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  1. STORAGE STRUCTURES PRESENTATION ON Tejaswini Uppuluri PG17AGR9136 Department of seed science and technology COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, RAICHUR 15-07-2020 1
  2. Need of storage structures Current and future demand of the increasing population. seeds are stored for varying periods to ensure proper and balanced public distribution through out the year. Post harvest losses in India are estimated to be around 10 per cent, of which the losses during storage alone are estimated to be 6.58 per cent. But, with the advent of improved agricultural technology, the producer can afford to store the seeds for longer period with minimum loss. 15-07-2020 2
  3. For the best performance of storage structure.... The produce must be thoroughly cleaned and graded. Dried to the safe storage moisture level of 10-12 % for cereals and 7-9% for oil seeds (on wet basis) for a safe storage period of 6-12 months. Storage structures should to be properly repaired, cleaned and disinfected. Structures should bear the load of seeds stored and do not permit contact/ exchange with outside humid air. Structures should be constructed in the coolest part of the house/ farm. 15-07-2020 3
  4. Requirements for An ideal storage It should provide maximum possible protection from ground moisture, rain, insect pests, moulds, rodents, birds, fore etc., It should provide the necessary facility for inspection, disinfection, loading, unloading, cleaning and reconditioning. It should protect grain from excessive moisture and temperature favorable to both insect and mould development. It should be economical and suitable for a particular situation 15-07-2020 4
  5. Factors influencing on selection of storage structures Type of grain Duration of storage Value of grain Climate Transport system Cost and availability of labour Cost and availability of bags Incidents of rodents and certain types of insects 15-07-2020 5
  6. Storage facility should satisfy.. Protection • From environmental factors & insects, rodents..etc. Easy handling • Facility for inspection, loading, unloading, cleaning. Economical • Economical and suitable for particular conditions. 15-07-2020 6
  7. 1. Farmer level 2. Trader level 3. Commercial level 15-07-2020 7
  8. Storage Systems Stored in Gunny bags made of jute & Polypropylene bags Stored in bulk quantities 15-07-2020 8
  9. Types of Storage 1. Based on Duration of storage a. Short term – Upto 6 Months b. Medium term – Upto 12 Months c. Long term – Beyond 5 years 2. Based on Size/Scale of storage a. Small scale – Upto 1 tonne b. Medium scale – Upto 100 tonnes c. Large scale – Above 100 tonnes 15-07-2020 9
  10. 3. Based on Principle of storage a. Physical Storage – Controlling of Temperature, Moisture & RH b. Chemical Storage – By using chemicals like wax c. Biological Storage – Applications of Bio-Technology 15-07-2020 10
  11. Types of storage structures Traditional storage structures Improved storage structures Modern storage structures 15-07-2020 11
  12. Types of traditional storage structures  Morai type storage structures  Bukhari type storage structures  Kothar type storage structure  Mud Kothi type storage structure  Muda type storage structure  Kanaj type storage structure  Kuthla type storage structure  Metal/ Steel bin type storage structure 15-07-2020 12
  13. Bukhari: 1.Cylindrical shape 2.Used for storage of Sorghum,Paddy,Maize, Wheat, Bengalgram..etc. 3. Capacity – 3.5 to 18 tonnes 4.Madeup of Mud alone or by Mud and bamboo, floor made up of Timber planks Morai: 1.Used in Eastern and Southern regions of India 2.Used for storage of Paddy, Maize and Sorghum 3. Capacity – 3.5 to 18 tonnes 4.Shape – Inverted truncated cone 5.Made up of wood 15-07-2020 13
  14. Kothar: • Made up of Wood as well as Raised Pillars • Box like structure • Its height – 1.5m, wall thickness – 5cm • Capacity – 9 to 35 tonnes Mud kothi: • Made up of Mud mixed with dung & Straw • Capacity – 1 to 50 tonnes • Shape - Rectangular and Cylindrical 15-07-2020 14
  15. Muda : • State - Bihar • Made of Narai ropes • Cylindrical in shape • Capacity – 1 to 10 tonnes Kanaj : • State – Karnataka & Maharastra • Made of bamboo splits • Cylindrical in shape • Capacity – 1 to 20 tonnes Kuthla : • State – Bihar & Uttarpradesh • Made of Burnt mud • Cylindrical in shape • Capacity – 1 to 5 tonnes 15-07-2020 15
  16. Advantages… • Low cost of construction • Wood/Mud Structure – Bad Conductors of heat • Bamboo structures are made on the a raised timber or stone platform and protect grain from rat damage and prevent moisture absorption from the ground. • Regular plastering material, bamboo, straw are locally available • Materials used for storage structure are environmentally suitable, economically viable. 15-07-2020 16
