1)What is post harvest disease?
2)Factors affecting post harvest diseases
4)Management of Post harvest diseases
What is post harvest disease?
Postharvest diseases are those that appear and
develop after harvest. (https://irrec.ifas.ufl.edu/)
Fig 01- Cherry fruit rots
Fig 02- Mango stem- end rots
what are the Factors affecting post harvest
and ripeness stage
& dormant stage)
Mode of infection
for disease control
Reduce the post harvest
Reduce the shelf life
with defects are
unmarketable leading to
increased cost of production
and occasionally loss of an
Influence the food security
Fig 08- rotton fruits at store
Effective at low concentrations
Survival capability under adverse environmental conditions
Capability of adhering to and colonizing the host surface
Effective against a range of phytopathogens
Production in a low-cost growth medium
Preparation in a simple formulation that can be stored for long time periods
No production of secondary metabolites or harmful toxins
Ideal characteristics of a biological control agen
both field and postharvest applications of Bacillus
subtrlis and B.
licheniforrnts suppress anthracnose (caused by
Colletotrichum gloeo sponoides) and
stem end rot (caused by Dothiorella spp. and other
fungi) development in avocado.
Coates, L. and Johnson, G., 1997. Postharvest diseases of fruit and
vegetables. Plant pathogens and plant diseases, pp.533-548.
Host -- Avocado
Biocontrol agent -- Bacillus subtrlis
Pathogen -- Colletotrichum gloeo sponoides
Disease -- Antharacnose
Host -- Avocado
Biocontrol agent -- Bacillus licheniforrnts
Pathogen --Dothiorella spp
Disease -- stem end rot
Fig 12 - (a) External symptoms of SER on ripe
avocado fruit, and (b). A vertically halved avocado
showing internal pulp symptoms due to SER. (stem
Karunanayake, K.O.L.C. and Adikaram, N.K.B., 2020.
• YieldPlus (Cryptococcus albidus) – developed in South Africa for pome fruit
• Avogreen (Bacillus subtilis) – South Africa for avocado
• Shemer (Metschnikowia fructicola) – Israel for apricot, peach, citrus, grapes,
pepper, strawberry, sweet potato
• Several other products such as Candifruit (Candida sake),
NEXY (Candida oleophila), and Boni-Protect (Aureobasidium pullulans) are in
Commercial Biocontrol products registered in world wide.
Application of Biocontrol Agents
Bio-control agents can be applied in to soil, seeds, & plant surface etc.
Biocontrol Agents in
Biocontrol Agents in
Post harvest Stages
How to apply
Applied directly to fruit by pulverization or
immersion in solution.
Suppressing phytopathogen agents during
How to apply
Spray on surface & applied to soil
Protecting postharvest cultivation
Advantages & disadvantages of using biological control for
post harvest disease controlling
• Environmentally friendly
• Self-perpetuating or self-sustaining and therefore
• Does not disturb the soil or create large empty
• Cause no harm to humans & animals.
• Host specific
• Biological control agents are expensive to find
• Expensive at start up
• Slow process
• whether native species are now extinct because
of the activity of introduced natural enemies,
• Postharvest diseases affect a wide variety of crops, leading to
fruit losses. The management of postharvest diseases plays an
important role by avoiding pathogenic infections and their
spread to susceptible fruits.
• Biological controlling at the postharvest stage represents an
interesting tool as an alternative to chemical control of
postharvest pathogens without sacrificing fruit quality.
Carmona-Hernandez, S., Reyes-Pérez, J.J., Chiquito-Contreras, R.G., Rincon-Enriquez, G., Cerdan-
Cabrera, C.R. and Hernandez-Montiel, L.G., 2019. Biocontrol of postharvest fruit fungal diseases by
bacterial antagonists: a review. Agronomy, 9(3), p.121.
Chalutz, E. and Droby, S., 1998. Biological control of postharvest disease. Plant–microbe interactions
and biological control. Dekker, New York, pp.157-170.
Ansari, M.W. and Tuteja, N., 2015. Post-harvest quality risks by stress/ethylene: management to
mitigate. Protoplasma, 252(1), pp.21-32.
Hewajulige, I.G.N., Sivakumar, D., Sultanbawa, Y. and Wijesundara, R.L.C., 2006. Effect of chitosan
coating of postharvest life of Papaya (Carica papaya L.) var Rathna grown in Sri Lanka.
Sivakumar, D., Wijeratnam, R.W., Wijesundera, R.L.C. and Abeysekera, M., 2012. Post-harvest
diseases of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) in the western province. Journal of the National
Science Foundation of Sri Lanka, 25(4).
Coates, L. and Johnson, G., 1997. Postharvest diseases of fruit and vegetables. Plant pathogens and
plant diseases, pp.533-548.
Karunanayake, K.O.L.C. and Adikaram, N.K.B., 2020. Stem-end rot in major tropical and sub-tropical
fruit species. Ceylon J Sci, 49(5), pp.327-336.
Wijesinghe, C.J., Wijeratnam, R.W., Samarasekara, J.K.R.R. and Wijesundera, R.L.C., 2010.
Identification of Trichoderma asperellum from selected fruit plantations of Sri Lanka. Journal of the
National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka, 38(2), pp.125-129.
Gamagae, S.U., Sivakumar, D. and Wijesundera, R.L.C., 2004. Evaluation of post-harvest application
of sodium bicarbonate-incorporated wax formulation and Candida oleophila for the control of
anthracnose of papaya. Crop Protection, 23(7), pp.575-579.