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Language across the curriculum

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Language across the curriculum (LAC) relates to linking different forms and aspects of language education within the school, particularly emphasizing the role of language in all subject-matter learning.

Language across the curriculum (LAC) relates to linking different forms and aspects of language education within the school, particularly emphasizing the role of language in all subject-matter learning.

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Language across the curriculum

  1. 1. Language Across The Curriculum Mrs.Deepali Gaurav Borde CSSM
  2. 2. Activity time….. Just imagine…Daily routine
  3. 3. Have you observed that there is one single component, which is common and working throughout helping you to achieve your task in each situation?
  4. 4. Module 1 UNDERSTANDING LANGUAGE AND LANGUAGE DIVERSITY Unit 1: Language and its Function
  5. 5. Before start….. Benefits of the language across the curriculum for students as well as teachers… For students: 1. It helps learners to improve their communication skills in other/Foreign language. 2. It helps students to learn the content more. 3. It helps learners to discuss different issues in other/foreign language. 4. It opens a vast career world before the students. 5. It helps students getting admitted to foreign universities. For Teachers: 1. All teachers can improve their skills in a other language. 2. It helps teachers to teach the content in a other/foreign language. 3. It helps teachers to update their knowledge. 4. It helps teachers give clear instructions to students in other/foriegn Language.
  6. 6. Unit 1: Language and its Function a) Concept of language b) Characteristics of Language c) Functions of Language
  7. 7. a) Concept of language Meaning: Language, a system of conventional spoken, manual (signed), or written symbols by means of which human beings, as members of a social group and participants in its culture, express themselves. The functions of language include communication, the expression of identity, play, imaginative expression, and emotional release. All human beings communicate by means of Language and the use of language is the basis of all human activities including education. The word ‘language’ is derived from the latin word ‘lingua’ which means ‘tongue.’ Thus, language relates to something that is spoken or for which the tongue is used.
  8. 8. Definitions of language 1) According to Edward Sapir (1921), “Language is a purely human and non- instinctive method of communicating ideas, emotions and desires by means of voluntarily produced symboles.” 1) Bernald Bloch and Georg L. Trager (1942), “A language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols by means of which a social group cooperates.”
  9. 9. 3) Noam Chomsky 1957 , “ Language to be a set (finite or infinite) of sentences, each finite in length and constructed out of a finite set of elements.” 4) Fred C.C. Peng 2005, “Language is behaviour which utilizes body parts: the vocal apparatus and the auditory system for oral language; the brachial apparatus and the visual system for sign language. . . Such body parts are controlled by none other than the brain for their functions.” 5) Wayne Weiten 2007, “A language consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combining those symbols, that can be used to generate an infinite variety of messages.”
  10. 10. Analyse the definitions and see whether you are able to answer the following questions: (i) What does language consist of? (ii) What is language used for? (iii) What is unique with languages? (iv) Is language innate or imitative?
  11. 11. In short we can say; 1. Language is a system. 2. Language is a system of symbols. 3. Language is a system of vocal symbols. 4. Language is a system of vocal symbols which are arbitrary. 5. Language is a system of vocal symbols, which are arbitrary and through which the social group cooperates.
  12. 12. Characteristics of Language
  13. 13. Language is Social: ● Language is a set of conventional communicative signals used by humans for communication in a community. ● Language in this sense is a possession of a social group, comprising an indispensable set of rules which permits its members to relate to each other, to interact with each other, to cooperate with each other; it is a social institution. ● Language exists in society; it is a means of nourishing and developing culture and establishing human relations.
  14. 14. Language is Symbolic: ● Language consists of various sound symbols and their graphological counterparts that are employed to denote some objects, occurrences or meaning. ● These symbols are arbitrarily chosen and conventionally accepted and employed. Words in a language are not mere signs or figures, but symbols of meaning. ● The intelligibility of a language depends on a correct interpretation of these symbols.
  15. 15. Language is Systematic ● Every language is a unique system which consists of sound, structures and vocabulary. ● A person who wants to learn new language will have to learn new sounds, new structures and new vocabulary. ● The sound system of language to language depending upon the specific use of vowels and consonants that the society uses. ● Each language has its own systems of vocabulary.
