SPORTS MEDICINE SEMINAR PRESENTATION NDUTH RESIDENCY.pptx
DR. JUSTICE PATANI AKPOTU
(MBBS, MSc. Sports Medicine – UPH)
DEPT OF FAMILY MEDICINE
PECULIARITIES OF SPORTS MEDICINE
DIMENSION OF SPORTS MEDICINE
HEALTH BENEFITS OF EXERCISE
FITNESS FOR SPORTS AND OTHER PHYSICAL
AREAS OF INTEREST IN SPORTS MEDICINE
PROHIBITED SUBSTANCES AND MEDICATIONS IN
SPORTS (DOPING ISSUES)
SUPPLEMENT USE IN SPORTS
COMMON SPORTS INJURIES AND THEIR MANAGEMENT
THE SPORTS PHYSICIAN’S MEDICAL BAG
CHALLENGES OF SPORTS MEDICINE IN NIGERIA
3. SPORTS: An activity involving physical or mental
exertion and skill especially one regulated by set
rules in which an individual or team competes
against another or others.
SPORTS MEDICINE: Branch of medicine that is
concerned with exercising individuals.
It is a branch of medicine that deals with
physical fitness and treatment and prevention of
injuries related to sports and exercise.
4. PHYSICAL FITNESS: This is defined as a set of
attributes that are either health or skill-related. The
degree to which people have these attributes can be
measured with specific tests. For e.g Copper test for
EXERCISE: Is a subset of physical activity that is
planned, structured, and repetitive and has a final
or an intermediate objective the improvement or
maintenance of physical fitness.
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: Any bodily movement
produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy
expenditure. Physical activity in daily life can be
categorized into occupational, sports, conditioning,
household, or other activities.(NCBI)
5. Sports Medicine deals with the gamut of processes
involved with identification, harnessing and
optimizing the potential of athletes from the cradle
to the podium (concept of high performance).
It used to be limited to just treatment of injured
players but sports medicine has evolved over the
Presently sports medicine is commonly referred to as
TALENT ALONE CAN’T GUARANTEE podium
Sports Medicine/Science is the emerging critical
success element/factor to achieving podium finish.
6. Sports medicine involves the care of patients with illnesses
and injuries related to sports and exercise. Both
orthopedic and medical conditions affect a wide spectrum
of patients during sports and recreational activities.
The field of primary care sports medicine has emerged
over the past 30 years as a leader in the comprehensive
care of athletes, teams, and exercising individuals.
The role of a sports medicine physician is to promote the
health and safety of exercising individuals, prevent injury
and illness, optimize function, and minimize disabilities
that would preclude sports participation.
Sports medicine physicians work closely with a
multidisciplinary team of health care providers.
7. Performance is critical
Exercising individuals have peculiar needs and
their bodies have undergone certain
Time is critical
8. Multidisciplinary in nature
Requires a lot of team work
Intra group cohesion
Inter group cohesion
Requires managerial skills beyond medicine
9. There are two forms of exercise, anaerobic and aerobic.
Anaerobic consists of short sprints and resistance
training, in order to promote strength, speed, and
Aerobic involves longer endurance training and requires
more oxygen to maintain.
Both forms are dependent on the ability to deliver
oxygen effectively, and there are several adaptations to
the cardiac, respiratory, and hematological systems that
occur to optimize performance.
In addition, regular exercise results in physiological
adaptations of the heart that are important to
understand when managing athletes.
10. Increased Cardiac Output - > heart rate and stroke volume.
Systolic blood pressure increases with increased work, and
blood is shunted from splenic and GI organs to the
Increased coronary artery perfusion from an increase in
perfusion pressure and coronary vasodilation.
Sympathetic nervous system stimilation results in a release
of catecholamines to further increase coronary perfusion.
Regular activity result in long-term changes of the
Specific changes in the heart are referred to as the “athlete’s
11. These changes consist of increased left ventricular
mass, increased left ventricular wall thickness, and
increase in left ventricular end diastolic volume .
Echocardiogram-based studies have also shown an
increase in the size of interseptal and posterior walls
of the heart as well as larger ventricular diameter.
For reasons that are not completely understood, well
trained athletes have reduced sympathetic activity
and increased parasympathetic activity resulting in
Cumulatively, these changes ultimately allow for
higher stroke volumes at a lower heart rate.
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: Increase in tidal volume
followed by increased respiratory rate to improve
ventilation. Over time with regular physical activity,
the respiratory system can adapt with an increase in
maximal voluntary ventilation.
12. Oxygen delivery can also be affected by the hematologic
system and the body’s ability to carry and deliver oxygen
to the working tissues.
Red blood cells (RBC) contribute to oxygen delivery via
three important mechanisms.
