw$R>{ [m{hm{Mdm`M{ h{ ZwH$V{M H$ib{ hm{V{. grA∞Q>b_‹`{ À`mZ{ eham¿`m Iy[ ]mh{aQy> ]{S>Í$_ ‚b∞Q> ^mS>ÁmZ{ K{Vbm. eham[mgyZ Iy[ bmß]da À`mZ{ h{ Ka K{Vb{H$maU Odi Agb{b{ S>m∞bg© AJXrM VwQ>[wßO{ hm{V{. Zm{H$ar gm{S>Î`mZ{ AmdH$ ]ßXhm{Uma hm{Vr AmoU Zdr AmdH$ H{$Ïhm gwÍ$ hm{B©b h{ _mhrV ZÏhVß. gJirMAoZo¸VVm hm{Vr. ""_r ÒdVßà Ï`dgm`mV [S>m`Mß R>adb`, À`mZ{ grA∞Q>bbm[m{hm{MVm [m{hm{MVm [ÀZrbm gmßoJVbß hm{Vß. ""_r BßQ>aZ{Q>¿`m Ï`dgm`mV [S>UmaAmh{. ÒdV:Mr EH$ d{]gmB©Q> V`ma H$Í$Z À`mdÍ$Z [wÒVHß$ odH$Uma Amh{. À`mZ{À`mMm odMma gmßoJVbm. [ÀZrMm À`m¿`m H$V•©Àdmda odúmg hm{Vm. [U Z{_H$m ]{VoVbm H$iV ZÏhVm. oVMr O]m]Xmar Iy[M dmT>br hm{Vr. Am[Î`m Qy> ]{S>Í$_ ‚b∞Q>¿`m ]mh{a¿`m J∞a{O¿`m OmJ{V À`mZ{ Am[b{ Am∞o$g gßJUH$ OJV 43
  43. 43. WmQ>m`M{ R>adb{. Am∞o$ggmR>r Q>{]b{ qH$dm $oZ©Ma AmUm`M{ Va Iy[M [°gm IM©hm{Uma hm{Vm. Zdm Ï`dgm` oZXmZ EH$ df© Var AmdH$ X{Uma ZÏhVm. V{ 1994gmb hm{V{, A_{naH{$Vhr BßQ>aZ{Q>Mm ‡gma `Wm`WmM hm{Vm. hmVm¿`m ]m{Q>mda_m{O `mEdT>ÁmM d{]gmB©Q>g≤ V{Ïhm hm{À`m. [napÒWVr AoO]mVM AZwHy$b ZÏhVr.À`mZ{ Am∞o$g¿`m emZem°H$s[{jm H$m_mbm AoYH$ _hŒd ⁄m`M{ R>adb{. Vm{ ]mh{a[S>bm. bmHy$S> ]mOmamV O{W{ Ow›`m dÒVy o_iVmV V{W{ J{bm. V{W{hr OwZr Q>{]b{À`mbm _hmJ dmQ>br. À`mbm AoYH$ ÒdÒVmVb{ $oZ©Ma hd{ hm{V{. À`mZ{ S>m{H{$Mmbdb{. À`mZ{ KamM{ VrZ OwZ{ XadmO{ odH$V K{Vb{. V{ Kar AmUb{. J∞a{O¿`mOmJ{V Imbr Mma [m{b R>m{Hy$Z À`mda V{ XadmO{ AmS>d{ _mßS>b{ AmoU dÈZ oIi{R>m{Hy$Z À`mßMr Q>{]b{ H{$br. ÒdÒVmV H$m_ Pmb{. ¯m XadmOmßda VrZ gZ dH©$ÒQ>{e›g (gßJUH$) AmoU Vm{ AmoU À`mMr [ÀZr Ag{ o_iyZ H$m_mbm bmJb{.À`m¿`mH$S>{ gw_ma{ VrZ bmI S>m∞bg© hm{V{. Ver À`mbm OJ `mMr qMVm ZÏhVr,[U... 1994 gmb Vg{M J{b{. À`mZ{ Iy[ H$m_ H{$b{. À`mM{ ohem{] [∏{$ hm{V{. Vm{ÂhUV hm{Vm H$s _m¬`m gmB©Q>dÈZ _r bm{H$mßZm Or [wÒVHß$ odH{$Z À`mda _r ^a[yagyQ> X{B©Z. A_{naH{$VÎ`m ]h˛V{H$ ‡H$meH$mßH$S>{ Vm{[`™V C[b„Y [wÒVH$m¿`mgßJUH$sH•$V `m⁄m V`ma hm{À`m. À`mMm C[`m{J À`mbm hm{Uma hm{Vm. Am[Î`m_XVrgmR>r 1994 AI{arg À`mZ{ [ohbm ‡m{J´m_a Zm{H$arda R>{dbm. Owb° 1995gmbr À`mMr Hß$[Zr gwÍ$ Pmbr. Hß$[Zr AmoU d{] gmB©Q> `mßZm H$m` Zmd ⁄md{ ? Vm{H$Î[H$ AmoU ]wo’_mZ hm{Vm, À`mMr [ÀZr H$mXß]arH$ma hm{Vr [U À`mßZm gw`m{Ω`Zmd gwMV ZÏhV{. e{dQ>r À`mZ{ EH$m EO›grbm Zmd gwMod `mM{ Hß$ÃmQ> oXb{. oVZ{Xm{Z VrZ Zmd{ gwModbr. À`mV EH$ Zmd hm{Vß "OwZm{ AmoU Xwga{ hm{V{ "A∞_{Pm∞Z.