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questionnaire design in research

  3. 3. CONTENTS  Introduction  Types of survey questionnaires  Ideal qualities of a Questionnaire  The steps preceding questionnaire design  Conclusion  References
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION  “Research is a quest for knowledge through diligent search or investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery & interpretation of new knowledge”  Research problem comprises of various steps each being mutually exclusive  Steps include:
  5. 5. The research design  Problem definition  Hypothesis generation  Decision on the types of the study appropriate to the problem  Decision on the method of data gathering  Development of an analysis plan  Data collection  Performance of analysis  Drawing conclusions and recommendations
  6. 6.  The method of data collection is one of the important steps in the research process.  Questionnaire is one such tool used to collect information which can cover almost all practical issues  Questionnaires are extensively used in surveys and forms the backbone of the survey procedure
  7. 7.  The questionnaire was invented by Sir Francis Galton, a British anthropologist, explorer and statistician, invented questionnaires in the late 1800s
  8. 8. DEFINITION  “A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents.” (Wikipedia)  Questionnaire: A measuring device used to query a population/sample in order to obtain information for analysis.  A questionnaire is simply a list of mimeographed or printed questions that is completed by or for a respondent. (Health Research Methodology 2nd ed. 2001 WHO)
  9. 9.  Preparing a questionnaire or a form is one of the most delicate moments of the entire work. If insignificant information is asked and important information is omitted, results will be irrelevant and of little use. Before starting preparing a questionnaire or a form it is important know that:  1. It is necessary to distinguish among key variables, explicative and structure variables:
  10. 10.  Key variables are those which describe the topic under investigation, for example if the study is relative to cancer, key variables will be relative to cancer.  Explicative variables are all those variables which might be correlated (linked) to the key variables, for example in the case of cancer it could be the environment, stress, food, and so on.  Structure variables are age, sex, education, profession; variables which are usually used to describe the sample of the study.
  11. 11. WHEN TO USE QUESTIONNAIRE?  When resources and money are limited  When it is necessary to protect the privacy of the participants  When corroborating other findings
  12. 12. WHY IS A QUESTIONNAIRE IMPORTANT  A questionnaire is the main means of collecting quantitative primary data  A questionnaire enables quantitative data to be collected in a standarized way so that data are internally consistent and coherent for analysis.  A questionnaire ensures standardization and comparability of the data across interviewers, increases speed and accuracy of recording, and facilitates data processing
  13. 13.  Characteristics of a questionnaire  Elicits information from respondents  Results can be tabulated  Standardized across respondents  Understandable to respondents
  14. 14. A GOOD QUESTIONNAIRE MUST:  obtain the most complete and accurate information possible.  Is organized and worded to encourage respondents to provide accurate, unbiased and complete information.  make it easy for respondents to give the necessary information and for the interviewer to record the answer, and it should be arranged so that sound analysis and interpretation are possible.  keep the interview brief and to the point and be so arranged that the respondents remain interested throughout the interview.
  15. 15. ADVANTAGES OF QUESTIONNAIRE  Low cost even when the universe is large and is widely spread geographically.  It is free from the bias of the interviewer; answers are in respondents own words.  Respondents have adequate time to give well thought out answers  Respondents who are not easily approachable can also be reached conveniently.  Large samples can be made use of and thus the results can be made more dependable and reliable.
  16. 16. DISADVANTAGES OF QUESTIONNAIRE  Low rate of return of the duly filled in questionnaires  It can be used only when respondents are educated and co- operating.  The control over the questionnaire may be lost once it is sent  It is difficult to know whether willing respondents are truly representative  There is also the possibility of ambiguous replies or omission of replies altogether to certain questions  This method is likely to be the slowest of all  Respondents may misinterpret a question, thereby limiting the validity of the results
  17. 17. HOW TO OVERCOME  Pilot testing the questionnaire with individuals who are similar to the sample population who have been chosen to participate in the study can minimize the disadvantage.  These individuals can alert the investigator to any unclear items.  After reviewing the results from the pilot study the researcher can revise the questionnaire accordingly before distribution to the population sample.