  16. 16. Language is vocal and verbal sound ● Language is a systematic verbal symbolism; ● it makes use of verbal elements such as sound,words,phrases,which are arranged in certain ways to make sentences. ● Language is vocal in as much as it us made up of sounds which can be produced by the organs of speech. ● Language is primarily made up of vocal sounds only produced by a physiological articulatory mechanism in the human body. ● In the beginning, it appeared as vocal sounds only. Writing came much later, as an intelligent attempt to represent vocal sounds. ● Writing is only the graphic representation of the sounds of the language. ● So the linguists say that speech is primary.
  17. 17. Language is Conventional ● No language was created in a day out of a mutually agreed upon formula by a group of humans. ● Language is the outcome of evolution and convention. ● Each generation transmits this convention on to the next. ● Like all human institutions languages also change and die, grow and expand. ● It is passed down one generation to the next.
  18. 18. Language is Productive and Creative ● Language has creativity and productivity. ● The structural elements of human language can be combined to produce new utterances, which neither the speaker nor his hearers may ever have made or heard before any, listener, yet which both sides understand without difficulty. ● Language changes according to the needs of society.
  19. 19. Language is a means of Communication ● The primary purpose of any language is communication and self-expression. ● Human beings express their ideas, thoughts, feelings and emotions through language. ● When you refer to language, it means the communication system that depends on verbal and non-verbal methods so information can be transferred. ● Communication is the way two people or a group exchange information or messages. ... Language focuses on words, symbols or signs while communication is centered on the message
  20. 20. ❖ Few things in life have as many different uses as language. ❖ Consequently, an attempt at identifying the functions of language is an oversimplification. ❖ However, we would attempt to identify some of these functions, with the hope, that they would broaden our understanding of the complexity of language. ❖ Of course, the functions would give us insight into nothing but the purpose of language, what it does, and its uses. ❖ Definitely, this would be familiar ground to any reader because language is a part of who we are- as humans. The following are some of the functions:
  21. 21. 1. Means of Communication Language, of course, is the major means by which humans communicate. We use it in passing messages from one party to another. This is possible through both speech and writing. 2. Transmission of Culture Language is the major vehicle for the transmission of culture from one generation to another. It is through language that we learn the values and norms of our society. It is through language that all the elements of culture are passed on to younger members of a society. 3. It is a means of thought Basically all human thought is done within the scope of language. We do not seem to have the ability to formulate our thought outside the scope of language. Therefore, it is a vehicle of human thought.
  22. 22. 4. Diffusion of Knowledge Knowledge is passed on through language. It is used for instruction both in formal and informal educational situations. It is used in both schools and homes to spread knowledge. 5. A Cohesive Political Force Language has always been used or relied upon as a cohesive political tool. This is why some languages are sometimes promoted while some are discouraged. An example of this was the prohibition of Basque during the Spanish civil war in the 1930's. 6. It Unites people Language enable people to unite based on linguistic affiliations. We tend to naturally associate with people who share a language with us.
  23. 23. 7. It is a means of cultural identity This is closely related to how it unites people. Human cultural affiliations and identity has always been inseparable from the use of a shared language or some linguistic characteristics between members of a group. This is why people in sub-cultures such as "Area Boys" could be found using language in a peculiar form from that of the larger society. 8. Existence of society through cooperation Human society basically exists because its members have language to facilitate their cooperation. We use it in almost every type of relationship. We use it in the family, at work, in the streets, etc. We use it to move the society forward.
  24. 24. 9. Therapeutic Function Language is used to ease anxiety, tension, fear, worries and pain. A soothing word goes a long way in making one feel better despite the intensity of a situation. 11. We use it in expressing our ideas Language enables us to express our ideas, feelings and desires in such a way that is easily understood by others. The characteristics of human language make it possible for it to serve this purpose for whatever feelings, desires or ideas that are to be communicated from one party to another.
  25. 25. Questions Essay Questions: 1) ‘Language is set of human habits.’ Elaborate the given sentence with reference to the meaning and characteristics of language. 2) Explain/Elucidate the meaning and characteristics of language. 3) Elucidate the functions of language. Short Notes: 1) Concept of language 2) Any five characteristics of language 3) Any two functions of language

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