  17. Disadvantages…………… • Short term storage • Structure construction and digging is labouries • Grain aquires permonted smell after long storage • Removal of grains is labouries • Some times Unloading of grains is dangerous 15-07-2020 17
  18. Traditional storage practices 15-07-2020 18 Sr. no Crop Traditional practices Concentration Advantage 1. Pigeon pea Common salt 200g/kg 6-8 months cost-effective 2. Paddy Wooden platform Earthen pots with water at corner of grainary house. - Corcyra cephalonica 3. Sorghum Ash: seeds 1:4 Sitophilus oryzae, Tatera indica and mite 4. Pulses and cereals Camphor 5g/kg Short storage of 3 months 5. Ragi Neem and thumbai leaves - Rhyzoperta domanica, oryzaphileus surinamemis 6. Pulses Lime powder 10g/kg Strong odour avoids insects damage 7. Sesamum Paddy grains 100g/kg Ploida interpluctella
  19. 15-07-2020 19 Traditional storage practices Crops Traditional practices Concentration Advantage 8. Pulses Neem oil 20 ml/kg Tribolium castneum, Weevils, fig moth 9. Pulses, oilseeds, cereals Use of NSKE to dip jute gunny bags 10 kg seeds in 100 L of water Repellant and seeds are good performers in terms of germination and quality. 10. Pulses, oilseeds Neem leaves - Rhyzopertha dominica, Callsobruchus maculatus 11. Tamarind Salt 10g/kg Ploida cautella
  20. Improved Storage Structures 15-07-2020 20  This type of storage structures there are some improvements made in traditional storage structures.  This type of storage structures having a higher storage capacity and long term storage of food grains than traditional storage structures.  Improved type of storage structures having capacities is generally 1.5 to 150 tonnes.  The storage of grain is generally done in one of the following storage structures in the different rural and urban regions of India in bulk, bag as well as bag and bulk storage.
  21. Types of improved storage structures a. Bulk OR open storage b. Bag storage 15-07-2020 21
  22. Bulk or Open grain storage • Large quantities of food grain can be stored • No difficulty in loading and unloading of grain • No need to purchase storage containers like gunnies • Insect incidence is less than bag storage, even this can be eliminated by fumigation in situ • Avoids waste from leaking bags • Easy inspections- saves labour and time. Bag storage • Commodities are mostly stored in gunnies. Storage in bags requires considerable labour, but the minimum investment is enough on permanent structures and equipment. The storage in bags has the advantage of being short-term storage. • Bag storage can be done under a roof galvanized iron sheets, a plastic covering where grain is intended for very early onward movement. Bags can be easily handled for marketing purpose. • There is no sweating of bags as they are arranged in racks with proper inter bag space, but, initial cost is high and they can easily pickup infestation and retain even after treatment. 15-07-2020 22 Types of improved storage structures
  23. Difference between bulk and bag storage 15-07-2020 23 Bag storage Bulk storage 1. Flexibility of storage 1. Inflexible storage 2. Partly mechanical 2. Mechanical 3. Slow handling 3. Rapid handling 4. Considerable spillage 4. Little spillage 5. Low capital cost 5. High capital cost 6. High operating cost 6. Low operating cost 7. High rodent loss potential 7. Low rodent loss potential 8. Reinfestation occurs 8. Little protection against reinfestation
  24. Pusa bin: Pusa bin is like other traditional storage structures made of mud. To make the storage structure moisture proof a plastic film is used in all the inner sides of the bin. Made of Mud bricks, 700 gauge PVC sheet 15-07-2020 24 Brick and cement bin: These type of storage structures are very strong and effect of seasons on these is minimum. • Capacity - 1.5 to 60 tonnes, with 23cm thickness Types of improved storage structures
  25. 15-07-2020 25
  26. 15-07-2020 26 Brick and cement bin
  27. 15-07-2020 27 Bunker Storage: These type of storage structure is used for long term storage and a larger volume of grains storage. • Long term Storage • Larger Volume Storage • Controlling Moisture levels & insects • Losses reduction – 0.5% Types of improved storage structures
  28. 15-07-2020 28 BUNKER
  29. Types of improved storage structures 15-07-2020 29 'CAP' Storage structures: The word 'CAP' is used for cover and plinth, plinth from the bottom and cover from the top. This type of open storage is considered as transit storage and serves the purpose of storage of food grains in bags for short period.