  18. 18.  Clear instructions should be provided for respondents explaining how to complete the questionnaire and requesting that all items be answered completely.
  19. 19. TYPES OF SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRES  The design of a questionnaire will depend on whether the researcher wishes to collect exploratory information (i.e. qualitative information for the purposes of better understanding or the generation of hypotheses on a subject) or quantitative information (to test specific hypotheses that have previously been generated).
  20. 20.  Exploratory questionnaires: If the data to be collected is qualitative or is not to be statistically evaluated, it may be that no formal questionnaire is needed. One might prepare a brief guide, listing perhaps ten major open-ended questions, with appropriate probes/prompts listed under each.
  21. 21.  Formal standardized questionnaires: If the researcher is looking to test and quantify hypotheses and the data is to be analyzed statistically, a formal standardized questionnaire is designed. They are generally characterized by:  Prescribed wording and order of questions, to ensure that each respondent receives the same stimuli.  Prescribed definitions or explanations for each question, to ensure interviewers handle questions consistently and can answer respondents' requests for clarification if they occur  Prescribed response format, to enable rapid completion of the questionnaire during the interviewing process.
  22. 22. FORMS OF QUESTIONNAIRE  The general form of questionnaire can be three types.  Structured  Semistructured  Unstructured
  23. 23. STRUCTURED QUESTIONNAIRE  Structured questionnaires are those questionnaires in which there are definite, concrete and pre-determined questions.  The questions are presented with exactly the same wording and in the same order to all respondents.  Resort is taken to this sort of standardization to ensure that all respondents reply to the same set of questions  Structured questionnaires have fixed alternative questions in which responses of the informants are limited to the stated alternatives
  24. 24.  A highly structured questionnaire is one in which all questions and answers are specified and comments in the respondents own words are held to minimum.  Structured questionnaires are simple to administer and relatively inexpensive to analyse.  They are used in large interview programmes (anything over 30 interviews and more likely over 200 interviews in number) and may be carried out over the tele- phone, face-to-face or self completion depending on the respondent type, the content of questionnaire and the budget.
  25. 25. SEMI-STRUCTURED QUESTIONNAIRES  Semi-structured questionnaires comprise a mixture of closed and open questions.  They are commonly used in research where there is a need to accommodate a large range of different responses from companies.  The use of semi-structured questionnaires enables a mix of qualitative and quantitative information to be gathered.  They can be administered over the telephone or face-to-face.
  26. 26. UNSTRUCTURED QUESTIONNAIRES  Unstructured questionnaires are made up of questions that elicit free responses.  These are guided conversations rather than structured interviews and would often be referred to as a “topic guide”.  The topic guide is made up of a list of questions with an apparent order but is not so rigid that the interviewer has to slavishly follow it in every detail.
  27. 27.  There are no hard-and-fast rules about how to design a questionnaire, but there are a number of points that can be borne in mind: 1. A well-designed questionnaire should meet the research objectives. 2. It should obtain the most complete and accurate information possible. 3. A well-designed questionnaire should make it easy for respondents to give the necessary information and for the interviewer to record the answer, and it should be arranged so that sound analysis and interpretation are possible. 4. It would keep the interview brief and to the point and be so arranged that the respondent(s) remain interested throughout the interview.
  28. 28. IDEAL QUALITIES OF A QUESTION  One that yields a truthful, accurate answer  One that asks for one answer on one dimension  One that accommodates all possible contingencies of response  One that uses specific, simple language  One that has mutually exclusive response options  One that produces variability in response  One that minimizes social desirability  One that is pretested
  29. 29. THE STEPS PRECEDING QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Even after the exploratory phase, two key steps remain to be completed before the task of designing the questionnaire should commence.  The first of these is to articulate the questions/objectives that research is intended to address.  The second step is to determine the hypotheses around which the questionnaire is to be designed.
  30. 30. There are nine steps involved in the development of a questionnaire: 1. Decide the information required. 2. Define the target respondents. 3. Choose the method(s) of reaching your target respondents. 4. Decide on question content. 5. Develop the question wording. 6. Put questions into a meaningful order and format. 7. Check the length of the questionnaire. 8. Pre-test the questionnaire. 9. Develop the final survey form.