(1) They are a source of nitric oxide which causes
vasodilation and increases blood flow to tissue.
(2) As the oxygen-carrying cell of the body, an increase in
the number of RBC will enhance oxygen delivery.
(3) The viscosity of blood, which is partially affected by
RBC membranes and their deformability, affects the
velocity of blood through the microvasculature.
It is thought that the sequelae of exercise-dehydration,
lactate production, and hypoxia-impair blood viscosity
during actual episodes of exercise, ultimately results in a
decrease of whole blood viscosity in the resting athlete
and thus supports tissue oxygenation .
13. The main fuel source during exercise is lipid and
carbohydrate breakdown from adenosin
triphosphate (ATP) and glucose within the
Because of this, there is an insulinin dependent
uptake and utilization of glucose during
exercise, which can help improve overall
14. 1. Exercise is a primary intervention to promote
2. Improves outcomes for many chronic
diseases, including diabetes, hypertension,
obesity, and depression.
3. Exercise training results in increased
parasympathetic (vagal) tone and a subsequent
more rapid decrease in heart rate after exercise,
lower resting and submaximal heart rates, and
increased heart rate variability.
15. Reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure
Decreased low-density lipoprotein levels
Increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels
Reduced triglyceride levels
Increased maximal volume of oxygen utilization
Increased insulin sensitivity
Improved fibrinolysis and lowered levels of
Reduced arterial stiffness and improved arterial
compliance, and increased heart rate variability.
Exercise also improves myocardial function,
including increased contractility, faster relaxation
rates, enzymatic alterations, increased calcium
availability, and improved autonomic and hormonal
There are gender-specific benefits to exercise
that the family physician should know.
Weight bearing activity can increase bone
mineral density and decrease the risks of
fracture in postmenopausal women.
Studies have shown regular exercise to decrease
prolactin and progesterone levels resulting in
decreased fatigue, enhanced concentration, and
improved premenstrual symptoms of low back
pain, pelvic pain, anxiety, and depression.
17. The Female Athlete Triad:
In 1992 the American College of Sports Medicine first
described the female athlete triad as disordered eating,
amenorrhea, and osteoporosis.
This definition was updated in 2007 to include dysfunction
related to energy availability, menstrual function, and bone
mineral density. Then in 2014 and most recently in 2018,
this topic was expanded further by the International
Olympic Committee to be described as relative energy
deficiency in sport, or RED-S. RED-S refers to “impaired
physiological functioning caused by relative energy
deficiency and includes, but is not limited to, impairments
of metabolic rate, menstrual function, bone health,
immunity, protein synthesis, and cardiovascular health”.
This low energy availability coupled with the physical
and mental stress of training can lead to menstrual
Finally, this low energy state results in the decrease in
insulin growth factor and hypoestrogen leading to low
bone mineral density .
Exercise in pregnancy provides many benefits to include lower risk
of gestational diabetes, enhanced sleep, reduced physical
discomfort, maintenance of appropriate weight, improved mental
health, and higher APGAR scores.
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG)
found that that there were no reports of exercise-induced
hyperthermia leading to teratogenic affects.
ACOG’s current recommendations in regard to exercise during
pregnancy are as follows.
1. Achieve regular moderate-intensity exercise for at least 20–30 min
or more on most days of the week.
2. Avoid exercise requiring the supine position after 12 weeks’
gestation due to increased risk of obstruction of venous return.
3. Avoid activities that carry with them a risk of abdominal trauma.
In summary, women who were previously healthy prior to pregnancy
can continue with their training programs during pregnancy.
Women with significant cardiac or respiratory disease or
complications with the pregnancy should be monitored carefully
For those demanding a specific skill set, age categories
often start at 50 years. For the general public, geriatric
classification starts at age 65 with 65–75 being young
old, 75–85 being middle old, and over age 85 being very
The health benefits of physical activity in reducing
cardiovascular events, diabetes, and improving bone
health continue through the lifetime, and as such elderly
patients should be encouraged to continue to be
As a person ages, cardiovascular function declines
resulting in a decrease in maximal heart rate, impaired
compliance in diastole, incomplete emptying in systole,
and reduced inotropic response to sympathetic input.
This can affect the elderly’s activity tolerance level as well
as put them at increased risk for arrhythmias and heart
20. The other major physiologic change in the mass,
strength, and endurance – which can lead to a decline
in functional ability and flexibility putting the elderly at
an increased risk of injury and falls.
Older adults should strive for the same multimodal
exercise goals as stated above for all adults, but with
special interest placed on balance training.
Family physicians should assist their geriatric
patients in understanding how their chronic medical
conditions affect their ability to participate in regular
activity and modify accordingly as their abilities
Ultimately, a simple goal of being more active than
sedentary throughout the day is an easy one to
advocate to your patients.