  30. 15-07-2020 30 CAP STORAGE STRUCTURE • Short period storage • Cover – Polyethylene film – 1000 gauge • Capacity – 150 tonnes • Space for stack – 9.11×6.1 m • Cover dimensions – 9.4×6.4×5.5 m • Weight of cover – 52 kgs
  31. IMPROVED RURAL LEVEL STORAGE STRUCTURES: Bitumen/ coal tar drum: • An alternate model of metal bin, • low cost • Dimensions – 52 cm dia and 90 cm height • Capacity-1.5 q of wheat and 1.2 q of Bengal gram. 31 15-07-2020
  32. IMPROVED RURAL LEVEL STORAGE STRUCTURES: Hapur bin: • Circular bins • Capacities- 2, 5, 7.2 and 10 q • Potential to meet requirements of even large farmers. 32 15-07-2020
  33. Modern Storage Structures • Ware house • Silo • Controlled atmosphere storage system • Refrigeration • Cold storage • Evaporative coolant system (ECS) • Hermetic storage Larger capacity Long term storage Best regulation Improved & reinforced materials 15-07-2020 33
  34. Modern Storage Structures 15-07-2020 34 In India, for larger volume of food grains are to be stored in bulk is 'silo' and conventional godowns (Shed) designed for bagged storage. The godowns side walls are of brick or stone masonry and sloped roofing in asbestos or Corrugated Galvanized Iron (CGI) sheets over steel trusses. Silos are constructed from steel or reinforced concrete. There are a cluster of adjoining silos in any modern large/ capacity processing plant. The modern permanent storage system should be selected for the safe keeping of stored grains and other products.
  35. The modern storage structures should be selected on the basis of first on quality and then on cost considerations. There are following types of modern storage structures. 15-07-2020 35 1. Silo type of storage structures – a) Deep bins b)Shallow bins 2. Sheds
  36. Silo 15-07-2020 36 It is also called as grain bin, grain storage silo, It is a large cylindrical grain storage container. Grain silo is widely used to store grains like rice, corn, wheat, soybean, sunflower, peanut, rye, flour, feed, minor cereals and other bulk granular crops, etc. Types of Silos: 1. Concrete silo 2. Plastic silo 3. Steel silo. 4. Tower silo 5. Low oxygen tower silo 6. Bunker Silo 7. Bag Silo
  37. Silo Silo is a Cylindrical shaped structure Constructed from Steel or Reinforced concrete Used for bulk storage of shelled grains in large scale Used for long term storage Silo require high level of skill & technicalities in design, operation & maintenance 15-07-2020 37
  38. CONCRETE SILO STEEL SILO 38 15-07-2020
  40. BAG SILO 40 15-07-2020
  41. BUNKER SILO 41 15-07-2020
  42. • Commercial building for storage of goods. • For wholesale distribution to other wholesalers. • Store, pack, & ship fresh fruit & vegetables. Ware house 15-07-2020 42
  43. • Controlling of CO₂ and O₂levels in storage • Considerable reduction in respiration rate • An extension in storage life….. Even it can be doubled • The preservation of an excellent firmness of flesh • Physical alterations such as chill injuries, spot, decay, browning are prevented • Moulds can be reduced in particular under low O2 and high CO2 atmospheres • CA is successful when only applied at low temperatures ControlledAtmosphere(CA) StorageSystem 15-07-2020 43
  44. • Made of Gas tight metal faced insulated panels • Door is surrounded Rubber gasket • Inside atmosphere is analysed by CO₂ and O₂ levels usingInfrared gas analyser & Ethylene analyser • Low ethylene requirement – 0.2 ppm ( for most of the foods ) • Srubber – for absorbing excess CO₂ ControlledAtmosphere(CA) StorageSystem 15-07-2020 44
  45. Refrigeration It is a popular household appliance for highly perishable food materials Essential food storage technique It consists thermally insulated compartment & heat pump Heat pump transfers inside temperature to outside and brings low temperature inside the refrigerator than outside temperature Then microbial activity and spoilage of foods reduces 15-07-2020 45
  46. Coldstorage Cold storage is a CAsystem The temperature below that of the refrigerator with the aid of R22 gas maintain temperature below freezing point for a long time It has similar components like the refrigerator but more bulky, expensive and could store for relatively longer time 15-07-2020 46
  47. Advantages of cold storage include: • Retardation of respiration and other metabolic activities • Controls ripening, retards aging, softening, texture and color change. Preserves color & texture • Retards moisture loss & wilting • Retards microbial activities & spoilage • Retards sprouting & undesirable growth. 15-07-2020 47
  48. Evaporative Coolant System (ECS)  Evaporative coolant system (ECS) is another CA storage.  ECS utilizes the principle of “evaporation occurring at the surface of a wet material to produce cooling inside’’.  It slightly depresses temperature below and increases the relative humidity above atmospheric conditions by natural means. 15-07-2020 48
  49.  It is air tight structure  It minimize/prevents gas exchange  Disallow metabolic activities of any form by the product, micro organism or insects  The seed must be dried to 12-14% moisture content prior to storage  It maintains seed quality upto 1year. Hermatic storage 15-07-2020 49
  50. References • • • • • 15-07-2020 50
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