  31. 31. 1. DECIDING ON THE INFORMATION REQUIRED  It should be noted that one does not start by writing questions. The first step is to decide 'what are the things one needs to know from the respondent in order to meet the survey's objectives?' should appear in the research brief and the research proposal.
  32. 32. 2. DEFINE THE TARGET RESPONDENTS  Demographic characteristics  Job or social category  Other relevant characteristics  Secondary audiences:
  33. 33.  • Demographic characteristics, such as age, sex, religion, urban/rural residence, income level, social class, education, employment status, and ethnic or language group;  • Job or social category, such as policymakers, doctors, nurses, factory workers, religious leaders or university students
  34. 34.  • Job or social category, such as policymakers, doctors, nurses, factory workers, religious leaders or university students;  • Other relevant characteristics: Some individuals or groups may be disproportionately affected by TB, such as persons living with HIV/AIDS, imprisoned people, homeless populations, drug users, or family members of people with TB;
  35. 35.  • Secondary audiences: Your secondary audiences may include allies who can influence or provide access to your primary audience, such as community leaders or health authorities.  Knowledge, attitudes and health-seeking practices may vary substantially among population groups, and according to social, cultural or economic characteristics.
  36. 36. 3. CHOOSE THE METHOD(S) OF REACHING TARGET RESPONDENTS  Face-to-Face Interview  Telephone Interviews  Mail Questionnaires  Internet Questionnaire
  37. 37. A. Face-to-Face Interview  Face-to-face interviews or personal interviews are surveys conducted in person by an interviewer who usually travels to the person being surveyed.  • Pros—High response rates; can clarify questions, if necessary; control over respondent selection; can use longer, more complex questionnaire; and easier to motivate the respondent.  • Cons—High costs, time-consuming, and more administrative requirements (i.e., selecting and training interviewers, contacting respondents, travel arrangements). Also, there is a tendency for respondents to give socially acceptable answers.
  38. 38. B. Telephone Interviews  Telephone interviews are usually conducted from a central office that places telephone calls to selected households or businesses.  • Pros—Good response rates, fast, some anonymity for respondents in answering questions, and control over respondent selection. If a comprehensive list of the target population is available, the likelihood of obtaining a representative sample is high.  • Cons—Questions must be short and not complex; cannot control interruption by others in household/ office; hard to find persons at home, and those that are at home may resent intrusion; there is mounting displeasure among households receiving unsolicited telephone calls; requires training and quality control monitoring of the interviewers; and is usually difficult to target a specific geographical location.
  39. 39. C. Mail Questionnaires  Mail questionnaires are written surveys that are sent through the mail to selected members of the population to be surveyed.  • Pros—Good response rates with rigorous follow-up procedures, relatively easy to obtain a listed population and locate respondents, can avoid interviewer bias and distortion, answers unlikely to be socially influenced, easy to administer and relatively low costs, can cover a wide geographical area, and more manageable for handling large samples.  • Cons—Questionnaire may be given to someone else to fill out or may not reach the desired respondent; most difficult type of questionnaire to design; hard to interpret open-ended questions; cannot control sequence in which respondents answer questions; and time consuming, given periodic mail- out requirements.
  40. 40. D. Internet Questionnaire  An Internet questionnaire is a form of a written survey. Respondents may be invited to participate in the survey through email or because they visit a particular web page.  • Pros—Fast to conduct and tabulate, some software products allow questionnaires to be customized depending on the respondent’s answers, avoids interviewer bias and distortion, answers unlikely to be socially influenced, easy to administer, and relatively low costs.  • Cons—Information transferred via the Internet may not be confidential; poor control over respondent selection; follow-up difficult to conduct; difficult to obtain probability sample; and, like mail surveys, this is the most difficult type of questionnaire to design.