À`mZ{ "A∞_{Pm∞Z h{ Zmd oZdS>b{. H$maU "A∞_{Pm∞ZM{ Aja "Ehm{V{, AmoUBßQ>aZ{Q>¿`m gM© BßoOZda "E Am⁄mjam¿`m gmB©Q>g≤ gdm©V da `{VmV h{ À`mbm_mhrV hm{V{. oedm` "A∞_{Pm∞Z h{ ZXrM{ Zmd hm{V{, Aer ZXr H$s oO¿`m emImgd©Ã [gab{Î`m Amh{V. À`mZ{ "A∞_{Pm∞Z S>m∞Q> H$m∞_ AmoU À`mdÍ$Z [wÒVH{$odH$ `mMm Ï`dgm` AoYH•$V[U{ gwÍ$ H{$bm. V{Ïhm Owb° 1995 _‹`{ "]mZ}g A±S>Zm∞]b hr _m{R>r gßÒWmhr Am∞ZbmB©Z [wÒVH{$ odH$ `m¿`m Ï`dgm`mV hm{VrM. [UÒ[Y}Mm odMma Z H$aVm À`mZ{ [wÒVH$mßda 20 Q>∑H{$ V{ 50 Q>∑H{$ gyQ> ⁄m`bmAmoU 24 VmgmßV [wÒVH$mßMr oS>brÏhar ⁄m`bm gwÈdmV H{$br. À`m¿`mH$S>{ gd©M gßJUH$ OJV 44
  44. 44. O{$ ]{Pm∞g d À`mMr H$mXß]arH$ma [ÀZr _{H±$Pr‡H$meH$mßMr gJirM [wÒVH{$ EH$à AmoU Vrhr H$mhr jUmV Ka]gÎ`m o_iVhm{Vr. [wÒVH$mß¿`m XwH$mZmV Om`M{ Va V{W{ [wÒVH$ em{Ymd{ bmJV Ag{, qH$dm MmaXwH$mZ{ em{Ymdr bmJV. "A∞_{Pm∞Z S>m∞Q> H$m∞_da hm Ãmg dmMV hm{Vm. MmßJbr gyQ>o_iV hm{Vr. Ka[m{M _mb [m{hm{MV hm{Vm. hiyhiy bm{H$o‡`Vm dmT>V hm{Vr. J´mhH$mßMrgߪ`m dmT>V hm{Vr. odH´$sM{ AmH$S>{ dmT>V hm{V{. [U Z$m? Vm{ _mà hm{V ZÏhVm,H$maU Vm{ ^a[ya gyQ> J´mhH$mßZm X{V hm{Vm. hm Iaß Va AÏ`dhma hm{Vm. [U À`mMm‡Vrj{ d a odúmg Agmdm. 1997 ¿`m Ow b ° _oh›`mV À`mMr Hß $ [Zr^mßS>db]mOmamV Ambr. EH$m e{AaMm ^md $∫$ 18 S>m∞baZ{ gwÍ$ Pmb{bmAgVmZm EH$m oXdgmV À`mMm ^md 84 S>m∞ba[`™V [m{hm{Mbm. hm Iaß Va M_ÀH$maMhm{Vm. H$maU Hß$[Zr Zdr hm{Vr. Vr $m`⁄mV ZÏhVr. CbQ> Vm{Q>ÁmVM hm{Vr. $∫$odH´$sM{ AmH$S>{ _m{R>{ hm{V{. _mbH$mMm odúmg XwX©Â` hm{Vm AmoU ¯m XwX©Â`odúmgmda JwßVdUwH$XmamßMm odúmg hm{Vm. 1997, 1998 AmoU 1999 hr oV›hrdf} À`m¿`m Hß$[ZrZ{ EH$ Zdm [°gmhr oS>pÏhS>ßS> oXb{bm Zmhr. hr oV›hr df} gbJÀ`mMr Hß$[Zr Vm{Q>ÁmV hm{Vr. hm Vm{Q>m dmT>Vm{M Amh{. [U Varhr ^mßS>db]mOmamVÀ`m¿`m Hß$[ZrdaMm bm{H$mßMm odúmg CS>mb{bm Zmhr. ZdZd{ JwßVdUwH$Xma [wT>{ `{VAmh{V. À`mßZm "A∞_{Pm∞ZM{ e{Ag© hd{ Amh{V. OJmVbß gdm™V _m{R>ß [wÒVH$mßMß XwH$mZ gßJUH$ OJV 45
  45. 45. A∞_{Pm∞Z Hß$[ZrMm [gmam gmß^miUmar B_maV. N>m`moMÃmdÍ$Z A∞_{Pm∞Z¿`m H$m_mMm Y]S>Jm Am[Î`m bjmV `{Vm{.ZÏh{ gdm™V _m{R>ß dÒVy ^mßS>ma H$a `mMß À`mMß ÒdflZ Amh{. À`mZ{ Am[Î`m^mJYmaH$mßZm gmßoJVb{ Amh{ H$s, VwÂhr g‹`m Var Z‚`mMr A[{jm YÍ$ ZH$m.