The CDC estimates that 18% of children 6–11 years old and 21% of
adolescents aged 12–19 were obese. It is now a public health concern to
encourage children and adolescents to participate in physical activity in
a healthy and beneficial way.
Children should participate in at least 60 min of vigorous aerobic
activity daily. Resistance training such as tug of war, rope climbing, or
push-ups should be incorporated three non-consecutive days per week.
Preschool children’s growth and development is enhanced by regular,
daily physical activity.
The benefits of following these recommendations include healthy body
composition, increased development of bone mass, improved self-
esteem, and decrease in anxiety and depression.
Early sports specialization has become topic of interest in the pediatric
population. Early sports specialization is commonly defined as the
participation in one sport at the expense of participation in other sports.
Over the past 20 years or so, there has been a shift in the focus of youth
sports from a recreational, learning environment to one of competition
and dedicated training in order to achieve excellence, scholarships, and
even future careers as a professional athlete.
22. Physical Activity Guidelines
• Data over the last several decades clearly support the
benefit of regular physical activity on improving
obesity, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome,
bone health, and mental health.
• The United States Department of Health and Human
Services (HHS) recently reviewed national and
international data relating to physical activity and
• Their 2018 update continues to recommend the
average adult engage in at least 150 min a week of
moderate-intensity (brisk walking) or 75 min a week of
vigorous intensity (light jogging) exercise.
• Increased health benefits are gained when engaging in
moderate-intensity physical activity for at least 300
min a week. Muscle strengthening of all major muscle
groups two times per week is also encouraged.
23. Components of exercise prescription include
(a) Type of activity,
(e) Resistance training,
(f) Flexibility training, and
(g) Warm-up and Cool-down.
Encourage adherence to an exercise program.
24. An exercise prescription should include mention of the following:
1. The type of activity: This should take into account a patient’s medical status,
level of fitness, interests, available exercise facilities, climate, and geographic
2. The frequency of exercise: The current recommendation is for people to
exercise on most, preferably all, days of the week.
3. The duration of exercise: People should engage in 20 to 60 minutes of
continuous or intermittent aerobic activity throughout the day.
4. The intensity of exercise: Moderate-intensity exercise, exercising at a level
equal to 65% to 75% of a person’s maximum heart rate, is recommended. Several
methods may be used to calculate the proper intensity. These include the
a. The formula commonly used to measure the maximal heart rate is 220 minus
age. This formula, however, underestimates the maximum heart rate, especially in
people older than age 55 years.
b. The “talk test” can be used to avoid exercising at too high an intensity. People
should exercise at an intensity that permits being able to carry on a conversation.
c. Exercise intensity can also be measured in METs. A MET is the resting metabolic
rate or the amount of oxygen consumed at rest, which is approximately 3.5 mL
O2/kg per minute. METs are determined by treadmill testing.
25. Flexibility training: Although there is a lack of evidence for
benefit of flexibility exercises in the prevention and treatment
of musculoskeletal injuries, it is still recommended to stretch
major muscle and tendon groups, four repetitions per muscle
group, a minimum of 2 or 3 days per week. Static stretches
should be held for 10 to 30 seconds.
Warm-up and cool-down periods: Before and after exercise,
there should be a 5- to 10-minute period of stretching and
low-level aerobic exercise.
As stated previously, there is a lack of evidence for the
benefit of flexibility exercises in the prevention and treatment
of musculoskeletal injuries. Exercise should be performed on
all or most days of the week. Exercise does not have to be
continuous for health benefits to be gained. Short bouts of
exercise throughout the day are just as beneficial as
Resistance training is recommended for all adult age groups.
Increasing the intensity of exercise does reduce the risk of
coronary artery disease.
26. Resistance training or weightlifting: Resistance training
results in lower heart rate and blood pressure response
to any given load and can improve aerobic endurance.
Weight training reduces risk of coronary heart disease.
The recommendation is a minimum of 8 to 10 exercises
involving major muscle groups performed 2 or 3 days
per week with a minimum of one set of 8 to 12
repetitions. For older people, 10 to 15 repetitions at
lower resistance is more desirable because muscle
strength declines by 15% per decade after age 50 years
and 30% per decade after age 70 years.
The goal is to lift weight that is 70% to 80% of one
maximum lift. Contraindications to resistance training
are unstable angina, uncontrolled hypertension,
uncontrolled dysrhythmias, uncontrolled chronic heart
failure, severe stenotic or regurgitant valvular disease,
and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
27. 1. Pre-competition Medical Assessment
2. Injury Prevention
3. Travelling with teams
4. Doping in sports
6. Sports Psychology
29. The IOC consensus
PCMA/PHE in 2009
describe it as a
evaluation of the
athletes’ current health
status and risks of
future injury or disease
Tool for periodic health
monitoring in athletes.
