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What is Design Thinking?

Is Design Thinking important? We think it is - it’s one of our 8 building blocks for digital transformation. But what it is it, and why? In the run up to the Global Legal Hackathon, we thought we’d distil our workshop slides and ideas with an associated blog post to explain it.

Let’s set the scene with five quotes from experts and artists you will recognise explaining what design really is:

"The ultimate defense against complexity” - David Gelernter, Professor of Computer Science, Yale

"Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication” - Leonardo da Vinci

"Design is a way of changing life and influencing the future” - Sir Ernest Hall. Pianist, Entrepreneur, and Philanthropist

“Most people make the mistake of thinking design is what it looks like. People think it’s this veneer - that the designers are handed this box and told, ‘Make it look good!’ That’s not what we think design is. It’s not just what it looks like and feels like. Design is how it works.” - Steve Jobs

“Design-thinking firms stand apart in their willingness to engage in the task of continuously redesigning their business… to create advances in both innovation and efficiency - the combination that produces the most powerful competitive edge.” - Roger Martin, author of the Design of Business

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What is Design Thinking?

  1. 1. innovation | digital transformation | value creation | (r)evolution What is Design Thinking? Workshop | February 2018 David Terrar | Founder & CXO – Agile Elephant | @DT on Twitter
  2. 2. innovation | digital transformation | value creation | (r)evolution Design is a way of changing life and influencing the future Sir Ernest Hall Pianist, Entrepreneur, and Philanthropist The ultimate defense against complexity David Gelernter Professor of Computer Science, Yale Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication Leonardo da Vinci
  3. 3. innovation | digital transformation | value creation | (r)evolution “Most people make the mistake of thinking design is what it looks like. People think it’s this veneer - that the designers are handed this box and told, ‘Make it look good!’ That’s not what we think design is. It’s not just what it looks like and feels like. Design is how it works.”
  4. 4. innovation | digital transformation | value creation | (r)evolution “Design-thinking firms stand apart in their willingness to engage in the task of continuously redesigning their business… to create advances in both innovation and efficiency - the combination that produces the most powerful competitive edge.” Roger Martin, author of the Design of Business
  5. 5. innovation | digital transformation | value creation | (r)evolution The Design Value Index DMI and Motiv Strategies, funded by Microsoft, began analyzing the performance of US companies committed to design as an integral part of their business strategy. The Index tracked the value of 15 publicly held companies - Apple, Coca Cola, Ford, Herman-Miller, IBM, Intuit, Newell-Rubbermaid, Nike, Procter & Gamble, Starbucks, Starwood, Steelcase, Target, Walt Disney and Whirlpool. 2014 results show that over the last 10 years design-led companies have maintained significant stock market advantage, outperforming the S&P by an extraordinary 219%. http://www.dmi.org/?DesignValue
  6. 6. innovation | digital transformation | value creation | (r)evolution What is Design Thinking? • History back to the 60s • Lots of thinkers and contributors involved • 1987 - Peter Rowe of Harvard publishes Design Thinking • 1991 - IDEO design company showcases their design process, draws heavily on the Stanford curriculum • 2005 - Stanford's d.school begins teaching design thinking as a formal method • See David Kelley (of IDEO) TED talks • User-centred approach to problem solving
  7. 7. innovation | digital transformation | value creation | (r)evolution What is Design Thinking?
  8. 8. innovation | digital transformation | value creation | (r)evolution
  9. 9. innovation | digital transformation | value creation | (r)evolution The 8 Building Blocks
  10. 10. innovation | digital transformation | value creation | (r)evolution Empathy is the foundation of a human-centered design process: - Observe - Engage - Immerse o Uncover needs that people have which they may or may not be aware of o Guide innovation efforts o Identify the right users to design for o Discover the emotions that guide behaviors
  11. 11. innovation | digital transformation | value creation | (r)evolution The define mode is when you unpack and synthesize your empathy findings into compelling needs and insights, and scope a specific and meaningful challenge. It’s critical to the design process because it explicitly expresses the problem you are striving to address through your efforts. Often, in order to be truly generative, you must first reframe the challenge based on new insights you have gained through your design work.
