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Human-Centered Machine Learning:
Harnessing Visualization and Interactivity
for Unlocking Black-Boxes in AI
DenisParra,Ass...
Presents …
• Assistant Professor DCC PUC
• Teaching
– Undergraduate:
• IIC 1005 Exploratorio del Major de Computación
• II...
We are living incredible days…
• Technology is showing results which resemble
science fiction…
6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChi...
Recognizing mental state from fMRI
6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 3
Natural Language Processing
• IBM Watson beats humans in Jeopardy. << ... With
all of its processing CPU power, Watson can...
Self-Driving Cars
6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 5
Music Generation with Style
• Deep learningdriven jazz generation
• https://github.com/jisungk/deepjazz
• https://soundclo...
Mastering Go
6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 7
AI for incorporating style in images
https://github.com/luanfujun
/deep-painterly-
harmonization
6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCC...
But there are some problems
6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 9
AI for automatic decision making…
6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 10
https://www.fastcompany.com/40557688/this-plan-for-an-a...
Some voices call for calm…
6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 11
https://medium.com/@mijordan3/artificial-intelligence-the-revo...
Part II
• What happened in May 25th 2018
• Which role can take Information Visualization and
Interaction in AI ?
D.Parra ~...
So, What happened in May 25th, 2018 ?
• The EU General Data Protection Regulation
(GDPR) becomes enforceable.
D.Parra ~ IM...
And why do we care in this room ?
• The GDPR not only applies to organisations
located within the EU but it will also appl...
Human Interpretability in ML
D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile
• https://arxiv.org/abs/1606.08813
6/7/18 15
Which is the effect on my current practice ?
Right to explanation
• Article 15 “Right of access by the data subject”
• Art...
Article 15
D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 17
Article 15
D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile
<<The data subject shall have the right to
obtain … access to the personal
data … [infor...
Article 22
D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 19
Article 22
D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile
I
<<The data subject shall have the right not to
be subject to a decision based solely o...
Article 22
D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile
II
<<Decisions referred to in paragraph 2 shall
not be based on special categories of pe...
Article 22
D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile
II
…or trade union membership, and the
processing of genetic data, biometric data for
th...
Recital 71
D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 23
Recital 71
D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile
In order to ensure fair and transparent processing
in respect of the data subject, takin...
Other Initiatives (2018)
6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 25
This bill would require the creation of a
task force that provid...
ML and GDPR
• How do we explain Machine Learning models?
• From Decision Trees to Deep Neural Networks
D.Parra ~ IMT PUCCh...
Challenges
• Are there methods to explain models?
– Can we create methods to help us explain decisions
made by complex mod...
IEEE Vis 2016
6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 28
Detail
6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 29
IEEE VIS 2017
D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 30
IEEE 2017 VAST Best Paper
• Visualizing Dataflow Graphs of Deep Learning
Models in TensorFlow
Authors: Kanit Wongsuphasawa...
How do RNNs work?
D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 32
Do CNNs learn hierarchies ?
D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 33
Symposium: Visual Data Science + ML
D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 34
UBER Visualization and Machine Learning
D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 35
Workshop on Explainable ML
D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 36
Workshop on Explainable ML
D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile
DARPA is funding
Explainable AI
6/7/18 37
New Journals & Conferences
• Distill.pub
• FAT conference
6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 38
Distill.pub
6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 39
Distill.pub
6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 40
Ejemplo: t-SNE
https://distill.pub/2016/misread-tsne/
https://fatconference.org/
• The FAT* Conference 2018 is a two-day event that
brings together researchers and practitioner...
My Previous work
D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 42
Visual & interactive RecSys interfaces
D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile
• IUI 2013 IUI 2014 UMAP 2016
• IUI 2018
6/7/18 43
Moodplay
6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 44
http://moodplay.pythonanywhere.com
Topic Models
• Very popular models to analyze collections of text.
• They allow to summarize large corpuses by finding
top...
Topic Models
• Very popular models to analyze collections of text.
• They allow to summarize large corpuses by finding
top...
ESIDA – IUI 2018
6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 47
ESIDA – IUI 2018
6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 48
ESIDA – IUI 2018
6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 49
ESIDA – IUI 2018
6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 50
Research (M.F. Sepúlveda)
• Development of interfaces with interaction which
allows people to deal with unsupervised model...
IEEE VIS 2017 – Panel ML & Vis ?
D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 52
IEEE VIS 2017 – Panel ML & Vis ?
D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 53
Conclusion
• Deep Neural Networks have produced tremendous
progresses in several fields in the latest years (computer
visi...
Research Opportunities
• Explaining Machine Learning (classification,
prediction, clustering, etc.)
• www.distill.pub
• Vi...
Research Opportunities
• Effect of ML models on Social Issues
– Filter Bubble/Echo Chambers
– Does Facebook influenced the...
Research Opportunities
• New Millenium Institute for Foundational Research
on Data (IMFD)
– Lidera Profesor Marcelo Arenas...
References
• Goodman, B., & Flaxman, S. (2016). EU regulations
on algorithmic decision-making and a “right to
explanation”...