30. To ensure optimum
To plan injury
To obtain baseline
31. There are basically 2
models of PCMA
IOC and various
developed their models
based on either of the
models + and
peculiar needs within
32. American Model:
history + Physical
and Cardiac screening
are done as indicated
12 Lead Resting ECG
not a routine
Clearance can be
issued if no adverse
33. European model:
History + Physical
12-Lead Resting ECG
Positive findings on
ECG will lead to
further Tests (Stress
ECG,ECHO etc )
participate will be
issued based on
34. American model :
It’s Efficacy in detecting
Heart problems in doubt.
In a series of 134 deaths in
the USA,115 hearts were
was only made in (1) 0.9%
of the athletes.
ECG is relatively
affordable in Nigeria
The Italian screening
significant in incidence
rate of SCD
With 90% reduction in
mortality (Harshil et
37. Everyone who works in any capacity with
sports is concerned and must accept a
degree of responsibility for safety.
Trained and professional medical people
need to be aware of biomechanical and
medical factors of fundamental sport.
Medical practitioners have to understand
the physical and psychological needs of
people involved in sport at recreational
or competitive levels.
38. A. INTRINSIC FACTORS ( inherent to the
i. Non modifiable factors
- Age - maturation and Ageing
- Gender - Female athlete
39. A. INTRINSIC FACTORS
ii. Modifiable factors (Biomechanics, Muscle
-Lower extremity mal-alignments
high/low riding patella
genu valgum & varum
Leg length discrepancy
-Muscle Strength ….weakness
-Previous injury- joint instability
-Skill level- sports specific
technique, postural instability
40. B. EXTRINSIC FACTORS : ( factors not inherent to
Training errors – inappropriate training intensity,
Inappropriate playing surface- pitch, flooring or
Excessive load on the body – number of repetitions,
speed of movement
Environmental conditions – heat/cold, humidity,
altitude, excessive wind
Poor or inappropriate sports equipment – worn shoes,
faulty rackets, substandard shin guard
Human factors –team mates, opponents,
Ineffective rules, violent play
41. Facts to bear in mind:
Injury is inevitable in sport
Best approach is to
minimize/avoid the predisposing
factors – (intrinsic and extrinsic)
Efforts to prevent sports injury can
be effected at -Primary
42. Direct or Indirect sports injury prevention at individual level
◦ pre-season medical/pre-competition examination
◦ warming up, stretching and cooling down prior and after
◦ preventive muscle conditioning
◦ flexibility training
◦ proprioceptive training
◦ sports specific training,
◦ avoidance of abrupt changes in training methods
◦ avoidance of sudden increase in training intensity and
◦ correction of alignment abnormality of lower limbs-?
◦ proper and adequate nutrition
◦ use of appropriate protective equipment, taping, shin
guard, mouth-guard e.t.c.
◦ avoidance of doping
43. Sports injury prevention at group level
Group information and education
Lecture, seminars for coaches and
importance of warm up, cool down
adherence to rules (fair play rule),
harmful effects of drugs, alcohol and
44. These are efforts taken at society level to
prevent sports injury
◦ political decision to change the flooring of
a sports hall or re-grassing of soccer pitch
◦ legislation to ban all punches/hits to the
head in boxing
◦ Legislation on water breaks in very hot
weather in outdoor games……this may be at
the level of International Federations.
Biomechanics can be considered
the evaluation of sports
techniques, e.g. running, swim
strokes, jumping, bracing, etc.
correct biomechanics provides
efficient movement and is likely
to reduce injury risk.
Non corrective movement always
be considered to produce non
traumatic sports injuries. Faulty
biomechanics may result from
static (Anatomical) or functional
48. SUMMARY OF BASiC STEPS TO PREVENT A SPORTS INJURY:
•Develop a fitness plan that includes cardiovascular exercise,
strength training, and flexibility. This will help decrease your chance
•Alternate exercising different muscle groups and exercise every
•Cool down properly after exercise or sports. It should take 2 times
as long as your warm-ups.
•Stay hydrated. Drink water to prevent dehydration, heat exhaustion,
and heat stroke.
•Stretching exercises can improve the ability of muscles to contract
and perform, reducing the risk for injury. Each stretch should start
slowly until you reach a point of muscle tension. ...
