الرحيم الرحمن هللا بسم
University of Khartoum
Faculty of Postgraduate
M.Sc. Agricultural Engineering
Seminar on :
1. Islam Elrayah
2. Hassan Sdeig
3. Nossiba Abdullah
Storage of cereals is a very important preservation method.
It is particularly important in Africa because agricultural
production is mostly seasonal.
while the demand for agricultural commodities is more
evenly spread throughout the year.
many techniques using in agriculture storage.
The selection of a storage technique or structure depends
Quantity of grain to be stored
Required duration of the storage
Methods of Grain Storage:
This can be categorized into:
These storage facilities are made of local materials (plant
materials and soil) and constructed by the villagers themselves.
Traditional storage structures are made from readily available
cheap methods for the storage grain.
cannot guarantee total protection of the grains in storage
against adverse environmental conditions.
increased microbial activity, and storage pest.
Types of traditional methods:
A mud rhombus is a specially built structure made from a
mixture of dry grass and clay.
It usually consists of a bin resting on large stones and
covered with a thatched roof.
The shape could be cylindrical, spherical, or circular.
A crib is a storage structure used for temporary storage of
It is usually rectangular with ventilated sides and is raised
about a meter from the ground and with rodent guard.
Cribs are constructed from bamboo grass straws or wire
An underground pit is commonly used in arid and semi arid
The pit, which may be round or square in cross section, is
usually 1 – 3 m deep and 1 - 3 m in diameter or square.
The underground pit is usually lined with straw.
Modern storage structures are mostly used for medium or
long term and medium or large scale storage.
Complete control of aeration
Possible to store the grain for very long time periods
Very large storage capacity
Low running costs due to larger quantities
Low labour requirements
Rapid handling, saving time
Effective and efficient fumigation operation
Possible to mechanize all operations
Complete protection against natural elements
Silos are an efficient method of storing grain.
Bulk grain takes less space and can be handled mechanically
hence reducing bagging and handling costs.
There are different types of silos of various sizes for storing
grain in bulk.
Economic and Work Sector Report, 2011. Missing Food: The
case of Postharvest Grain Losses in Sub-Saharan Africa,
Report No 60371-AFR.
United State Agency for International Development, 2011.
Staple Crops Storage Handbook, Washington.