  41. 41. 4. DECIDE ON QUESTION CONTENT There are a series of questions that should be posed as the researchers develop the survey questions themselves: a) "Is this question sufficient to generate the required information?“ b) "Can the respondent answer the question correctly?“ c) "Are there any external events that might bias response to the question?“ d) "Do the words have the same meaning to all respondents?" For example, "How many members are there in your family?" There is room for ambiguity in such a question since it is open to interpretation as to whether one is speaking of the immediate or extended family.
  42. 42. e. "Are any of the words or phrases loaded or leading in any way?" f. "Are there any implied alternatives within the question?" g. "Will the question be understood by the type of individual to be interviewed?“ h. "Is there any ambiguity in my questions?" i. "Are any words or phrases vague?" j. "Are any questions too personal or of a potentially embarrassing nature?" k. "Do questions rely on feats of memory?"
  43. 43. 5. DEVELOP THE QUESTION WORDING a) Contingency questions/cascade format b) Matrix questions c) Closed ended questions  Dichotomous, where the respondent has two options  Nominal-polytomous, where the respondent has more than two unordered options  Ordinal-polytomous, where the respondent has more than two ordered options  (Bounded)Continuous d) Open ended questions
  44. 44. Contingency questions/cascade format – several questions have been used to scale a response to the unasked but real understanding question. A question that is answered only if the respondent gives a particular response to a previous question. This avoids asking questions of people that do not apply to them (for example, asking men if they have ever been pregnant) Eg. 1. Do you use tobacco? (a) Yes (Go to 1a Question) (b) No (Go 2 Question) 1 (a) How many packs of tobacco do you use? (a) ≥ 10 packs (b) 10 - 5 packs (c) ≤ 5 packs per day 2. Do you use alcohol? (a) Yes (b) No.
  45. 45.  Matrix questions - Identical response categories are assigned to multiple questions. The questions are placed one under the other, forming a matrix with response categories along the top and a list of questions down the side. This is an efficient use of page space and respondents’ time.
  46. 46. CLOSED ENDED QUESTIONS  Closed ended questions - Respondents’ answers are limited to a fixed set of responses. Four types of response scales for closed-ended questions are distinguished:  Dichotomous, where the respondent has two options  Nominal-polytomous, where the respondent has more than two unordered options  Ordinal-polytomous, where the respondent has more than two ordered options  (Bounded)Continuous, where the respondent is presented with a continuous scale. Examples of types of scales include the Likert scale, semantic differential scale, and rank-order scale
  47. 47. d) Open ended questions  Completely unstructured - For example, “What is your opinion of questionnaires?”  Word association - Words are presented and the respondent mentions the first word that comes to mind.  Sentence completion - Respondents complete an incomplete sentence. For example, “The most important consideration in my decision to buy a new house is . . .”  Story completion - Respondents complete an incomplete story.  Picture completion - Respondents fill in an empty conversation balloon.  Thematic apperception test - Respondents explain a picture or make up a story about what they think is happening in the picture
  48. 48. Advantages of Closed ended questions:  It provides the respondent with an easy method of indicating his answer - he does not have to think about how to articulate his answer.  It 'prompts' the respondent so that the respondent has to rely less on memory in answering a question.  Responses can be easily classified, making analysis very straightforward.  It permits the respondent to specify the answer categories most suitable for their purposes.
  49. 49. Disadvantages of Closed ended questions:  They do not allow the respondent the opportunity to give a different response to those suggested.  They 'suggest' answers that respondents may not have considered before.
  50. 50. Advantages of Open ended questions:  They allow the respondent to answer in his own words, with no influence by any specific alternatives suggested by the interviewer.  They often reveal the issues which are most important to the respondent, and this may reveal findings which were not originally anticipated when the survey was initiated.  Respondents can 'qualify' their answers or emphasise the strength of their opinions.
  51. 51. Disadvantages of Open ended questions:  Respondents may find it difficult to 'articulate' their responses i.e. to properly and fully explain their attitudes or motivations.  Respondents may not give a full answer simply because they may forget to mention important points. Some respondents need prompting or reminding of the types of answer they could give.  Data collected is in the form of verbatim comments - it has to be coded and reduced to manageable categories. This can be time consuming for analysis and there are numerous opportunities for error in recording and interpreting the answers given on the part of interviewers.  Respondents will tend to answer open questions in different 'dimensions'. For example, the question: "When did you purchase your tooth brush?", could elicit one of several responses, viz: "A short while ago". "Last month". "When I lost my last tooth brush". "When I bought the monthly groceries".