$∫$ ^odÓ`mda odúmg R>{dm. EH$ X_S>rhr oS>pÏhS>ßS> o_iUma Zmhr. [U VarhrÀ`mM{ e{Ag© bm{H$ odHy$Z Q>mH$V ZmhrV. À`m¿`m e{Ag©Mm ^md H$m{giV Zmhr.CbQ> "Q>mB©_gmaIß OJ‡og’ oZ`VH$mbrH$ À`mbm 1999Mm gdm™V bjd{Yr_mUyg ÂhUyZ Jm°adV{, h{ gma{M AVmoH©$H$ Amh{. [U V{ gma{ gÀ` Amh{. AmVmEÏhmZm O{ BßQ>aZ{Q>er gß]ßoYV Amh{V À`mßZm ¯m OJmd{J˘`m _mUgmMß Zmd H$ibMAmh{, [U O{ AmO BßQ>aZ{Q>[mgyZ Xya Amh{V, [U C⁄m A[nahm`©[U{ Odi `{UmaAmh{V À`mßZm ¯m _mUgmM{ Zmd gmßJm`bm hd{. "O{$ar ‡{ÒQ>Z ]{Pm∞g AmoU À`m¿`m[ÀZrM{ Zmd Amh{ "_{H±$Pr. O{$ar[{jm ZwgVm "O{$ AgmM À`mMm CÎb{I AoYH$hm{Vm{. A∞_{Pm∞Z ÂhUO{ AmO B© H$m∞_g© j{ÃmVb{ _m{R>{ gm_´m¡` ]Zb{ Amh{. O{$]{Pm∞gbm B© H$m∞_g© `wJmVbm EH$ AZo^of∫$ g_´mQ>M _mZb{ OmV{. À`m¿`mdaAmVm [wÒVH{$ obohbr OmD$ bmJbr Amh{V. À`m¿`m C[H´$_mßda bm{H$ S>m∞∑Q>a{Q>H$arV Amh{V. Agm hm O{$ ]{Pm∞g AoVe` gmYm Amh{. A∞_{Pm∞Z BZH$m∞a[m{a{Q>{S> gßJUH$ OJV 46
  46. 46. ¯m ]bmT>Á Hß$[ZrMm Vm{ Mr$ E∑P{∑`wQ>rÏh Am∞o$ga Agbm Var Vm{ H$YrhrQ>m` bmdV Zmhr. À`mM{ H$[S>{ gmY{ AgVmV. J˘`mV EH$ H∞$_{am AgVm{. ]{Pm∞g¿`mÏ`ßJoMÃmV À`mM{ Q>∑H$b AmoU J˘`mVbm H∞$_{am hm A[nahm`©[U{ `{UmaM. ¯mH∞$_{Ë`m_mJM{ À`mM{ VŒdkmZhr Jß_VrXma Amh{. Vm{ ÂhUVm{ H$s ""_m¬`m Am`wÓ`mVEdT>Ám P[mQ>ÁmZ{ KQ>Zm KS>Vmh{V H$s À`m gd©M bjmV R>{dU{ _bm e∑` Zmhr.À`m_wi{ V{ jU _r H∞$_{Ë`mV [H$Sy>Z R>{dVm{. O{Ïhm _r E|er dfm™Mm hm{B©Z V{Ïhm _bmV{ [mhVm `{Vrb. O{$ ]{Pm∞gM{ hgU{ hmhr A_{naH{$V EH$ odf` Amh{. Iaß Va¡`mMr Hß$[Zr J{br Mma df} hOmam{ H$m{Q>r È[`mßMm Vm{Q>m ghZ H$arV Amh{, ¡`m¿`mHß$[ZrV 1600 [{jm AoYH$ H$_©Mmar H$m_ H$aVmV, ¡`m Hß$[ZrMm H$ma^ma AmVmH$mhr X{emß_‹`{ [gab{bm Amh{ Agm _mUyg oXbIwbmg[U{ gmaIm hgV amhVm{`mM{ bm{H$mßZm Am¸`© dmQ>V{. ]{Pm∞gM{ hgU{ JS>JS>mQ>r Amh{. Vm{ H$gb{hr H$m_H$aVm{. À`m¿`m Hß$[ZrM{ Jm{S>mD$Z 8,50,000 Mm°ag y$Q> Ag{ ‡MßS> Amh{. V{W{bmIm{ [wÒVH{$, grS>rO, Q>rÏhr g{Q>g≤ AmXr dÒVyßMm T>rJ¿`m T>rJ AgVm{.Jm{S>mD$Z¿`m Mhˇ]mOyg JmB© MaV AgmÏ`mV Vg{ Q≠>∑g, _mbdmhˇ dmhZ{ [gab{brAgVmV. AÔ>m°‡ha bmIm{ oS>brÏharO OmV `{V AgVmV AmoU jUmjUmbm ZÏ`mAm∞S>©g© `{V AgVmV. O{$ Am[Î`m H$_©MmË`mß]am{]a W{Q> gßdmX gmYVm{. ""‡MßS>_{hZV H$am, Y_mb H$am, AmoU ^a^amQ> H$Í$Z ø`m hm O{$Mm gßX{e AgVm{.oºg_g, Zd{ df© dJ°a{ d{ir O{Ïhm H$m_ ‡MßS> AgV{ V{Ïhm O{$ Am[Î`mH$_©MmË`mß]am{]a ÒdV: H$m_ H$arV AgVm{. Vm{ bm∞arV MTy>Z _mb M{H$ H$arV AgVm{qH$dm EImX{ [mg©b ÒdV:¿`m hmVmZ{ _mbdmhˇ Q≠>{ba_‹`{ R>{dVmZm oXgVm{. ¯mVHw$R>{hr ]gÎ`mZ{, Q>{H$Î`mZ{ À`mM{ H$[S>{ _ib{b{ AgVmV. hm hOmam{ H$m{Q>rÈ[`mß¿`m Hß$[ZrMm _mbH$ Amh{ `mda