51. Travelling with team and providing medical support
is a very challenging task.
it needs more than just professional skill
It needs strong interpersonal skills
Personal coping mechanism
You must be innovative
52. Team Doctor
53. The most important
aspect of team travel
to aid performance is
P. paper work
T. talk to team
E . Equipment
Dr . Dr’s bag
59. This occurs when
the body is unable
to adapt rapidly to
the time zone shift,
so the normal body
lose catch with the
It is benign and self
60. Jet lag Travel fatigue
Loss of appetite
.General body ache
61. Individual difference
Number and direction
of the time zone
It is estimated that it
takes about one day
per time zone for
circadian rhythm to
62. In flight
Pre travel sleep
such as alcohol
Walk around ,stretch
and warm up
65. “The most important thing in the Olympic
games is not winning but taking part;
the essential thing in life is not conquering
but fighting well” Pierre de Coubetin (1863 –
1937), Father of modern olympics.
66. In 1995, Sports Illustrated asked 198 aspiring
Would you take a banned performance
enhancing substance if you were guaranteed
to win and not get caught?
195 said YES, only 3 said NO.
67. Then, when asked,
Would you take the same undetectable
substance if it would contribute to winning
every competition for 5 years, then result in
Over Half still said YES!!!
68. There is a permanent race among those who
are going to invent new doping
substances/methods and various ethics
committees that are searching for effective
methods to detect them.
The common use of doping products and
methods have several consequences which
impacts not only on an athletes health but
also on the image of sports.
Therefore , doping in sports is banned due to
ethical and medical reasons.
69. The Code is the fundamental and universal document
upon which the World Anti-Doping Program in sport is
The purposes of the World Anti-Doping Code and the
Anti-Doping Program which supports it are:
• To protect the Athletes’ fundamental right to participate
in doping-free sport and thus promote health, fairness and
equality for Athletes worldwide, and
• To ensure harmonized, coordinated and effective anti-
programs at the international and national level with
regard to the prevention of doping.
70. The spirit of sport is the celebration of the human spirit, body and
mind. It is the essence of Olympism and is reflected in the values
we find in and through sport, including:
• Ethics, fair play and honesty
• Athletes’ rights as set forth in the Code
• Excellence in performance
• Character and Education
• Fun and joy
• Dedication and commitment
• Respect for rules and laws
• Respect for self and other Participants
• Community and solidarity
The spirit of sport is expressed in how we play true.
Doping is fundamentally contrary to the spirit of sport.
Over 1,000,000 Americans have used
anabolic steroids, 250,000 of them
Over 100 Nigerian athletes have tested
positive for doping since 2002- Chijioke
Jannah 2017 publication.
Blessing Okagbare banned for 11yrs (HGH)
Bayelsa State Wrestling athletes (3)
72. A drug is defined as a chemical substance used to
treat , cure, prevent, or diagnose a disease or to
promote well being.
Doping means taking drugs to improve or enhance
Doping is defined as the occurrence of one or more
of the Anti- Doping Rule Violation (ADRV) set forth
in article 2.1 through 2.10 of the WADA code.
It is a growing problem in sports.
73. According to Galen and Philostratos, various
performance enhancing substances were used in the
beginning and end of the Third century BC.
Athletes used mixtures of strychnine, cocaine, heroin,
caffeine to boost performances until cocaine and
heroin became available only by prescription in the
In 1928, the International Athletics Federation (IAF)
after multiple doping incidents in competitions, was
the first International federation to ban doping in
74. In the 1930s, strychnine were replaced by
amphetamines which served as stimulants
of choice for athletes.
The Soviet Olympic team first used male
hormones in the 1950s, so as to increase
their strength and power.
First doping case was recorded during the
Winter Olympics of 1972, Sapporo Games.
West Germany ice hockey player tested
positive for the banned substance
75. Desire to be the best at all cost; winning brings
Making the most of a short sporting life
Influenced by others (peers, coaches etc)
Better results lead to better sponsor and
To recover from injury more quickly or to mask
76. Willing to risk cheating for public acclaim.
The will to win overrides moral conscience.
Desire to meet expectations of others.
Natural ability is not good enough.
Ignorance (Strict Liability Rule)
77. ANABOLIC AGENTS
- Exogenous anabolic androgenic steroids such as
Androstenediol, Closterbol, Danazol.
- Endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids such as
Dihydrotestosterone and Testosterone. Other anabolic agents
like clenbuterol and tibolone etc
PEPTIDE HORMONES, GROWTH FACTORS, RELATED
SUBSTANCES AND MIMETICS.
Eg Erythropoirtin (EPO), gonadotrophins, Human growth
E.g. Salbutamol, Salmeterol, Terbutaline etc.
