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Land, soil, water, natural vegetation

This is an important topic for junior students under geography.

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Land, soil, water, natural vegetation

  2. 2. LAND Land is among the most important natural resources. It covers up only 29% of the earth’s surface and all parts of the land are not habitable. The uneven distribution of population in different parts of the world is mainly due to varied characteristics of land and climate.
  3. 3. LAND USE Land is used for different purposes like agricultural, forestry, mining, building houses, roads, and setting up industries is called land use.
  4. 4. LAND
  5. 5. LAND USE Land use in agriculture:-
  6. 6. SOIL The thin layer of grainy substance covering the surface of the earth is called soil. Soil is made up of organic matters, minerals and weathered rocks found on earth. Soil is formed by the process of weathering.
  8. 8. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION The major factors of soil formation are of the parent rock and climate factors. Other factors are the topography, role of organic material and time taken for the composition of soil formation.
  10. 10. DEGRADATION OF SOIL Soilerosion and depletion are the major threats to soil as a resource. Both and natural factors can lead to degradation of soils. Factors which lead to degradation are deforestation, overgrazing, overuse of chemical fertilisers or pesticides.
  11. 11. SOIL CONSERVATION Some methods of soil conservation are listed below:-1. Mulching2. Contour barriers3. Rock dam4. Terrace farming5. Intercropping6. Contour ploughing7. Shelter belts
  12. 12. MULCHING The bare ground between plants is covered with a layer of organic matter like straw. It helps to retain soil moisture.
  13. 13. CONTOUR BARRIERSStones, grass, soil are used to build barriers along contours. Trenches are made in front of the barriers to collect water.
  14. 14. ROCK DAM Rocks are piled up to slow down the flow of water. This prevents gullies and further soil loss.
  15. 15. TERRACE FARMING Broad flat steps or terraces are made on the steep slopes so the flat surfaces are available to grow crops. They reduce surface run-off and soil erosion.
  16. 16. INTERCROPPING Different crops are grown in alternate rows and are sown at different times to protect the soil from rain wash.
  17. 17. CONTOUR PLOUGHING Ploughing parallel to the contours of a hill slope to form a natural barrier for water to flow down the slope.
  18. 18. SHELTER BELTS Incoastal and dry regions, rows of tree are planted to check the wind movement to protect soil cover.
  19. 19. WATER Water is a vital renewable resource. three-fourth’s of earth’s surface is covered with water. The ocean water is saline and not fit for human consumption. Fresh water accounts only 2.7%. Nearly 70 % of this occurs as ice sheets and glaciers. Due to their location they are inaccessible. Only 1% of fresh water is available and fit for human use which is found as ground water, in rivers, in lakes and water vapour in atmosphere. It is unique because there is no alternative for it. It is essential for all forms of life. It is used in various purposes-domestic usage, agriculture, industrial and to generate electricity.
  20. 20. WATER
  21. 21. NATURAL VEGETATION ANDWILDLIFE Natural vegetation and wildlife exist only in the narrow zone of contact between the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere that we call biosphere. In biosphere living beings are inter-related and interdependent on each other for their survival. This is life supporting system called ecosystem. Vegetation and wildlife are valuable resources. Wildlife includes animals, birds, insects and other aquatic lives.
  22. 22. DISTRIBUTION OF NATURALVEGETATION The growth of vegetation depends primarily on temperature and moisture. The major vegetation types of the world are grouped as forests, grassland, scrubs and tundra.
  23. 23. FORESTS
  24. 24. GRASSLAND
  25. 25. SCRUBS
  26. 26. TUNDRA