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Grain & Rice: www.chefqtrainer.blogspot.com

PDF Presentation Food Commodities for Culinary Training Program

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Grain & Rice: www.chefqtrainer.blogspot.com

  1. 1. Food Commodities www.facebook.com/delhindra 1
  2. 2. www.facebook.com/delhindra Introducing different types of food commodities and its characteristics and identification. 2
  3. 3. Commonly consumed foods are those ingested for their nutrient properties. Food commodities can be either raw agricultural commodities or processed commodities, provided that they are the forms that are sold or distributed for human consumption What are food commodities? www.facebook.com/delhindra 3
  4. 4. Grains and Rice Meat and Poultry Seafood Eggs and Diary Product Vegetables and Fruits Herb and Spices www.facebook.com/delhindra 4
  5. 5. www.facebook.com/delhindra 1. Grain and Rice 5
  6. 6. www.facebook.com/delhindra Types of Whole Grains - Video 6
  7. 7. www.facebook.com/delhindra A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption Grain 7
  8. 8. www.facebook.com/delhindra 1. Sort through grains, removing dirt or debris 2. Rinse in cold water until water runs clear 3. Presoak whole, hard grains (i.e. whole barley, oat groats or wheat berries) to soften and reduce cooking time 4. For most grains, bring water or stock to boil, then add the grain 5. Return to a boil, reduce heat, cover and simmer until done - grain will have a slight chewiness 6. Drain if needed 7. Fluff with fork but do not stir, otherwise starches will create a pasty texture Grain Preparation 8
  9. 9. www.facebook.com/delhindra a. Wheat Most are planted in USA, Canada, Europe, Egypt and India 9
  10. 10. • Bran • Endosperm • Germ Composed of 3 parts www.facebook.com/delhindra Structure of Flour 10
  11. 11. Structure of Wheat Bran ▪ Pieces of grain husk separated from flour after milling. ▪ If they contain a carbohydrate, it's usually oat bran, wheat bran or inulin. Endosperm ▪ The part of a seed that acts as a food store for the developing plant embryo, usually containing starch with protein and other nutrients. Germ ▪ A nutritious foodstuff of a dry floury consistency consisting of the extracted embryos of grains of wheat. www.facebook.com/delhindra 11
  12. 12. Carbohydrates Proteins Fats B-vitamins Vitamin E www.facebook.com/delhindra Iron Phosphorus Calcium Fiber Nutrients of Wheat 12
  13. 13. www.facebook.com/delhindra How is Flour Made?- Video 13
  14. 14. Kinds of Flour High protein/Bread FlourAll purposelow protein/Cake Flour www.facebook.com/delhindra Gluten is a general name for the proteins found in wheat. Gluten helps foods maintain their shape, acting as a glue that holds food together 14
  15. 15. www.facebook.com/delhindra Celiac disease - Gluten-sensitive enteropathy ▪ Celiac disease is an immune reaction to eating gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley and rye. ▪ If you have celiac disease, eating gluten triggers an immune response in your small intestine. ▪ Over time, this reaction damages your small intestine's lining and prevents absorption of some nutrients (malabsorption). ▪ The intestinal damage often causes diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, bloating and anemia, and can lead to serious complications. 15
  16. 16. www.facebook.com/delhindra How is Bread Made?- Video 16
  17. 17. Types Uses Soft, weak flour, low in protein For making cookies, cakes, crackers & pastries Hard, strong flour, high in protein (made from hard red winter wheat) For making pan breads, pizza crusts & rolls Hard, strong flour, high in protein (made from hard red spring wheat) Mainly for making breads White wheat flour (made from hard white wheat) For making the same products as soft & hard red wheat Durum flour (made from durum wheat) • course ground endosperm (semolina) – for production of pastas • durum flour – for making American noodles & some types of pastas www.facebook.com/delhindra 17