- Except inhaled salbutamol max 1600mcgs over 24 hours in
divided doses not to exceed 800mcgs over 12 hours from any
- Inhaled salmeterol; max 200mcgs over 24 hours
78. HORMONES AND METABOLIC MODULATORS
E.g Anastrozole, Tamoxifen, clomifene ,
DIURETICS AND MASKING AGENTS
E.G Furosemide, Desmopressin, plasma
expanders, Spironolactone, Hydrochlorothiazide
, Probenecid etc.
80. BETA BLOCKERS:
E.g Labetalol, Acebutalol, Nadolol,
PROHIBITED IN SPORTS LIKE ARCHERY,
SHOOTING, DARTS, GOLF ETC.
81. Ephedrine: used as decongestants.
Pentazocine, morphine, pethidine: Pain killers.
Prednisolone, Salbutamol, Bethamethasone,
Dexamethasone – Steroids. Anti inflammatory.
Epinephrine – systemic administration.
Tamoxifen, Clomifen- hormones to induce
Insulin and Insulin mimetics
Frusemide: Used in heart failure.
Tramadol – Will be included in list of banned
substances effective 1st January, 2024.
Belong to the monitoring list
83. One of the key principles of anti- doping is to
protect athletes health
An athlete who needs any medication on the
prohibited list must obtain a therapeutic use
TWO CRITERIA NEED TO BE MET FOR TUE TO BE GRANTED
1. The use of the drug or method should not result in
performance enhancement beyond a return to normal health
2. There is no reasonable therapeutic alternative to the use of the
prohibited substance or method.
TUEs can only be gotten in advance except in emergency cases
or exceptional circumstances.
84. 1. Presence of a Prohibited Substance or its Metabolites or
Markers in an Athlete’s Sample.
2. Use or Attempted Use by an Athlete of a Prohibited
substance or a Prohibited Method.
3. Evading, Refusing or Failing to Submit to Sample Collection
by an Athlete.
4. Whereabouts Failures by an Athlete.
5. Tampering or Attempted Tampering with any Part of Doping
Control by an Athlete or Other Person.
6. Possession of a Prohibited Substance or a Prohibited Method
by an Athlete or Athlete Support Person
85. 7. Trafficking or Attempted Trafficking in any
Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method by an
Athlete or Other Person.
8. Administration or Attempted Administration
by an Athlete or Other Person to any Athlete In-
Competition of any Prohibited Substance or
Prohibited Method, or Administration or
Attempted Administration to any Athlete Out-of-
Competition of any Prohibited Substance or any
Prohibited Method that is Prohibited Out-of-
86. 9. Complicity or Attempted Complicity by an
Athlete or Other Person Assisting, encouraging,
aiding, abetting, conspiring, covering up or any
other type of intentional complicity or Attempted
complicity involving an anti-doping rule
violation, Attempted anti-doping rule violation or
violation of Article 10.14.1 by another Person.
10. Prohibited Association by an Athlete or Other
11. Acts by an Athlete or Other Person to
Discourage or Retaliate Against Reporting to
87. The consequences of an anti doping rule
violation may include;
The disqualification of results, stripping of
In 1988 Seoul olympics Ben Johnsons gold
medal was withdrawn because he used the
BAN - Imposition of a period of ineligibility
88. athletes want to find a competitive edge to help
them go faster , train longer , recover quicker or
medications are for people with specific health
issues not for healthy athletes:
STEROIDS/TESTOSTERONE: Athletes take steroids to
make their muscles big and strong BUT THEY CAUSE:
Male pattern baldness
Increased risk of liver damage and cardiosvascular
Causes mood swings
Makes one suicidal
89. Effect of steroids use in Men
Decreased sperm production
Effects of Steroids use in Women
Excessive facial and body hair
Abnormal menstrual cycle
An enlarged clitoris
They are used to heighten the competitive edge.
Side effects include:
Anxiety and Aggression
Increased risk of stroke
Increased and irregular heart beats
Problems with coordination and balance
Involuntary shaking and trembling
Risk of heart attacks and stroke
91. OPIOIDS (NARCOTICS):
They may help pain and quick recovery from injury.
Side effects include:
Weakened immune system
Decreased heart rate
Suppressed respiratory system
Loss of balance , coordination and concentration
Narcotics are also highly addictive and the athlete
becomes dependent on them.
92. HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE AND PEPTIDE
They make muscles and bones stronger and
recovery faster. BUT CAUSES:
Acromegaly (protruding forehead, brow, skull and jaw)
which can not be reversed.
Enlarged heart which can lead to high blood pressure
and heart failure.
Damage to liver, thyroid gland and vision.
93. MASKING AGENTS
Some athletes cheat by using diuretics and other
substances to cover-up the signs of using banned
Side effects include:
Dizziness and fainting spells
Drop in blood pressure
Lose of coordination and balance
Confusion and moodiness
Develop cardiac disorder
94. BLOOD DOPING AND ERYTHROPOIETIN (EPO):
Erythropoietin enhances oxygen use by the body
therefore helps with muscle strength and endurance.
