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Introducing different types of food commodities and its
characteristics and identification.
Commonly consumed foods are those ingested for
their nutrient properties.
Food commodities can be either raw agricultural
commodities or processed commodities, provided
that they are the forms that are sold or distributed
for human consumption
What are food commodities?
Types of Whole Grains - Video
A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an
attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or
1. Sort through grains, removing dirt or debris
2. Rinse in cold water until water runs clear
3. Presoak whole, hard grains (i.e. whole barley, oat groats
or wheat berries) to soften and reduce cooking time
4. For most grains, bring water or stock to boil, then add the
5. Return to a boil, reduce heat, cover and simmer until
done - grain will have a slight chewiness
6. Drain if needed
7. Fluff with fork but do not stir, otherwise starches will
create a pasty texture
Most are planted in USA, Canada, Europe, Egypt and India
of 3 parts
Structure of Flour
Structure of Wheat
▪ Pieces of grain husk separated from flour after milling.
▪ If they contain a carbohydrate, it's usually oat bran, wheat bran or
▪ The part of a seed that acts as a food store for the developing
plant embryo, usually containing starch with protein and other
▪ A nutritious foodstuff of a dry floury consistency consisting of the
extracted embryos of grains of wheat.
Nutrients of Wheat
How is Flour Made?- Video
Kinds of Flour
High protein/Bread FlourAll purposelow protein/Cake Flour
Gluten is a general name for the proteins found in wheat.
Gluten helps foods maintain their shape, acting as a glue that holds food together
Celiac disease - Gluten-sensitive enteropathy
▪ Celiac disease is an immune reaction to eating gluten, a protein found in
wheat, barley and rye.
▪ If you have celiac disease, eating gluten triggers an immune response in
your small intestine.
▪ Over time, this reaction damages your small intestine's lining and
prevents absorption of some nutrients (malabsorption).
▪ The intestinal damage often causes diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss,
bloating and anemia, and can lead to serious complications.
How is Bread Made?- Video
Soft, weak flour, low in protein For making cookies, cakes, crackers & pastries
Hard, strong flour, high in protein
(made from hard red winter wheat)
For making pan breads, pizza crusts & rolls
Hard, strong flour, high in protein
(made from hard red spring wheat)
Mainly for making breads
White wheat flour
(made from hard white wheat)
For making the same products as soft & hard
(made from durum wheat)
• course ground endosperm (semolina) – for
production of pastas
• durum flour – for making American noodles
& some types of pastas
▪ Most grow in Asian countries, China, India, Japan & Korea.
▪ The structure is the same as wheat (wheat).
▪ Can be short-grained (glutinous when cooked) or long-grained
(fluffy when cooked)
Varieties of Rice
8 Varieties of Rice- Video
Type of Rice
Nutrients of Rice
How does Rice Grow?- Video
Seed grains of cultivated
Most common staple food
in most countries as they
are relatively inexpensive
Types Nutrients Uses
Carbohydrates, proteins, fats,
fiber, iron and vitamins
especially B1, B2 & B3
Yellow variety contains
carotene that can be
converted into vitamin A by
▪ Eaten as ‘corn-on-the-cob’
▪ Used in soups & cereals
▪ Crushed corn grain – for making
▪ Fine corn flour – thickening agent
for gravies & soups
▪ Used in cakes, biscuits &
Higher fat, protein & soluble
dietary fiber content than
▪ For making oat porridge, muesli &
Barley Similar to other cereals
▪ Used in barley drinks, soups and
▪ Added to cattle feed & used in the
Rye Similar to other cereals
▪ For making breads, biscuits &
High Protein - Wheat Flour – (Bread Flour)
▪ Protein content of more than 12.5%.
▪ Examples: Twin Chakra brand, Kencana Train, Golden Twin Cakra (Bogasari),
and Golden Ropes. KOMACHI is a Japanese Wheat Flour brand, widely used
for making donuts.
Medium Protein - Wheat Flour – (All Purpose Flour)
▪ Protein content between 10-11%
▪ Example: brand Blue Triangle & Mount Bromo (Bogasari), Blue Bear.
Low Protein - Wheat Flour – (Cake Flour)
▪ Protein content, about 8-9%.For
▪ Example: Cap Key
Brown Bread Crumb
Usually to sprinkle baked dishes such as potatoes gratin or for rissoles
Panko Bread Crumb
The texture is rougher than the usual bread flour, Usually white.
Ordinary to make Katsu (tonkatsu) or Tempura. It feels more crisp and
▪ Pastry flour - Is made from soft wheat, which makes it finer than all-purpose
▪ Its protein content places it between all-purpose and cake flours.
▪ by mixing a 2-to-1 ratio of all-purpose to cake flours.
Whole Wheat Flour
▪ Whole wheat flour - By grinding entire kernels of red wheat.
