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  1. Biological control of post harvest diseases of fruits Dinithi Vihanga De Silva
  2. Content 1)What is post harvest disease? 2)Factors affecting post harvest diseases 3)Impacts 4)Management of Post harvest diseases 5)Biological control 6)Conclusion 7)References
  3. What is post harvest disease? Postharvest diseases are those that appear and develop after harvest. ( Fig 01- Cherry fruit rots disease/cherry-prunus-spp-postharvest-rots Fig 02- Mango stem- end rots treatment-of-mango-potential-use-of-essential-oil-with-thymol-to- control-anthracnose-development
  4. Post harvest physiological changes  Respiration  Ethylene production  Compositional changes  Water loss  Physical damages  Physiological breakdown  Pathological breakdown
  5.  But infection may occur pre-harvest or postharvest conditions.  Infection may occur through, i. Direct penetration through skin, ii. Natural openings iii. Injuries .
  6. Common Post Harvest Diseases Fig 03- Papaya anthracnose Fig 05 - Gray molds of strawberries Fig 04- Sour rots of grapes son/15003087410 https://www.growingproduce.c om/fruits/grapes/how-to-stop- sour-rot-of-grapes/ /protein-discovery-could-help-enable- eco-friendly-fungicides
  7. Fig 06- Blue molds of citrus Fig 07 -Crown rot of banana otnelson/8233471806 b_full/entities/citrus_storage_moulds_197.htm
  8. management-strategies-for-postharvest-diseases-of-temperate- fruits/_id:80208/ Table 01 – Major postharvest diseases of temperate fruits
  9. y_risks_by_stressethylene_management_to_mitigate/figures?lo=1 (References : Ansari, M.W. and Tuteja, N., 2015. ) Table 02- Major postharvest diseases of fruits
  10. what are the Factors affecting post harvest diseases? postharvest environment (temperature, humidity, composition) Host physiological status (produce maturity and ripeness stage & dormant stage) postharvest hygiene. Mode of infection cultivar susceptibility to postharvest disease Handling methods treatments used for disease control
  11.  Reduce the post harvest quality  Reduce the shelf life  with defects are unmarketable leading to increased cost of production and occasionally loss of an entire crop.  Influence the food security  Health issues Impacts Fig 08- rotton fruits at store Rotten-fruit-at-Nottingham-store-found-in-HMI- inspection
  12. Management of Post harvest diseases /ignoring-scientific-advice-apple- growers-spray-lethal-combination- recommended-by-pesticide-sellers/ Fig 09 – synthetic chemical applied after fruiting Fig 10- chemical treatments
  13. Ex: synthetic chemical pesticides & fungicides Treatments Chemical Physical Biological Ex: Heat treatment Ionizing radiation Ex: Biocontrol methods Natural fungicides
  14. Biological control  use of antagonistic microorganisms for the control of postharvest diseases. Fermented food products Surface of leaves Surface of Fruits Surface of vegetables Isolated from
  15. Fig 11- Mechanisms of action of biocontrol agents. (Carmona-Hernandez, S., et al 2019)
  16.  Genetically stable  Effective at low concentrations  Survival capability under adverse environmental conditions  Capability of adhering to and colonizing the host surface  Effective against a range of phytopathogens  Production in a low-cost growth medium  Preparation in a simple formulation that can be stored for long time periods  Environmentally friendly  No production of secondary metabolites or harmful toxins Ideal characteristics of a biological control agen
  17. Example : both field and postharvest applications of Bacillus subtrlis and B. licheniforrnts suppress anthracnose (caused by Colletotrichum gloeo sponoides) and stem end rot (caused by Dothiorella spp. and other fungi) development in avocado. References : Coates, L. and Johnson, G., 1997. Postharvest diseases of fruit and vegetables. Plant pathogens and plant diseases, pp.533-548. Host -- Avocado Biocontrol agent -- Bacillus subtrlis Pathogen -- Colletotrichum gloeo sponoides Disease -- Antharacnose Host -- Avocado Biocontrol agent -- Bacillus licheniforrnts Pathogen --Dothiorella spp Disease -- stem end rot Fig 12 - (a) External symptoms of SER on ripe avocado fruit, and (b). A vertically halved avocado showing internal pulp symptoms due to SER. (stem end rot) Reference: Karunanayake, K.O.L.C. and Adikaram, N.K.B., 2020.