  52. 52. 6. PUTTING QUESTIONS INTO A MEANINGFUL ORDER AND FORMAT  According to the three stages theory (also called the sandwich theory), initial questions should be screening and rapport questions. Then in the second stage you ask all the research specific questions. In the last stage you ask demographic questions.  Opening questions  Question flow  Question variety  Closing questions
  53. 53.  Opening questions: Opening questions should be easy to answer and not in any way threatening to THE respondents. The first question is crucial because it is the respondent's first exposure to the interview and sets the tone for the nature of the task to be performed. If they find the first question difficult to understand, or beyond their knowledge and experience, or embarrassing in some way, they are likely to break off immediately. If, on the other hand, they find the opening question easy and pleasant to answer, they are encouraged to continue
  54. 54.  Question flow: Questions should flow in some kind of psychological order, so that one leads easily and naturally to the next. Questions on one subject, or one particular aspect of a subject, should be grouped together. Questions should flow logically from one to the next. The researcher must ensure that the answer to a question is not influenced by previous questions. Questions should flow from the more general to the more specific. Questions should flow from the least sensitive to the most sensitive. Questions should flow from factual and behavioural questions to attitudinal and opinion questions. Questions should flow from unaided to aided questions.
  55. 55.  Question variety: Respondents become bored quickly and restless when asked similar questions for half an hour or so. It usually improves response, therefore, to vary the respondent's task from time to time. An open- ended question here and there (even if it is not analysed) may provide much-needed relief from a long series of questions in which respondents have been forced to limit their replies to pre-coded categories. Questions involving showing cards/pictures to respondents can help vary the pace and increase interest.
  56. 56.  Closing questions It is natural for a respondent to become increasingly indifferent to the questionnaire as it nears the end. Because of impatience or fatigue, he may give careless answers to the later questions. Those questions, therefore, that are of special importance should, if possible, be included in the earlier part of the questionnaire. Potentially sensitive questions should be left to the end, to avoid respondents cutting off the interview before important information is collected.
  57. 57. 7. PRESENTATION AND LAYOUT OF THE INTERVIEW FORM  Use of booklets  Simple, clear formats  Creative use of space and typeface  Use of colour coding  Interviewer instructions
  58. 58. 8. PILOTING / PRE-TESTING THE QUESTIONNAIRES  whether the questions as they are worded will achieve the desired results  whether the questions have been placed in the best order  whether the questions are understood by all classes of respondents  whether additional or specifying questions are needed or whether some questions should be eliminated  whether the instructions to interviewers are adequate.
  59. 59. Recognizing poor questions through pretests: 1. Lack of order in the answers 2. All or None responses 3. High proportion of don’t-know or don’t understand answers 4. Great number of qualifications or/irrelevant comment 5. High proportions of refusals to answers 6. Substantial variation in answers when order of questions has been changed.
  60. 60. BASIC STEPS IN PRE-TESTING:  (i) Select a sample similar to one that will be considered in the main study.  (ii) Instruct questionnaire administrators to note all respondents remarks regarding instructions or question wording.  (iii) Administer the questionnaires.  (iv) Check Reliability and validity
  61. 61. RELIABILITY  The reliability refers extent to which a measurement gives consistent results.  In pretesting of the questionnaire, one should check  test retest reliability and  internal consistency reliability
  62. 62. TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY:  It is used to assess the consistency of response to the items in a questionnaire from one time to another.  In case of a questionnaire assessing the self-rated oral health status of individuals, it tests if few respondents give erratic responses at two different times. Eg: Day 1. What is your opinion about your oral health? Response. Oral health is very important. Day 2. What is your opinion about your oral health? (to the same respondent) Response. Not so bad
  63. 63.  Then either the respondent is unreliable or the question is confusing.  If such responses are obtained from more than 5-10% of respondent then question is unreliable and considered for rephrasing.  On the other hand, the test-retest reliability can be evaluated by using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) computed based on a single sample using the one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) model .  The value of ICC is considered appropriate if it is at least 0.70
  64. 64.  Internal consistency reliability: Here one should judge the reliability of the tool by estimating how well the items that reflect the same construct yield similar results i.e. how consistent the results are for different items for the same construct.