H$m{Ur odúmghr R>{dUma Zmhr. H$_©MmË`mßZm]m{Zg ÂhUyZ Hß$[ZrM{ e{Ag© X{ `mMr ‡Wm "A∞_{Pm∞Z_‹`{ Amh{. Xadfu Ag{e{Ag© o_imÎ`mZ{ d [wT>{ e{Ag©Mm ^mJ dmT>V J{Î`mZ{ oH$À`{H$ H$_©Mmar H$am{S>[VrPmb{b{ Amh{V. ÒdV: O{$ ]{Pm∞gH$S>{ Hß$[ZrM{ 50 Q>∑H{$ e{Ag© Amh{V. Vgm Vm{AmŒmmM 1500 H$m{Q>r È[`mßMm _mbH$ Amh{. "A∞_{Pm∞ZMm X]X]m BVH$m Amh{ H$sEIm⁄m [wÒVH$m¿`m XwH$mZmV XwH$mZXma Oa ÂhUmbm H$s A_wH$ [wÒVH$ C[b„YZmhr Va J´mhH$ ÂhUVm{ H$s, ""gm{Sy>Z ⁄m, V{ _r "A∞_{Pm∞ZdÍ$Z K{Vm{. O{$]{Pm∞gM{ EH$ ]´rXdm∑` Amh{. Ia{ Va dm∑` Zmhr EH$ e„X‡`m{J Amh{."]r.E_.Ïhr.[r. 2000 `mMm AW© ]w∑g, Â`woPH$, pÏhS>rAm{, AmoU [wT>{ 2000 gßJUH$ OJV 47
  47. 47. gmbmZßVa ‡m∞o$Q>∞]rbrQ>r. ]{Pm∞gMr Hß$[Zr H$Yr Z$m o_iodb H$m` `mdaA_{naH{$V Iy[ o^fi _V‡dmh Amh{V. H$mht¿`m _V{ "A∞_{Pm∞ZMm ‡`m{J $gUmaAmh{. Va H$mht¿`m _V{ Vm{ ‡MßS> `eÒdr hm{Uma Amh{. H$m{Ur H$mhrhr ÂhUm{, [UAmO Var JwßVdUwH$XmamßMm À`m¿`mda odúmg Amh{. O{$ ‡MßS> _{hZV H$aVm{.À`mZ{ ÒdV:¿`m Amam{Ω`mMr h{igmßS> H$Í$ Z`{ AmoU pÏhQ>∞o_Z¿`m Jm{˘`m Z MwH$Vmd{i{da ø`mÏ`m `mgmR>r À`mMr [ÀZr À`m¿`m [m`_m{¡`mß¿`m AmV À`m Jm{˘`m R>{dV{.ÂhUO{ ]yQ> Kmb `m[ydu À`mbm Vr Am°fYr ø`mdrM bmJVrb. "A∞_{Pm∞Z AmVmobbmdm¿`m Ï`dgm`mVhr CVabr Amh{. V{W{ À`mßMr B©]{ ¯m Hß$[Zrer dm "B©]{ S>m∞Q>H$m∞_er Ò[Ym© Amh{. O{$da Ò[Y©H$ Hß$[›`mßZr ¯m Zm À`m H$maUmßZr IQ>b{hrKmVb{. [U O{$ H$Yr Am[Î`m Ò[Y©H$mßodf`r dmB©Q> ]m{bbm Zmhr. ]h˛V{H$ IQ>b{À`mZ{ o_Q>dyZ Q>mH$b{. J´mhH$mbm Vm{ _hŒdmMm _mZVm{. AÎ[mdYrV Z$mo_id `m[{jm J´mhH$ Om{Sy>Z R>{dUß AmoU À`mbm Am[Î`mer Ï`dhma H$a `mMrgd` bmdUß h{ AoYH$ AmdÌ`H$ AgÎ`mMß O{$ gJirH$S>{ gmßJV AgVm{. AmOhrhr "A∞_{Pm∞ZMr Jm{Ô> MmbyM Amh{. Vw_¿`mH$S>{ BßQ>aZ{Q> Ag{b Va "A∞_{Pm∞Z S>m∞Q>H$m∞_da VwÂhr EÏhmZm J{b{bmM AgUma. Zgmb Va AdÌ` Om. B© H$m∞_g©¿`mamOmMß gm_´m¡` VwÂhmbm oVW{ oXg{b. Agm amOm H$s "Q>mB©_ _∞JPrZZ{ À`mbm´$m›g¿`m A‹`jmß¿`m VwbZ{V AoYH$ JwU oXb{ AmoU "AmD$Q>ÒQ>±S>tJ [g©Z Am∞$oX B`a 1999 Agm À`mMm AmßVaamÔ≠>r` Jm°ad H{$bm. ]{Pm∞g AmO $∫$ 37dfm™Mm Amh{. EdT>Ám bhmZ d`mV hm g›_mZ o_imb{br $∫$ MmaM _mUg{ Amh{V.À`mV _mQ>r©Z Î`wWa qH$J (37), amUr EobPm]{W g{Hß$S> (29), Mmb©g≤ qbS>]J©(28) AmoU Mm°Wm O{$ ]{Pm∞g (37). Am[Î`mH$S>{ [wÒVH$mßMr AdÒWm o]H$Q>hm{V AgVmZm AmoU XwgarH$S>{ Am[U A_{naH{$M{ o_iVrb V{ AmXe© AmßYi{[UmZ{ÒdrH$maV Mmbb{bm{ AgVmZm "A∞_{Pm∞ZMr Jm{Ô> BßQ>aZ{Q>da [wÒVH$mß¿`m OJmVyZoZ_m©U Ïhmdr h{ AO]M Zmhr H$m? gßJUH$ OJV 48