▪ Wheat seed head has three portions: the germ, bran, and endosperm.
▪ White flour includes just the endosperm, not the bran and germ. But the bran
and germ contain the bulk of the fiber and protein.
White Whole Wheat Flour
▪ White whole wheat flour - This variety contains the endosperm, germ, and
bran of a paler variety of wheat, called hard white wheat.
▪ It tastes slightly sweeter than traditional whole wheat, thanks to its lower
▪ Despite the difference in look and taste, whole wheat and white whole wheat
flours have the same nutritional value.
▪ Oat flour – It doesn’t come from wheat. Instead, it’s made from ground
▪ Oat flour has a superfine, even fluffy texture.
▪ its sweet flavor makes it “one of the most approachable ‘whole grain’
▪ Oat flour is gluten-free and therefore perfect for people on a gluten-free
Self Rising Flour
▪ Self-Rising Flour - This variety is a blend of all-purpose flour, baking
powder, and salt.
▪ You can make it in your kitchen. Mix 1 cup of all-purpose flour with 1½
teaspoons of baking powder and ¼ teaspoon fine salt.
▪ Semolina - Is made from the coarsely ground endosperm of durum wheat.
▪ Semolina has the highest gluten content of all flours.
▪ Semolina flour labeled as 00 flour, a finely ground pasta flour that has a mid-
range protein content of about 11% to 12%.
▪ The gluten from durum wheat flour tends to be strong but not very elastic. In
contrast, the gluten in flours made from red wheat is both strong and elastic.
▪ Rye Flour - is flour milled from whole rye berries and grains of rye grass.
Closely related to wheat flour, it has a slightly sour taste and is used to prepare
rye bread and sourdough bread.
▪ Loaves of bread produced with this flour are generally darker and denser than
other types of bread.
▪ There are light, medium, and dark colored varieties of rye flour.
▪ The color of the flour depends on how much of the bran has been removed
through the milling process.
▪ Conversely, if most of the bran has been removed, the flour will be finer and
▪ Corn starch - Cornstarch, corn- flour or maize starch or maize or maizena is
the starch derived from the corn (maize) grain.
▪ The starch is obtained from the endosperm of the kernel.
▪ Corn starch is a common food ingredient, used in thickening sauces or soups,
and in making corn syrup and other sugars
▪ Cornstarch is gluten free.
▪ Arrowroot powder - Tapioca is a white, flavorless powder used to thicken
sauces, soups, and other foods.
▪ Arrowroot powder is comprised of starches extracted from various tropical
tubers, such as the arrowroot plant and cassava.
▪ Some lower quality arrowroot powder blends may also contain potato
starch, so be sure to read ingredient lists carefully
▪ Arrowroot powder has twice the thickening power of wheat flour and
because it contains no protein, arrowroot is gluten-free.
▪ Rice flour is a fine flour made from ground rice.
▪ It is completely gluten free, including even “glutinous rice flour,” which is
made from sweet rice and is a staple for making Japanese treats like
▪ Rice flour can be used in a wide variety of culinary uses and is a very
popular base for noodles in many Asian cuisines.
▪ It can also be used as a thickener in sauces, as a breading for fried dishes
and as the base for various baked goods.
Glutinous Rice Flour
▪ Glutinous rice flour or sticky rice - is a common component in Asian
▪ It is also known as sweet flour or waxy rice flour.
▪ When cooked, glutinous rice becomes moist and firm but also develops a
Wheat starch - Tang Mein Flour
▪ Wheat starch or Tang Mein or Tang meen fun , or Tang flour - Is all the
gluten has been removed.
▪ When mixed with water it produces a pastry dough.
▪ It is mainly used as a wrapping for dumplings such as ‘har kau’ or ‘choy
▪ Potato flour or potato starch - Is flour ground from dried potatoes;
▪ it is carbohydrate based thickener with little protein, useful for people who
have to avoid gluten flours.
▪ It is used primarily for making commercial potato bread in combination
with plain or strong flour or as a thickener for soups, gravies and Chinese
stir fly dishes.
▪ Sago - Is dried starch granules derived from the pitch of sago tree.
▪ Sago flour is very rich in starch and has the same thickening ability as
▪ In fact sago and tapioca flour may be used interchangeably for making
kue (Indonesian Cake), bread and cakes.
▪ Corn Flour should not be confused with Corn Starch.
▪ Corn Flour is made from the entire kernel, whereas Corn Starch is
extracted from the endosperm in the kernel.
▪ This flour is available in a yellow and white version.
▪ Both varieties are gluten free.
▪ Yellow Corn Flour is often combined with wheat flour to reduce the
overall gluten content for cakes, cookies, pastries and other baked
goods that do not contain yeast.
▪ White Corn Flour is often used to thicken recipes both baked and