  65. 65. Eg. Impact of dental caries on the activities of daily living.  In physical domain if respondent says he has pain due to dental caries and also tells he does not have trouble eating that means the questionnaire is not framed properly.  Internal consistency reliability is expressed using the statistical test Cronbach’a (alpha).  It is acceptable if value is 80% or above.  If a questionnaire is unreliable then it can’t be valid
  66. 66. VALIDITY:  The degree to which a questionnaire measures what it was intended to measure.  In questionnaire 4 types of validity should be checked.  Content validity,  Face validity,  Criterion validity and  Construct validity.
  67. 67. CONTENT VALIDITY:  It indicates the degree to which the items on the instrument are representative of the knowledge being tested or characteristic being investigated.  Expert judgment is the primary method used to determine whether a test/tool has content validity.  No statistical test is employed here.  Based on the expert opinion, questionnaire would be modified.
  68. 68. FACE VALIDITY:  Face validity refers to the degree to which a questionnaire or test appears to be measuring what it is supposed to measure.  Eg: Questionnaire about domestic violence training should have questions related to that issue.  Face validity can be done using 2 methods:  interview/probe method and  bilingual method
  69. 69. 1. INTERVIEW/PROBE METHOD:  The investigator will have a detailed discussion with them regarding the each item, assessing their understanding about the question is appropriate to elicit accurate responses.  Based on this interview, necessary modifications will be made in the tool and subsequently interview may be done to decide the final version.
  70. 70. BILINGUAL METHOD  It is employed if the tool is translated in to a regional language.  Here a bilingual expert who is well versed in both the languages is employed to assess the face validity.
  71. 71. CRITERION VALIDITY  It refers to the instrument’s capacity to predict a characteristic that is associated with the characteristic.  The responses on the questionnaire being developed are checked against on external criteria or by using gold standard which is direct and independent measure of what the new questionnaire is designed to measure.  In the absence of such a gold standard one can use proxy measures like clinical examination or direct questions to respondents.
  72. 72.  Depending on the nature of the data collected, criterion validity can be subdivided into  Concurrent validity and  Predictive validity.  Concurrent validity: the measurement and the criterion refer to the same point in time.  Eg: visual inspection of a wound for evidence of infection validated against bacteriological examination of a specimen taken at the same time.  Predictive validity: The measurement validity is expressed in terms of its ability to predict the criterion.  Academic aptitude test that is validated against subsequent academic performance.
  73. 73. CONSTRUCT VALIDITY  It refers to the extent to which the new questionnaire conforms (goes along with) to existing ideas or hypothesis concerning the concepts/constructs that are being measured.  This is greatest challenge in questionnaire development.  Construct validity can further be subdivided into  convergent validity and  discriminate validity.
  74. 74.  Convergent validity:  It is a general agreement between measures where theoretically they should be related.  Discriminate validity:  It is a general disagreement between measures where theoretically they should not be related.  Both convergent and discriminate validities will be examined by using the item-scale correlations;  Convergent validity indicates correlation between an item and its own scale.  Discriminate validity indicates correlation between an item and any of the other scales
  75. 75.  This can be examined by  Multi Trait Multi Matrix method (MTMM) and  Factor analysis.
  76. 76. MULTI TRAIT MULTI MATRIX METHOD  If a questionnaire is developed from another tool measuring the same construct, then this method of checking construct validity is employed
  77. 77. FACTOR ANALYSIS  This is employed when the tool is a newly developed one that it is not derived from any gold standard.  Factor analysis is a complicated statistical procedure used to estimate where each item in the questionnaire is correctly reflecting the corresponding theorized construct.  If the tool has increased construct validity then shows increased correlation with the corresponding domains.