  18. 18. b. Rice www.facebook.com/delhindra ▪ Most grow in Asian countries, China, India, Japan & Korea. ▪ The structure is the same as wheat (wheat). ▪ Can be short-grained (glutinous when cooked) or long-grained (fluffy when cooked) 18
  19. 19. www.facebook.com/delhindra Varieties of Rice 19
  20. 20. www.facebook.com/delhindra 8 Varieties of Rice- Video 20
  21. 21. Polished rice Unpolished rice Glutinous rice Type of Rice
  22. 22. Carbohydrates Proteins Fats B-vitamins www.facebook.com/delhindra Iron Phosphorus Magnesium Nutrients of Rice 22
  23. 23. www.facebook.com/delhindra How does Rice Grow?- Video 23
  24. 24. www.facebook.com/delhindra c. Cereals 24
  25. 25. www.facebook.com/delhindra 25
  26. 26. Seed grains of cultivated grasses Most common staple food in most countries as they are relatively inexpensive
  27. 27. Types Nutrients Uses Maize (corn) Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, fiber, iron and vitamins especially B1, B2 & B3 Yellow variety contains carotene that can be converted into vitamin A by the body ▪ Eaten as ‘corn-on-the-cob’ ▪ Used in soups & cereals ▪ Crushed corn grain – for making tortilla ▪ Fine corn flour – thickening agent for gravies & soups ▪ Used in cakes, biscuits & blancmange Oat Higher fat, protein & soluble dietary fiber content than other cereals ▪ For making oat porridge, muesli & oat brans Barley Similar to other cereals ▪ Used in barley drinks, soups and local desserts ▪ Added to cattle feed & used in the whisky-making industry Rye Similar to other cereals ▪ For making breads, biscuits & pancakes www.facebook.com/delhindra 27
  28. 28. www.facebook.com/delhindra Types of Flour 28
  29. 29. www.facebook.com/delhindra Wheat Flour High Protein - Wheat Flour – (Bread Flour) ▪ Protein content of more than 12.5%. ▪ Examples: Twin Chakra brand, Kencana Train, Golden Twin Cakra (Bogasari), and Golden Ropes. KOMACHI is a Japanese Wheat Flour brand, widely used for making donuts. Medium Protein - Wheat Flour – (All Purpose Flour) ▪ Protein content between 10-11% ▪ Example: brand Blue Triangle & Mount Bromo (Bogasari), Blue Bear. Low Protein - Wheat Flour – (Cake Flour) ▪ Protein content, about 8-9%.For ▪ Example: Cap Key 29
  30. 30. www.facebook.com/delhindra Brown Bread Crumb Usually to sprinkle baked dishes such as potatoes gratin or for rissoles and croquettes. Panko Bread Crumb The texture is rougher than the usual bread flour, Usually white. Ordinary to make Katsu (tonkatsu) or Tempura. It feels more crisp and crunchy. 30
  31. 31. www.facebook.com/delhindra Pastry Flour ▪ Pastry flour - Is made from soft wheat, which makes it finer than all-purpose flour. ▪ Its protein content places it between all-purpose and cake flours. ▪ by mixing a 2-to-1 ratio of all-purpose to cake flours. Whole Wheat Flour ▪ Whole wheat flour - By grinding entire kernels of red wheat. ▪ Wheat seed head has three portions: the germ, bran, and endosperm. ▪ White flour includes just the endosperm, not the bran and germ. But the bran and germ contain the bulk of the fiber and protein. White Whole Wheat Flour ▪ White whole wheat flour - This variety contains the endosperm, germ, and bran of a paler variety of wheat, called hard white wheat. ▪ It tastes slightly sweeter than traditional whole wheat, thanks to its lower tannin content. ▪ Despite the difference in look and taste, whole wheat and white whole wheat flours have the same nutritional value. 31
  32. 32. www.facebook.com/delhindra Oat Flour ▪ Oat flour – It doesn’t come from wheat. Instead, it’s made from ground oats. ▪ Oat flour has a superfine, even fluffy texture. ▪ its sweet flavor makes it “one of the most approachable ‘whole grain’ flavors.” ▪ Oat flour is gluten-free and therefore perfect for people on a gluten-free diet Self Rising Flour ▪ Self-Rising Flour - This variety is a blend of all-purpose flour, baking powder, and salt. ▪ You can make it in your kitchen. Mix 1 cup of all-purpose flour with 1½ teaspoons of baking powder and ¼ teaspoon fine salt. 32