  18. • YieldPlus (Cryptococcus albidus) – developed in South Africa for pome fruit • Avogreen (Bacillus subtilis) – South Africa for avocado • Shemer (Metschnikowia fructicola) – Israel for apricot, peach, citrus, grapes, pepper, strawberry, sweet potato • Several other products such as Candifruit (Candida sake), NEXY (Candida oleophila), and Boni-Protect (Aureobasidium pullulans) are in in development. Commercial Biocontrol products registered in world wide.
  19. Application of Biocontrol Agents  Bio-control agents can be applied in to soil, seeds, & plant surface etc. Application Application of Biocontrol Agents in Pre-harvest Stages Application of Biocontrol Agents in Post harvest Stages How to apply  Applied directly to fruit by pulverization or immersion in solution. Purpose  Suppressing phytopathogen agents during storage How to apply  Spray on surface & applied to soil Purpose  Protecting postharvest cultivation
  20. Advantages & disadvantages of using biological control for post harvest disease controlling Advantages • Environmentally friendly • Self-perpetuating or self-sustaining and therefore permanent • Cost-effective • Does not disturb the soil or create large empty areas • Cause no harm to humans & animals.
  21. Disadvantages • Host specific • Biological control agents are expensive to find • Expensive at start up • Slow process • whether native species are now extinct because of the activity of introduced natural enemies,
  22. Conclusion • Postharvest diseases affect a wide variety of crops, leading to fruit losses. The management of postharvest diseases plays an important role by avoiding pathogenic infections and their spread to susceptible fruits. • Biological controlling at the postharvest stage represents an interesting tool as an alternative to chemical control of postharvest pathogens without sacrificing fruit quality.
  23. References  Carmona-Hernandez, S., Reyes-Pérez, J.J., Chiquito-Contreras, R.G., Rincon-Enriquez, G., Cerdan- Cabrera, C.R. and Hernandez-Montiel, L.G., 2019. Biocontrol of postharvest fruit fungal diseases by bacterial antagonists: a review. Agronomy, 9(3), p.121.  Chalutz, E. and Droby, S., 1998. Biological control of postharvest disease. Plant–microbe interactions and biological control. Dekker, New York, pp.157-170.  Ansari, M.W. and Tuteja, N., 2015. Post-harvest quality risks by stress/ethylene: management to mitigate. Protoplasma, 252(1), pp.21-32.  Hewajulige, I.G.N., Sivakumar, D., Sultanbawa, Y. and Wijesundara, R.L.C., 2006. Effect of chitosan coating of postharvest life of Papaya (Carica papaya L.) var Rathna grown in Sri Lanka.  Sivakumar, D., Wijeratnam, R.W., Wijesundera, R.L.C. and Abeysekera, M., 2012. Post-harvest diseases of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) in the western province. Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka, 25(4).  Coates, L. and Johnson, G., 1997. Postharvest diseases of fruit and vegetables. Plant pathogens and plant diseases, pp.533-548.  Karunanayake, K.O.L.C. and Adikaram, N.K.B., 2020. Stem-end rot in major tropical and sub-tropical fruit species. Ceylon J Sci, 49(5), pp.327-336.  Wijesinghe, C.J., Wijeratnam, R.W., Samarasekara, J.K.R.R. and Wijesundera, R.L.C., 2010. Identification of Trichoderma asperellum from selected fruit plantations of Sri Lanka. Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka, 38(2), pp.125-129.  Gamagae, S.U., Sivakumar, D. and Wijesundera, R.L.C., 2004. Evaluation of post-harvest application of sodium bicarbonate-incorporated wax formulation and Candida oleophila for the control of anthracnose of papaya. Crop Protection, 23(7), pp.575-579.
  24. Acknowledgement
  25. Thank you…