  78. 78.  Content validity and face validity are checked during the pre testing.  Criterion and construct values are checked after the main study and these are considered when the tool needs to be validated. eg. Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI), Oral Impacts of Daily Profile (OIDP).
  79. 79. CONSEQUENCES OF POOR QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN IN RESEARCH  Lower response rates  Question skipping  Question misunderstanding
  80. 80. QUESTIONNAIRE TRANSLATION AND PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES EVALUATION  A questionnaire translation process should focus in achieving the conceptual equivalence instead of achieving linguistic equivalence.  In view of this, the forward –backward-forward translation technique should be applied
  81. 81.  Forward translation :  In the first step, two independent professional bilingual translators are hired to translate the original English version of the questionnaire into the relevant language.  A meeting involving the two independent professional bilingual translators and a member from the research group will be conducted to review, reconcile and harmonize the forward translation.  Backward translation  This reconciled forward translation will then be translated back into English by another two independent bilingual translators
  82. 82.  Next, the research group together with the professional forward translators will review and compare the backward translation with the original English questionnaire.  The aim of this process is to reconcile the questionnaires by producing the final forward translation.
  83. 83. PRE-TEST (COGNITIVE INTERVIEWS  Purpose: To show that items in the finalized translated questionnaire are comprehensive and acceptable.  Firstly, experts should be invited to review and also provide feedback on the translated questionnaire.  Then, a small group of participants should be recruited as part of this study and they should be informed about the objective of the study.  Pre-testing is critical in identifying the problems in the translated questionnaire. Here interviewer/probe method is followed
  84. 84.  The research team will critically review the comments provided by participants via interview method.  The words and phrases used in the translated questionnaire will be carefully chosen to avoid any misunderstanding for future participants.  Researchers may decide to repeat the pre-testing phase of the questionnaire until the comments from participants are minimized.  The final product of this process is known as the finalized forward translation.
  85. 85. VALIDATION STUDY  It is highly recommended to conduct a validation study on the translated questionnaire to examine its psychometric properties such as the validity and reliability of the questionnaire.  The appropriate study design for validation study is cross-sectional with at least 100 participants.  These participants should be selected from various social demographic as well as socio economic background, so that the sample is more representative of the population.
  86. 86. FIELD TASK  The venue of the validation study should be carefully determined, chosen and justified.  Once the venue has been decided, a formal letter needs to be sent to the relevant authority in charge of the chosen venue to inform them about the objective of the validation study and also asking for permission to conduct such a study at that venue
  87. 87. CONCLUSION  As a research tool, questionnaires have a few drawbacks inherently.  Questionnaire development is an exhaustive and time consuming process.  The accuracy of data collected using the tool solely depends on the subjective perceptions of the respondents.  Reduced response rates and incomplete responses to self administered questionnaires make it mandatory that the tool be developed as simple and respondent friendly as possible.
  88. 88.  In order to maintain the validity and reliability of data collected, it is important that the tool be as objective as possible.  Hence it is necessary that they are constructed systematically based on a sound scientific method since research outcome is directly dependent on the quality and the completeness of the data collected.  Despite of the limitations, well constructed questionnaires can form an integral part of the research process due to its adaptability to a variety of situations especially when the resources are limited.
  89. 89. REFERENCES: 1. Hulley, Stephen B., et al . Designing Clinical Research. 3rd ed. 2007. 2. W.H.O. Health research methodology. A guide for training in research methods. 2nd Ed. 2001 3. Blaxter, Loraine. How to Research. 4th ed. (2010) 4. Fairfax county Department of Systems Management for Human Services. “ Survey Questionnaire Design” April 2003. 5. Ulisse Di Corpo. “How to prepare a questionnaire or a form” Syntrop 2, pag. 64-68; 2005.
  90. 90. 6. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia “Questionnaire” 7. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia “questionnaire construction”petra M Boynton, Trisha Greenhalgh. “Selecting, designing and developing your questionnaire” BMJ vol.328 29 May 2004. 8. Suri Sushil, Verma N “Questionnaire Validation Made Easy” European Journal of Scientific Research Vol.46 No.2 (2010), pp.172-178