Side effects includes:
Causes blood viscosity leading to blood clots
High blood pressure
Risk of heart attack and stroke
Risk of pulmonary embolism
Marijuana, cannabis, pot is banned. Use in any quantity
has potential to impact negatively on athletes
performance and health. Side effects include:
Reduce memory, attention and motivation.
Weakened immune system
Leads to psychological and physical dependence.
96. • Supplements (also called food supplements or
nutritional supplements) are products designed to
give you nutrients that might be missing from your
• They are usually taken as tablets, capsules or
powders, or as a liquid.
98. Most supplements are multivitamins and minerals.
Some common supplements include;
Vitamin B12- keeps nerve and blood cells
healthy, make DNA and prevent anemia.
Folic acid- reduces birth defects when taken by
Calcium- strengthens bone
Fish oil- supports heart health.
Vitamin A- Slow loss of vision.
Zinc- promotes skin health and slows vision loss.
99. Its illegal for companies to make claims that
supplements will treat, diagnose, prevent or
cure diseases, says Dr Millstein.
Side effects; Rashes, shortness of breath,
diarrhoea, severe joint and muscle pain,
slurred speech and haematuria.
100. Some may contain banned substances not
disclosed on the label
Vitamin K supplements can interact with
Some herbal supplements can cause liver
Beta-carotene and vitamin A can increase risk
of lung cancer in smokers.
104. Sports nutrition deals with the health maintenance
and performance improvement of the athlete.
Emphasizes the energy, nutrient and fluid needs of
- complements training and recovery
- enhances training adaptations
- reduces the risk of injury and illness
105. Determined by the intensity, duration and
frequency of training sessions / competition.
Increased intake and / or reduced expenditure:
Reduced intake and /or increased expenditure:
unexplained underperformance syndrome / over
106. Maintenance of energy balance: key to health and
Decrease in available energy:
- impaired hormone
- immune and
- metabolic functions and fatigue.
- irreversible loss of bone mass resulting in increased
risk of traumatic or stress fractures.
- hormonal changes in the female athlete can lead to the
disruption of a normal menstrual cycle.
107. Dietary Sources of Energy
most important source of energy for the body. Most
efficiently utilized of all energy sources.
simple carbohydrates: occur naturally in foods eg
fruits, vegetables, milk
complex carbohydrates: whole grain, yams, rice,
wheat, potatoes, beans and cassava products
Carbohydrate intake should be adjusted for
size of athlete: heavy athlete; and sport /
event: strength, speed, endurance; high
Requirements: 45% - 65% of total food
intake depending on physical demands of the
Not a main energy source
Important for structure and function in the body
Essential for tissue repair after intense activity
complete protein: contains all amino – acids
needed by the body; obtained from meat, fish,
incomplete protein: lacks one or more of the
essentials amino acids obtained; mainly from
plants -beans, water leaf / vegetables, rice.
essential amino acids cannot be made in the body.
protect internal organs; maintain cell membranes
regulate hormones; source of fat – soluble
vitamins ; important energy source
unsaturated fats: omega 3 & 6 fatty acids; fish;
olive oils, nuts
saturated fats: important component of dietary
fats / storage fats: animal sources
110. Nutrition strategy
Pre- event meal: 1 – 4 hours period before
competition. Should contain enough
carbohydrates to sustain activity
During event: readily absorbable carbohydrate
combinations; bananas, water – melon, energy
gels, energy bars and drinks (sports drinks)
Post event: carbohydrate stores should be
replenished immediately after the event; protein
intake within 1 hour post event if possible
Play important roles in athletes’ health; needed in
small amounts; act as coenzymes / cofactors in
energy production: involved in haemoglobin
synthesis; bone health; immune function: provide
antioxidant activity: ROS > antioxidants = oxidative
cannot be manufactured in the body; must be
obtained from food or supplements
water – soluble: 9 (8 Bs ; C)
fat – soluble: 4 (A; D;E; K)
Potassium, sodium, calcium, iron, zinc: important
in muscle function; fluid balance and bone health
and enzyme cofactor
obtained from vegetables, cereals, salt, milk and
Chronic intake of high doses may involve risks
poor hydration results in poor performance.
dehydration of 2% of body mass can significantly
effects include: hypovolemia and hypernatraemia
manifest as reduced stroke volume, altered
sweating, fatigue, exercise – associated collapse.
endurance events: marathons; triathlons; cycling
aggravated by hot weather
Water 60% adult human body
balance vital for health
114. Hydration Strategy
athletes should be well-hydrated before, during
and after activity
water is appropriate for fluid replacement
for activities lasting more than 2 hours,
electrolyte replacement is advised
weight gain from excessive drinking should be
avoided during activity.