  48. 48. "obZ∑gMß am_m`U "qdS>m{OMm OZH$ o]b J{Q>g≤Mm [ohbm H´$_mßH$ ZwH$VmM h˛H$bm. AmVm o]bOJmVbm gdm™V qH$dm [ohÎ`m H´$_mßH$mMm lr_ßV Zmhr. À`mMm AmVm Xwgam H´$_mßH$Ambm Amh{. [U h{ dJm©VÎ`m [ohÎ`m-XwgË`m H´$_mßH$mgmaIß Amh{. Hw$Ur gmßJmdßo]b [w›hm [wT>Î`m dfu [ohbm H´$_mßH$ [Q>H$md{b gw’m. AmO o]b¿`m _m`H´$m{gm∞‚Q>Hß$[ZrV oH$À`{H$ hOma bm{H$ Zm{H$arg Amh{V. hm o]J ]m∞g g_m{Í$Z Ambm Va ¯mhOmam{ bm{H$mß¿`m ˆX`mV EH$ ^rVr`w∫$ AmXamMr YS>H$Z gmhoOH$M C_Q>V{.hOmam|Zm YS>H$mdUmam hm o]b J{Q>g≤ ZmdmMm _mUyg EH$m _mUgmbm AmoU À`m¿`mH$V•©Àdmbm _mà Km]aVm{. À`m _mUgmMß Zmd Amh{ "bm`Zg Q>m{admÎS>g≤."qdS>m{Obm [`m©` ÂhUyZ C^r amohb{br "obZ∑g hr Or bm{H$o‡` "Am∞[a{Q>tJ gßJUH$ OJV 49
  49. 49. bm`Zg¿`m M{h{Ë`mMm CÎb{I Z{h_rM "$Zr Agm H{$bm J{bm.ogÒQ>_ Amh{ oVMm OZH$ ÂhUO{ bm`Zg Q>m{admÎS>g≤. Vm{ AmO $∫$ 36 dfm™MmAmh{. À`m¿`m "bm`Zg ¯m ZmdmdÍ$Z ¯m Am∞[a{Q>tJ ogÒQ>_bm "obZ∑g h{Zmd o_imbß Amh{. "qdS>m{OM{ ˆX` ^rVrZ{ YS>H$mdUmË`m "obZ∑gMm oZ_m©VmAmO H$m` H$aVm{? Vm{ A_{naH{$Vrb "Q≠>m›g_{Q>m h`m Hß$[ZrV Zm{H$ar H$aVm{. Vm{o]b J{Q>g≤gmaIm A„Om{[Vr ]Zy eH$bm ZgVm H$m? ghO ]Zy eH$bm AgVm._J Vm{ H$m ]Zy eH$bm Zmhr A„Om{[Vr? AmnU o]b _mà H$gm ]Zbm oZId©[Vr?Xm{K{hr EH{$H$m "Am∞[a{Q>tJ ogÒQ>_M{ OZH$M Amh{V. Xm{›hr Am∞[a{Q>tJ ogÒQ>ÂgAmOhr OJmVb{ bmIm{ bm{H$ dm[aVmh{V. _J hm $aH$ H$m [S>bm? hm $aH$[S>bm H$maU o]b J{Q>g≤Z{ Am[br "qdS>m{O hr ogÒQ>_ ÒdV:Mr _mbH$s amIyZO[br. oV¿`m ‡À`{H$ ‡VrMr qH$_V OJmH$Sy>Z _m{OyZ K{Vbr. "qdS>m{O ‡m{J´m_M{gm{g© H$m{S> $∫$ _m`H´$m{gm∞‚Q>H$S>{M JwbXÒÀ`mV R>{db{. V{ OJm[wT>{ CKS> H{$b{Zmhr. bm`Zg Q>m{admÎS>g≤Z{ V{ H{$b{ Zmhr. Am[Î`m Am∞[a{Q>tJ ogÒQ>_M{ gm{g©H$m{S> À`mZ{ BßQ>aZ{Q>da OJmgmR>r Iwb{ H$Í$Z Q>mH$b{. gß[yU© "MH$Q>y$. ¯m gm{g©H$m{S> _mJ{ bm`Zg Q>m{admÎS>g≤Mr ‡MßS> _{hZV hm{Vr, ]w’r hm{Vr AmoU‡m{J´mq_J_Yb{ Agm_m›` H$m°eÎ`hr hm{V{. 1991 gmbr Am[br hr _{hZVQ>m{admÎS>g≤Z{ OJm[wT>{ CYiyZ Q>mH$br V{Ïhm Vm{ $∫$ 21 dfm™Mm hm{Vm. Ï`mdgmo`H$—Ô>rH$m{Z AmoU Jmß^r`© "ey›` hm{V{. OJm[wT>{ hm ‡m{J´m_ R>{dVmZm À`mMm gßX{e hm{Vm-... just a hobby. Wont be big and professional.... ""gm{g© H$m{S>Iwbm Amh{ ¡`mZ{ À`mZ{ À`mbm hdr Ver gwYmaUm H$Í$Z ø`mdr. hm ‡m{J´m_ gVVodH$ogV H$arV Omd{ hm Q>m{admÎS>g≤Mm gßX{e OJmZ{ _mà Jmß^r`m©Z{ K{Vbm. À`mVyZ gßJUH$ OJV 50