  12. 12. innovation | digital transformation | value creation | (r)evolution Ideate is the mode of your design process in which you aim to generate radical design alternatives. Mentally it represents a process of “going wide” in terms of concepts and outcomes - it is a mode of “flaring” rather than “focus”. o Step beyond obvious solutions o Harness the collective perspectives o Uncover unexpected areas of exploration o Create fluency (volume) and flexibility (variety) in your innovation options o Get the obvious solutions out of your heads
  13. 13. innovation | digital transformation | value creation | (r)evolution
  14. 14. innovation | digital transformation | value creation | (r)evolution
  15. 15. innovation | digital transformation | value creation | (r)evolution Prototyping is getting ideas and explorations out of your head and into the physical world. A prototype can be anything that takes a physical form - be it a wall of post-it notes, a role-playing activity, a space, an object, an interface, or even a storyboard. o Learn. o Solve disagreements. o Start a conversation. o Fail quickly and cheaply. o Manage the solution-building process.
  16. 16. innovation | digital transformation | value creation | (r)evolution Testing is the chance to get feedback on your solutions, refine solutions to make them better, and continue to learn about your users. Prototype as if you know you’re right, but test as if you know you’re wrong. o To refine your prototypes and solutions. o To learn more about your user. o To test and refine your POV.
  17. 17. innovation | digital transformation | value creation | (r)evolution
  18. 18. innovation | digital transformation | value creation | (r)evolution Assume a Beginner’s Mindset Don’t judge. (observe, engage, don’t influence) Question everything. Be truly curious. wonder, curiosity Find patterns. Listen. Really.
  19. 19. innovation | digital transformation | value creation | (r)evolution Story Share-and-Capture
  20. 20. innovation | digital transformation | value creation | (r)evolution What? | How? | Why? Set-up: Divide a sheet into three sections: What?, How?, and Why? Start with concrete observations (What): • What is the person you’re observing doing • Notice and write down • Try to be objective and don’t make assumptions in this first part. Move to understanding (How): • How are they doing what they are doing? • Does it require effort? • Do they appear rushed? Use descriptive phrases packed with adjectives. Step out on a limb of interpretation (Why): • Why are they doing what they’re doing? • What are the motivations and emotions. • Understand the meaning and assumptions of the situation.
  21. 21. innovation | digital transformation | value creation | (r)evolution Interview for Empathy Ask why. Encourage stories. Look for inconsistencies. Pay attention to nonverbal cues. Don’t be afraid of silence. Don’t suggest answers to your questions. Ask questions neutrally. Don’t ask binary questions. Make sure you’re prepared to capture.
  22. 22. innovation | digital transformation | value creation | (r)evolution Saturate and Group
  23. 23. innovation | digital transformation | value creation | (r)evolution Empathy Map SAY: What are some quotes and defining words your user said? DO: What actions and behaviors did you notice? THINK: What might your user be thinking? What does this tell you about his or her beliefs? FEEL: What emotions might your subject be feeling?
  24. 24. innovation | digital transformation | value creation | (r)evolution Journey Map
  25. 25. innovation | digital transformation | value creation | (r)evolution Other techniques • Camera Study • Extreme Users • Analogous Empathy • Composite Character Profile • Powers of Ten • 2x2 Matrix • Why-How Laddering • Point-of-View Analogy • “How Might We” Questions
  26. 26. innovation | digital transformation | value creation | (r)evolution Prototype to Test
  27. 27. innovation | digital transformation | value creation | (r)evolution Feedback Capture Grid
  28. 28. innovation | digital transformation | value creation | (r)evolution I Like, I Wish, What If
  29. 29. innovation | digital transformation | value creation | (r)evolution Resources https://dschool.stanford.edu/groups/designresources/ http://dschool.stanford.edu/use-our-methods/ http://dschool.stanford.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/METHODCARDS-v3-slim.pdf http://blog.ted.com/10-talks-about-the-beauty-and-difficulty-of-being-creative/ https://www.ted.com/talks/david_kelley_on_human_centered_design?language=en
  30. 30. innovation | digital transformation | value creation | (r)evolution David Terrar Agile Elephant | Bloor | Cloud Industry Forum p: +44 (0)1727 866309 m: +44 (0)7715 159423 e: dt@d2c.org.uk w: www.theagileelephant.com skype: david_terrar twitter: http://twittter.com/DT @DT linkedin: http://www.linkedin.com/in/davidterrar blog: http://theagileelephant.com/blog & http://medium.com/@DT

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