THANKS!
dparra@ing.puc.cl
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Human-Centered Machine Learning: Harnessing Visualization and Interactivity for Unlocking Black-Boxes in AI

Human-Centered Machine Learning: Harnessing Visualization and Interactivity for Unlocking Black-Boxes in AI

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Human-Centered Machine Learning: Harnessing Visualization and Interactivity for Unlocking Black-Boxes in AI

  1. 1. Human-Centered Machine Learning: Harnessing Visualization and Interactivity for Unlocking Black-Boxes in AI DenisParra,AssistantProfessor CS Department Schoolof Engineering PontificiaUniversidadCatólicadeChile IMT,30 de Mayode2018
  2. 2. Presents … • Assistant Professor DCC PUC • Teaching – Undergraduate: • IIC 1005 Exploratorio del Major de Computación • IIC 2026 Visualización de Información – Graduate: • IIC 3633 Sistemas Recomendadores – Magister MPGI(Mineríade Datos),DiplomadoBig Data (Visualización) • Research: SocVis Lab (http://socvis.ing.puc.cl) – Machine Learningapplications (RecSys),informationvisualization, informationretrieval,visual analytics – 5 Master and 2 PhD students – 3 undergraduatestudents D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 1
  3. 3. We are living incredible days… • Technology is showing results which resemble science fiction… 6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 2
  4. 4. Recognizing mental state from fMRI 6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 3
  5. 5. Natural Language Processing • IBM Watson beats humans in Jeopardy. << ... With all of its processing CPU power, Watson can scan two million pages of data in three seconds.>>E. Nyberg, CMU professor • Implications: Applications in Health domain. http://www.aaai.org/Magazine/Watson/watson.php Chile shares its largest frontier with this country … 6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 4
  6. 6. Self-Driving Cars 6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 5
  7. 7. Music Generation with Style • Deep learningdriven jazz generation • https://github.com/jisungk/deepjazz • https://soundcloud.com/deepjazz-ai 6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 6
  8. 8. Mastering Go 6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 7
  9. 9. AI for incorporating style in images https://github.com/luanfujun /deep-painterly- harmonization 6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 8
  10. 10. But there are some problems 6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 9
  11. 11. AI for automatic decision making… 6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 10 https://www.fastcompany.com/40557688/this-plan-for-an-ai-based-direct-democracy- outsources-votes-to-a-predictive-algorithm
  12. 12. Some voices call for calm… 6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 11 https://medium.com/@mijordan3/artificial-intelligence-the-revolution-hasnt-happened-yet- 5e1d5812e1e7 Thus, just as humans built buildings and bridges before there was civil engineering, humans are proceeding with the buildingof societal-scale, inference-and-decision-making systems that involve machines, humans and the environment. Just as early buildings and bridges sometimes fell to the ground — in unforeseenways and with tragic consequences — many of our early societal- scale inference-and-decision-making systems are already exposing serious conceptual flaws.
  13. 13. Part II • What happened in May 25th 2018 • Which role can take Information Visualization and Interaction in AI ? D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 12
  14. 14. So, What happened in May 25th, 2018 ? • The EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) becomes enforceable. D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 13
  15. 15. And why do we care in this room ? • The GDPR not only applies to organisations located within the EU but it will also apply to organisations located outside of the EU if they offer goods or services to, or monitor the behaviour of, EU data subjects. • It applies to all companies processing and holding the personal data of data subjects residing in the European Union, regardless of the company’s location. D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 14
  16. 16. Human Interpretability in ML D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile • https://arxiv.org/abs/1606.08813 6/7/18 15
  17. 17. Which is the effect on my current practice ? Right to explanation • Article 15 “Right of access by the data subject” • Article 22 “Automated individual decision- making, including profiling” • Recital 71 (linked to art. 22) D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 16
  18. 18. Article 15 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 17
  19. 19. Article 15 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile <<The data subject shall have the right to obtain … access to the personal data … [information of] the existence of automated decision-making, including profiling, referred to in Article 22(1) and (4) and, at least in those cases, meaningful information about the logic involved … >> 6/7/18 18
  20. 20. Article 22 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 19
  21. 21. Article 22 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile I <<The data subject shall have the right not to be subject to a decision based solely on automated processing, including profiling, which produces legal effects concerning him or her or similarly significantly affects him or her.… >> 6/7/18 20
  22. 22. Article 22 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile II <<Decisions referred to in paragraph 2 shall not be based on special categories of personal data referred to in Article 9(1), >> Processing of personal data revealing racial or ethnic origin, political opinions, religious or philosophical beliefs … (cont.) 6/7/18 21
  23. 23. Article 22 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile II …or trade union membership, and the processing of genetic data, biometric data for the purpose of uniquely identifying a natural person, data concerning health or data concerning a natural person's sex life or sexual orientation shall be prohibited 6/7/18 22
  24. 24. Recital 71 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 23
  25. 25. Recital 71 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile In order to ensure fair and transparent processing in respect of the data subject, taking into account the specific circumstances and context in which the personal data are processed, the controller should use appropriate mathematical or statistical procedures for the profiling … 6/7/18 24
  26. 26. Other Initiatives (2018) 6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 25 This bill would require the creation of a task force that provides recommendations on how information on agency automated decision systems may be shared with the public and how agencies may address instances where people are harmed by agency automated decision systems.