  50. 50. "obZ∑g O›_mbm Amb{ ."obZ∑ggmR>r OJmVÎ`m bmIm{‡m{J´m_g© AmoU S>{Ïhb[g©Zr Am[m[brImarMr ^yo_H$m ]Omdbr Amh{. À`mVyZM"obZ∑gMm g{Vy ]mßYbm J{bm Amh{.À`m_w i { bm`Zg Q>m{ a dmÎS>g≤ hm"obZ∑gMm OZH$ Agbm Var"obZ∑gMm _mbH$ _mà Zmhr."obZ∑gMr _mbH$s Hw$Um EH$mMr Zmhr."obZ∑g AmoU "qdS>m{O_‹`{ _hŒdmMm$aH$ hm Amh{. ¯m $aH$m_wi{M o]b AmoUbm`Zg ¯m Xm{Z _mUgmß¿`m AmoW©H$pÒWVrV O_rZ-AÒ_mZmM{ AßVa Amh{.AmO AZ{H$mßZm "qdS>m{O [{jm "obZ∑g obZ∑g¿`m `em_wi{ bm`ZgogÒQ>_ AmdS>V{ h{ gÀ` Amh{. "H$mhr Q>m{admÎS>Z{ d`m¿`m oVerVM Am[b{]m]VrV "obZ∑g qdS>m{O[{jmhr gag "OÒQ> $m∞a $Z h{ AmÀ_MnaÃAmh{ Aer MMm© ]mam _ohZ{ Mmbb{br obohb{. À`m [wÒVH$mM{ _wI[•>AgV{. "obZ∑ggmR>r qH$_V _m{OmdrbmJV Zmhr AmoU "qdS>m{OgmR>r N>m[rb qH$_V _m{Omdr bmJV{ `m_wi{hr "obZ∑gbm{H$o‡` Amh{. bm`Zg Q>m{admÎS>g≤M{ 288 [mZmßM{ h{ AmÀ_Mnaà À`mZ{ ÒdV: AmoU "dm`S>©gm`]a _mogH$mMm [ÃH$ma S>{pÏhS> S>m`_ßS> ¯m Xm{KmßZr o_iyZ obohb{ Amh{.[wÒVH$mMr qH$_V 26 S>m∞bg© (AX_mg{ 1300 È[`{) Amh{. È[Q>© _aS>m∞H$ `mß¿`m"hm[©a H$m∞ob›g ¯m OJ‡og’ ‡H$meZmZ{ V{ ‡H$moeV H{$b{ AgyZ "A∞_{Pm∞Z,"]mZ}g A±S> Zm∞]b dJ°a{ Hß$[›`mßZr À`mMr odH´$s ‡H$meZm[yduM Yw_YS>m∑`mZ{gwÍ$ H{$br. d`m¿`m 30 Ï`m dfu obohb{ J{b{b{ AmÀ_Mnaà em{YyZ gm[S>U{ H$R>rU.gm[S>b{M Va bm`Zg Q>m{admÎS>g≤bm AmO ¯m AmÀ_MnaÃm_wi{ Or hr Xwgar[wadUr ‡og’r OJ^a o_iV{ Amh{ Vg{ CXmhaU Ae∑` H$m{Q>rVb{M. Aa{, VwÂhmbmÀ`m AmÀ_MnaÃmM{ Zmd gmßJm`M{M amohb{. Just for fun, The story of anAccidental Revolutionary Ag{ À`mM{ bmß ] bMH$ Zmd Amh{ . hr gßJUH$ OJV 51
  51. 51. AmÀ_MnaÃmMr H$Î[Zm Q>m{admÎS>g≤Mr Zmhr. Vr Amh{ S>{pÏhS> S>m`_ßS> ¯m[ÃH$mamMr. S>{pÏhS> S>m`_ßS> agmi AmoU ^wai [mS>UmË`m e°brV obohUmam ÂhUyZ‡og’ Amh{. À`mZ{M ‡W_ Q>m{admÎS>g≤bm $m{Z H{$bm. AmÀ_MnaÃmMr H$Î[ZmgmßoJVbr. Q>m{admÎS>g≤ ÂhUmbm "Am{h ewAa. gm{ bm±J A∞O BQ> BO $Z. À`mVyZM_J "OÒQ> $m∞a $Z h{ Zmd o_imb{. ¯m [wÒVH$mV VmßoÃH$ AdS>ß]a AoO]mVZmhr. [U "obZ∑gMr Jm{Ô> AmoU bm`Zg Q>m{admÎS>g≤M{ ]mb[U _mà odÒVmamZ{Amh{. 1991 gmbr gwÍ$ Pmb{br "obZ∑gMr Jm{ÓQ> Iaß Va V{am df} CbQy>ZAmOhr MmbyM Amh{. bm`Zg Q>m{admÎS>g≤¿`m ]mb[UmV bm{H$mßZm $magm agZmhr, [U 1991 V{ 2001 ¯m H$mimV Z{_H{$ H$m` H$m` Pmb{, H$g{ H$g{ hm{VJ{b{, MT>-CVma Amb{ H$m, bm`Zg Q>m{admÎS>g≤bm Hw$Ur eÃy V`ma Pmb{ H$m?dJ°a{ ‡˝mßMr CŒma{ OmUyZ K{ `mMr ‡MßS> CÀgwH$Vm bm{H$mßZm AmO Amh{. "bm`Zg Q>m{admÎS>g≤Mm