  33. 33. www.facebook.com/delhindra Semolina ▪ Semolina - Is made from the coarsely ground endosperm of durum wheat. ▪ Semolina has the highest gluten content of all flours. ▪ Semolina flour labeled as 00 flour, a finely ground pasta flour that has a mid- range protein content of about 11% to 12%. ▪ The gluten from durum wheat flour tends to be strong but not very elastic. In contrast, the gluten in flours made from red wheat is both strong and elastic. Rye Flour ▪ Rye Flour - is flour milled from whole rye berries and grains of rye grass. Closely related to wheat flour, it has a slightly sour taste and is used to prepare rye bread and sourdough bread. ▪ Loaves of bread produced with this flour are generally darker and denser than other types of bread. ▪ There are light, medium, and dark colored varieties of rye flour. ▪ The color of the flour depends on how much of the bran has been removed through the milling process. ▪ Conversely, if most of the bran has been removed, the flour will be finer and lighter. 33
  34. 34. www.facebook.com/delhindra 34
  35. 35. www.facebook.com/delhindra Corn Starch ▪ Corn starch - Cornstarch, corn- flour or maize starch or maize or maizena is the starch derived from the corn (maize) grain. ▪ The starch is obtained from the endosperm of the kernel. ▪ Corn starch is a common food ingredient, used in thickening sauces or soups, and in making corn syrup and other sugars ▪ Cornstarch is gluten free. Arrowood Powder ▪ Arrowroot powder - Tapioca is a white, flavorless powder used to thicken sauces, soups, and other foods. ▪ Arrowroot powder is comprised of starches extracted from various tropical tubers, such as the arrowroot plant and cassava. ▪ Some lower quality arrowroot powder blends may also contain potato starch, so be sure to read ingredient lists carefully ▪ Arrowroot powder has twice the thickening power of wheat flour and because it contains no protein, arrowroot is gluten-free. 35
  36. 36. www.facebook.com/delhindra Rice Flour ▪ Rice flour is a fine flour made from ground rice. ▪ It is completely gluten free, including even “glutinous rice flour,” which is made from sweet rice and is a staple for making Japanese treats like mochi. ▪ Rice flour can be used in a wide variety of culinary uses and is a very popular base for noodles in many Asian cuisines. ▪ It can also be used as a thickener in sauces, as a breading for fried dishes and as the base for various baked goods. Glutinous Rice Flour ▪ Glutinous rice flour or sticky rice - is a common component in Asian cuisine. ▪ It is also known as sweet flour or waxy rice flour. ▪ When cooked, glutinous rice becomes moist and firm but also develops a notable stickiness. 36
  37. 37. www.facebook.com/delhindra Wheat starch - Tang Mein Flour ▪ Wheat starch or Tang Mein or Tang meen fun , or Tang flour - Is all the gluten has been removed. ▪ When mixed with water it produces a pastry dough. ▪ It is mainly used as a wrapping for dumplings such as ‘har kau’ or ‘choy pau.’ Potato Flour ▪ Potato flour or potato starch - Is flour ground from dried potatoes; ▪ it is carbohydrate based thickener with little protein, useful for people who have to avoid gluten flours. ▪ It is used primarily for making commercial potato bread in combination with plain or strong flour or as a thickener for soups, gravies and Chinese stir fly dishes. 37
  38. 38. www.facebook.com/delhindra Sago ▪ Sago - Is dried starch granules derived from the pitch of sago tree. ▪ Sago flour is very rich in starch and has the same thickening ability as tapioca flour. ▪ In fact sago and tapioca flour may be used interchangeably for making kue (Indonesian Cake), bread and cakes. Corn Flour ▪ Corn Flour should not be confused with Corn Starch. ▪ Corn Flour is made from the entire kernel, whereas Corn Starch is extracted from the endosperm in the kernel. ▪ This flour is available in a yellow and white version. ▪ Both varieties are gluten free. ▪ Yellow Corn Flour is often combined with wheat flour to reduce the overall gluten content for cakes, cookies, pastries and other baked goods that do not contain yeast. ▪ White Corn Flour is often used to thicken recipes both baked and cooked 38
  39. 39. Any Questions… www.facebook.com/delhindra 39