  27. 27. ML and GDPR • How do we explain Machine Learning models? • From Decision Trees to Deep Neural Networks D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile Explainable decision model, explicit variables, not very accurate Black-box decision model, latent variables, accurate 6/7/18 26
  28. 28. Challenges • Are there methods to explain models? – Can we create methods to help us explain decisions made by complex models such as DNN ? • Can visualization & interaction help in this issue? D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 27
  29. 29. IEEE Vis 2016 6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 28
  30. 30. Detail 6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 29
  31. 31. IEEE VIS 2017 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 30
  32. 32. IEEE 2017 VAST Best Paper • Visualizing Dataflow Graphs of Deep Learning Models in TensorFlow Authors: Kanit Wongsuphasawat, Daniel Smilkov, James Wexler, Jimbo Wilson, Dandelion Mané, Doug Fritz, Dilip Krishnan, Fernanda B. Viégas, and Martin Wattenberg D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 31
  33. 33. How do RNNs work? D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 32
  34. 34. Do CNNs learn hierarchies ? D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 33
  35. 35. Symposium: Visual Data Science + ML D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 34
  36. 36. UBER Visualization and Machine Learning D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 35
  37. 37. Workshop on Explainable ML D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 36
  38. 38. Workshop on Explainable ML D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile DARPA is funding Explainable AI 6/7/18 37
  39. 39. New Journals & Conferences • Distill.pub • FAT conference 6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 38
  40. 40. Distill.pub 6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 39
  41. 41. Distill.pub 6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 40 Ejemplo: t-SNE https://distill.pub/2016/misread-tsne/
  42. 42. https://fatconference.org/ • The FAT* Conference 2018 is a two-day event that brings together researchers and practitioners interested in fairness, accountability, and transparency in socio-technical systems. 6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 41
  43. 43. My Previous work D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 42
  44. 44. Visual & interactive RecSys interfaces D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile • IUI 2013 IUI 2014 UMAP 2016 • IUI 2018 6/7/18 43
  45. 45. Moodplay 6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 44 http://moodplay.pythonanywhere.com
  46. 46. Topic Models • Very popular models to analyze collections of text. • They allow to summarize large corpuses by finding topics in unsupervised fashion. 6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 45
  47. 47. Topic Models • Very popular models to analyze collections of text. • They allow to summarize large corpuses by finding topics in unsupervised fashion. 6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 46 But they also: - Report topics with little sense, - redundants, or - Where vocabulary with unbiased importance to frequent words Does not work well with short texts
  48. 48. ESIDA – IUI 2018 6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 47
  49. 49. ESIDA – IUI 2018 6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 48
  50. 50. ESIDA – IUI 2018 6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 49
  51. 51. ESIDA – IUI 2018 6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 50
  52. 52. Research (M.F. Sepúlveda) • Development of interfaces with interaction which allows people to deal with unsupervised models, using a Human-in-the-loop for semi-supervision. 6/7/18 D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile 51
  53. 53. IEEE VIS 2017 – Panel ML & Vis ? D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 52
  54. 54. IEEE VIS 2017 – Panel ML & Vis ? D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 53
  55. 55. Conclusion • Deep Neural Networks have produced tremendous progresses in several fields in the latest years (computer vision, NLP, recommender systems, etc.) • Technology is not innocuous: depending on the data used and the characteristics of the methods, can have several implications in our societies, not always positive. • Foreseeing the impact of ML and AI, regulations are requiring transparency, explainability, inspectability and other characteristics which need further research. D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 54
  56. 56. Research Opportunities • Explaining Machine Learning (classification, prediction, clustering, etc.) • www.distill.pub • Visualization & Interaction for Explainable ML • FAT: Fairness, Accountability, Transparency (https://fatconference.org/) D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 55
  57. 57. Research Opportunities • Effect of ML models on Social Issues – Filter Bubble/Echo Chambers – Does Facebook influenced the results of presidential elections ? D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile Facebook newsfeed recommendation model 6/7/18 56
  58. 58. Research Opportunities • New Millenium Institute for Foundational Research on Data (IMFD) – Lidera Profesor Marcelo Arenas, DCC PUC Chile – Investigadores de PUC, UChile, USM, UdeC – Áreas: Computación, Estadística, Matemáticas, Sociología, Ciencia Política, Comunicaciones (Periodismo) D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 57
  59. 59. References • Goodman, B., & Flaxman, S. (2016). EU regulations on algorithmic decision-making and a “right to explanation”. In ICML workshop on human interpretability in machine learning (WHI 2016), New York, NY. http://arxiv. org/abs/1606.08813 v1. • Edwards, L., & Veale, M. (2017). Slave to the Algorithm? Why a ‘Right to Explanation’ is Probably Not the Remedy You are Looking for. Duke Law & Technology Review. D.Parra ~ IMT PUCChile6/7/18 58
  60. 60. THANKS! dparra@ing.puc.cl

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