MmßJbm $m{Q>m{ XmIdm, AmoU bmI È[`{ o_idmAer Ò[Ym© Oa Hw$Ur bmdbr Va Hw$Urhr bmI È[`{ qOH$Uma Zmhr. H$maU"bm`Zg Q>m{admÎS>g≤Mm M{h{am "ogbr ogbr Amh{. À`m¿`m M{h{Ë`m]‘b O{BßJ´OrV obohbß J{bß Amh{ À`mMß _amR>r ^mfmßVa H$am`Mß Va "EH$ ]mdiQ> ‹`mZh{ e„X obhmd{M bmJUma. À`m_wi{M H$s H$m` [U Just for fun [wÒVH$m¿`m_wI[•>mda bm`Zg Q>m{admÎS>g≤Mm $m{Q>m{ Zmhr. AmÀ_Mnaà AmnU _wI[•>mdaAmÀ_MnaÃH$mamMm $m{Q>m{ Zmhr hm ‡H$mahr AÀ`ßV Xwo_©i ... Q>m{admÎS>g≤¿`m[wÒVH$mMß V{hr EH$ d°oeÓQ>Á ]Zb`. 1971 gmb h{ Am[Î`mH$S>{ ]mßJbm X{em¿`m O›_m¿`m `w’mMß df© Am[U_mZVm{. BßoXam JmßYt¿`m _wÀg‘{oJarMm AÀ`w¿M jU ¯m dfm©V BoVhmgmZ{ Zm|Xdbm.[U, Hw$UmMß H$m` AmoU Hw$UmMß H$m` AgVß ]Km. gßJUH$m¿`m BoVhmgmV 1971gmbr "`woZ∑gMr [ohbr gÏh©a Am∞[a{Q>tJ ogÒQ>_ Amd•Œmr "]{b b∞„g Hß$[ZrZ{odVnaV H{ $ br. "`w o Z∑gM{ H$m{ S > ododY od⁄m[rR>mß Z m AmoU Hß $ [›`mß Z mdm[a `mgmR>r _m{$V dmQ> `mV Amb{. bm{H$mßZm "`woZ∑g dm[a `mMr gd` hm{D$bmJbr. [wT>{ [wT>{ "`woZ∑g _hmJ hm{V J{b{. "`woZ∑g ‡m{J´m_ odH$UmË`m odH´{$À`mßM{CIi [mßT>a{ hm{D$ bmJb{. H$_mB© H$a `mMr Ò[Ym© dmTy> bmJbr. Am[Î`m Jm{ÓQ>rMm Zm`H$ bm`Zg Q>m{admÎS>g≤ 1971 gmbr Xw[Q>Ámda [Sy>ZQ>m{[S>ÁmV S>m{Hß$ hbdV hm{Vm. À`mMr O›_VmarI 29 oS>g|]a 1969. ÂhUO{ Vm{ gßJUH$ OJV 52
  52. 52. A±S≠>`y V∞Z{Z]m∞_ naMS>© ÒQ>m∞b_Z bm`Zg Q>m{admÎS>da Ima ImUma{ o_oZ∑g `m ^mf{M{ O›_XmV{ A±S≤´`y V{Z{Z]m∞_ AmoU OJ^a _m{$V gm∞‚Q>d{Aa¿`m H$Î[Z{Mm ‡gma H$aUmam naMS>© ÒQ>m∞b_Z.EH$-XrS> dfm™Mm AgVmZm A_{naH{$Vrb ododY od⁄m[rR>mß_‹`{ "`woZ∑g ogÒQ>ÂgZmßXV hm{À`m. ¯m "`woZ∑g H$m{S>Mß gmaU ^Í$ZM [wT>{ gZ _m`H´$m{ogÒQ>ÂgMr"gm{barg, "]H©$b{Mr ´$s ]rEgS>r, ogbrH$m∞Z J´m$s∑gMr "Am`ar∑g ¯m‡m{J´mÂg¿`m H$aß¡`m V`ma PmÎ`m. OgOgm gßJUH$mMm ‡Mma dmT>V J{bm AmoU XwgarH$S>{ "`woZ∑g odH´$sVyZZ{$]mOr dmTy> bmJbr VgVer EH$ Zdr JaO oZ_m©U Pmbr. _hmJS>Ám `woZ∑gbmÒdÒV qH$dm _m{$V [`m©` Agm`bm hdm hr JaOhr EH$sH$S>{ dmTy> bmJbr. 1983gmbr naMS>© ÒQ>m∞b_Z ¯m gXJ•hÒWmßZr Am[Î`m G N U Zmdm¿`m [`m©`rAm∞[a{Q>tJ ogÒQ>_da H$m_ gwÍ$ H{$b{. G N U is not Unix Agm G N U MmH$mZm_mJyZ Kmg K{VÎ`mgmaIm bm±J $m∞_© Amh{. `woZ∑ggmaImM [U Om{ `woZ∑gZmhr Agm ÂhUO{ GNU. ¯m ‡`ÀZmV Am[bm ‡m{J´m_ Iwbm H$Í$Z ÂhUO{ Am{[Zgm{g© X{D$Z C[b„Y H$a `mMm ^mJ _hŒdmMm hm{Vm. `mVyZM _J _m{$V gm∞‚Q>d{Aabm{H$mßZm X{ `mMr H$Î[Zm oZKmbr. 1985 gmbr ÒQ>m∞b_Z `mßZr GNU MmOmhraZm_m ‡H$moeV H{$bm. ´$s gm∞‚Q>d{Aa $mDß$S>{eZMr ÒWm[Zm H{$br AmoU"OZab [„brH$ bm`g›g hr H$Î[Zm _mßS>br. ¯mM H$Î[Z{da AmOM{ "brZ∑gg_W©[U{ C^{ Amh{. 1985 gmbr bm`Zg Q>m{admÎS> hm`ÒHw$bmV oeH$V hm{Vm. Q>m{admÎS>Mm O›_ gßJUH$ OJV 53