cold drinks are suggested in hot conditions
sports drinks containing sodium are useful for
events such as marathon, and for stop- starts eg
football, sprinting etc
energy drinks should be avoided
116. Secure haemostasis with cotton
Clean area with antiseptic solutions
Suture of open and gapping
Dress with antibiotic solution or gel
+ antibiotics to prevent infection
117. Ice pack
Reduce usage of the affected area
118. If open fracture then secure haemostasis
Immobilize with a splint
Reduce movement of fractured limb
Refer to hospital
120. Risk factors for Heat Illnesses.
◦ Lack of acclimatization
◦ Inappropriate clothing
◦ Febrile conditions
◦ Lack of conditioning
121. % of Body Wt
2% Impaired performance
4% Capacity for muscular work
5% Heat exhaustion
10% Circulatory collapse and Heat
122. Is the mildest form of heat related illness.
Presents as pedal swelling after exercise in
Swelling due to pooling of blood because of
Resolves most of the time.
123. Present as painful spasms of mostly lower
Many muscles can be affected.
More common in unconditioned players.
◦ Ice massaging (Kneading) of the affected muscle.
◦ Stretching the affected muscle.
◦ Fluid intake
124. In severe cases, intravenous IV fluid may be
May also give hyponatraemic salt solution.
Frequent heat cramps may be warning signs
of impending heat exhaustion.
125. This is a collapse after cessation of exercise.
Player is hot, dehydrated.
More common after exercise without cool
Treatment: Resuscitation, cooling,
Intravenous fluids if not responding.
126. Presents as limitation of exercise with
The player becomes so tired that he can not
continue with exercise.
Temp high 38.5 or more.
Treatment: Resuscitation, cooling,
rehydration (oral or I.V)
127. This is a medical emergency
Core body temperature at least 40.5
Clinically presents with neurological and
Patient may suffer multiple organ damage.
If not promptly managed, mortality may be
Requires emergency management.
128. SUMMARY OF BASIC
Remember Heat Exhaustion not recognized and
treated promptly can lead to HS.
Quick assessment and movement to shady cool
Immediate initiation of rapid and effective
coolong is crucial.
Can be external
Ice or Cold-Water Immersion
Ice packs under the axillae, on groin
Can be Internal
Cold IV fluids, Ice-slurry fluids, Cold Lavage
Using both methods more effective.
129. Sports concussion is defined by the Consensus
Statement on Concussion in Sport (5th
International Conference on Concussion in Sport
held in Berlin, October 2016) as “a traumatic
brain injury induced by biomechanical forces.”
Concussion can result from direct force to the
head or to anywhere on the body with resultant
forces transmitted to the head. Any loss or
alteration of consciousness requires a complete
130. Concussion is the most commonly occurring
sports-related brain injury, but the clinician
must consider epidural hematomas, subdural
hematomas, subarachnoid hemorrhages, diffuse
axonal injury, and intracerebral hematomas in
the differential diagnosis.
Suspicion of intracranial bleeding, lethargy,
emesis, worsening headaches, neck injury,
bowel or bladder incontinence, and focal
neurologic signs should elicit prompt referral to
a hospital with a neurosurgical service.
131. Patients should be observed closely by the physician
or a responsible party and kept at rest because
exercise may exacerbate the symptoms. Relative
cognitive rest may also be necessary. After a
concussion, a protocol of graduated return to play
with progressive functional exercise is
recommended to occur over several days.
Each rehabilitation stage should progress only if the
athlete is symptom free as he or she advances
through a day of no activity, light aerobic exercise,
sport-specific exercise, noncontact training drills,
and full-contact practice before returning to play.
Ultimately, individual clinical judgment should be
the deciding factor in return to play.
MGT: ABC OF RSUSCITATION, Referral to hospital if
132. The Sports Physician’s bag is a kit containing
various items used for first Aid and sideline
Contents Of A Medical bag
Plastic (surgical/waterproof) 20 individual
wrapped, sterile, adhesive, water proof dressings
of various size.
2 sterile eye pads with attachment
133. Hand gloves (latex and sterile)
A pair of scissors
Disinfectants (dettol or savlon)
Sam splint for fracture immobilization
135. It is still novel in Nigeria
Lack of investment in Sports medicine.
Conflicts between coaches, management staff
and sports physicians.
Lack of sports physicians/manpower
136. Primary care sports physicians need to
understand the fundamentals of sports
medicine for the holistic care of the exercising
Sports is now a money spinner globally
therefore sports medicine physician should have
the knowledge and skills to aid in performance
of their athletes.
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