  53. 53. o$ZbßS>Mm, h{bqgH$s ehamVbm. h{bqgH$s od⁄m[rR> À`mbm [wT>¿`m oejUmgmR>rIwUmdV hm{Vß. 1987 gmbr ‡m. A±S≠>`y V∞Z{Z]m∞_ `mßZr "o_oZ∑g Mm em{Y bmdbm.V∞Z{Z]m∞_ hmS>mM{ ‡m‹`m[H$ hm{V{. gßJUH$ MmbdUmË`m Am∞[a{Q>tJ ogÒQ>_Mm ‡m{J´m_H$gm MmbVm{, À`mM{ H$m`© H$m`? h{ od⁄mœ`m™Zm ‡mÀ`ojH$mgh oeH$od `mgmR>r_wª`Àd{ "n_oZ∑gMm O›_ Pmbm. "o_oZ∑g h{ "`woZ∑gM{M EH$ Í$[ hm{V{,$∫$ À`mM{ H$m{S>g≤ "`woZ∑ggmaI{ b[b{b{ ZÏhV{. Iwb{ hm{V{. H$maU "o_oZ∑g_m{$V hm{V{. _m{$V AgÎ`mZ{ H$m{S> b[od `mMr JaO ZÏhVr. 1991 hm AmImVr `w’mMm H$mi. `w’ gß[yZ OJmV emßVVm ZmßXy bmJVmMZdZdr hmS>©d{Aa, gwYmarV gßJUH$mM{ ZdZd{ AdVma ]mOmamV ]hÍ$Z Amb{.Aem dmVmdaUmV h{bqgH$s od⁄m[rR>mV bm`Zg Q>m{admÎS>g≤ gßJUH$mda"o_oZ∑gM{ H$m{S> [hmV hm{Vm. Wm{S>ÁmWm{S>∑`m ZÏh{V, H$m{S>g≤¿`m 12,000bmB©›gZr o_oZ∑g ]Zb{ hm{V{. "gr AmoU "A∞g{„br ¯m Xm{Z ‡m{J´mq_J b±Ωd{OMmdm[a H$Í$Z V∞Z{Z]m∞_ ¯m S>M ‡m‹`m[H$mZ{ od⁄mœ`m™gmR>r H{$b{br Vr _{hZV hm{Vr.V∞Z{Z]m∞_ `mßZr "Am∞[a{Q>tJ ogÒQ>_ ¯m ZmdmM{ [wÒVH$M ‡H$moeV H{$b{, À`mV¯m 12,000 Am{ir N>m[Î`m. OJ^aM{ od⁄mWu ¯m [wÒVH$mdÍ$Z Am[bm H$m±fl`wQ>aH$gm MmbVm{ h{ oeHy$ bmJb{ hm{V{. À`m Km{i∑`mVM Hw$R>{Var bm`Zg Q>m{admÎS>g≤X{Irb hm{Vm. d` df} 21. h{bqgH$s od⁄m[rR>mV g{Hß$S> B`a H$m±fl`wQ>a gm`›gMmod⁄mWu. A⁄mo[ gß[yU© _m{$V Am∞[a{Q>tJ ogÒQ>_ Amb{br ZÏhVr. Q>m{admÎS>bm"o_oZ∑g AmdS>V ZÏhV{. "oejH$mßZm oeH$od `mgmR>rM{ gmYZ ÂhUyZ R>rH$ [Udm[a `mgmR>r A`m{Ω` Ag{ o_oZ∑g]‘b À`mM{ _V hm{V{. Zdr Am∞[a{Q>tJ ogÒQ>_H$am`Mr Va À`mVbm gdm™V _hŒdmMm ^mJ ÂhUO{ H$Z}b BßoOZ. (gdm™V AdKS>,d{iImD$ AmoU oOoH$arM{ ‡m{J´mq_J À`mV hm{V{.) bm`ZgZ{ o_oZ∑gMr MMm©H$aUmË`m ›`yOJ´w[Mm AmYma K{Vbm. hm J´w[ BßQ>aZ{Q>da ]mam _ohZ{ Am[m[b{ _V‡Xe©Z H$arV o_oZ∑gMr MMm© H$arV Ag{. "Hellow everybody out thereusing Minix, I am doing a (free) operating system (just a hobby,wont be big and professional like GNU) for 386 (486)". hm bm`ZgQ>m{admÎS>Mm [ohbm gßX{e 25 Am∞JÒQ> 1991 am{Or BßQ>aZ{Q>da PiH$bm. EH$sH$S>{OJ^amVb{ ‡m{J´m_a bm`Zgbm ‡oVgmX X{D$ bmJb{, B© _{b [mR>dy bmJb{, gßJUH$ OJV 54

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