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Accounting for Real Estate
Transactions- GN (Rev 2012)
Dhruv SETH, Lucknow
B. Com, FCA, DISA (ICA)
ds@sethspro.com
Types of Accounting Issues
 Revenue Recognition
 Timing
 Extent of measurement
 Re-measurement
 Profit Recognition
 ...
AS-7 CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS
 Originally issued in 1983 as
“Accounting for Construction
Contracts”
 AS-7 was revised in 2...
AS-7 OLD NEW
 Both percentage of
completion method
and the completed
contract method
allowed
 Applies to
Contractors &
D...
Guidance Note
 Guidance Note GN(A) 23 on
recognition of revenue by Real Estate
Developers issued in 2006 by the
ICAI.
5
Guidance Note 2006 - Cont.
 Recommended recognition of Real
Estate Revenue when ALL of the
following conditions are satis...
Guidance Note (Revised 2012)
by ICAI
 Revised Guidance Note on Accounting
for Real Estate Transactions in Feb
2012. (GN 2...
Scope of Revised GN 2012
 Covers ALL forms of transactions in Real
Estate. Illustrative List: -
 Sale of Plots of Land w...
Scope- Exception
 Transactions which are in substance
similar to delivery of goods – Principal
of Revenue Recognition in ...
Applicability From
 All Projects which are commenced on
or after 1st April 2012. AND also
 Which were commenced before 1...
Definition- “Project”
 Project is the smallest group of
units/plots/saleable spaces which are
linked with a common set of...
Project Costs- Comprises
 Cost of Land+ development rights
(including rehabilitation cost etc.)
 Borrowing Cost in terms...
Cost NOT part of Construction
Cost- If material
 General administration costs;
 selling costs;
 research and developmen...
Project Revenue- Includes
 Sale of plots, undivided share in land,
 sale of finished and semi-finished
structures,
 con...
Application of % Completion
Method (PCM)
 Where economic substance is similar to
construction contracts
 Indicators-
 M...
PCM applied when
 When outcome can be estimated
reliably AND when ALL of the
following conditions are satisfied
 total p...
Contd.
 the project costs to complete the
project and the stage of project
completion at the reporting date can
be measur...
Rebuttable presumption
 That outcome of a project can be
estimated reliably and revenue should
be recognised under PCM on...
(a)
 All critical approval necessary for
commencement obtained. These
include
1.Environmental clearances
2.Plan approvals...
(b)
 Completion reaches a reasonable level- is
achieved if expenditure incurred on
construction & development cost is mor...
(c)
 At least 25% of the Saleable project
area is secured by contracts or
agreements with buyers
 Which are legally enfo...
(d)
 Min 10 % of the total revenue as per
the agreements of sale are realised in
respect of each contract and it is
reaso...
If outcome can be estimated
reliably
 Revenue & project costs of the
project should be recognised as
revenue and expenses...
Computation of Revenue
 For computation of revenue the stage
of completion is arrived at with
reference to the entire pro...
Computation of Revenue- Stage
of Computation
 Preferred method- is with reference to
project costs
 Does not prohibit ot...
The Recognition of Revenue Not
to exceed
 At any point the estimated total
revenues from 'eligible contracts’ /
other leg...
If Probable Cost > Eligible
Revenue
 When it is probable that total project
costs will exceed total eligible project
reve...
PCM applied on
 Cumulative basis in each reporting
period
 Change in estimate is accounted for as
change in accounting e...
Sale of Plots
 Without Developments
 To be recognised when conditions of
Para 4.2 met
 Sale of Developed Plots
 Where ...
Transactions with Multiple
Elements
 Development + e.g. property management
services, sale of decorative fittings (exclud...
Disclosure
 The amount of project revenue
recognised
 The methods used to determine the
project revenue recognised in th...
Disclose also- for projects in
progress
 the aggregate amount of costs
incurred and profits recognised (less
recognised l...
Sample Note in Notes to
Accounts
Revenue from Projects is recognized on the
“Percentage of Completion Method’ of
accountin...
Accounting System
 “For that purpose it was the duty of the
Income-tax Officer to find out that profit the
business has m...
Virtual Soft Systems Ltd 18
Taxman 119 (Del)
Accounting for lease rentals was based on the
Guidance Note “Accounting for L...
TAS and Change in Policy
 TAS- The method of valuation of
inventory shall not be changed
without a reasonable cause
 Sno...
TAS & Anticipated Losses
 TAS- Future & anticipated losses shall
not be allowed unless actually incurred
 Shiv Shanti Pu...
Grey Areas
 New Complex structuring of
Transactions combined with financing
 No clarification where developers
takes lan...
Have a good day
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Real estate guidance note 2012 (drti)

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Real estate guidance note 2012 (drti)

  1. 1. Accounting for Real Estate Transactions- GN (Rev 2012) Dhruv SETH, Lucknow B. Com, FCA, DISA (ICA) ds@sethspro.com
  2. 2. Types of Accounting Issues  Revenue Recognition  Timing  Extent of measurement  Re-measurement  Profit Recognition  Unbundling revenues and profits  Accounting of Finance Cost  Continuing Involvement 2
  3. 3. AS-7 CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS  Originally issued in 1983 as “Accounting for Construction Contracts”  AS-7 was revised in 2002 which was applicable for accounting period commencing on or after 1.4.2003 3
  4. 4. AS-7 OLD NEW  Both percentage of completion method and the completed contract method allowed  Applies to Contractors & DeveloperBuilders  Only percentage of completion method allowed  Applies to Contractors only 4
  5. 5. Guidance Note  Guidance Note GN(A) 23 on recognition of revenue by Real Estate Developers issued in 2006 by the ICAI. 5
  6. 6. Guidance Note 2006 - Cont.  Recommended recognition of Real Estate Revenue when ALL of the following conditions are satisfied  When All significant risk and rewards of ownership have been transferred and the seller retains no effective control of real estate to a degree usually associated with ownership  Certainty of Consideration exists  Certainty of collection 6
  7. 7. Guidance Note (Revised 2012) by ICAI  Revised Guidance Note on Accounting for Real Estate Transactions in Feb 2012. (GN 2006 was “Recognition of Revenue”)  “to recommend the accounting treatment by enterprises dealing in 'Real Estate’ as sellers or developers”  ‘real estate’ refers to land as well as buildings and rights in relation thereto. 7
  8. 8. Scope of Revised GN 2012  Covers ALL forms of transactions in Real Estate. Illustrative List: -  Sale of Plots of Land with OR without Development  Development and sale of Residential and commercial units with or without undivided share in land.  Acquisition, Utilisation and Transfer of Development Rights.  Redevelopment of existing Building  Joint Development Agreements 8
  9. 9. Scope- Exception  Transactions which are in substance similar to delivery of goods – Principal of Revenue Recognition in AS9 to apply.  Transactions in Real Estate covered by AS 10 (Fixed Assets), AS 12 (Government Grants), AS 19 (Leases) and AS 26 (Intangible Assets) 9
  10. 10. Applicability From  All Projects which are commenced on or after 1st April 2012. AND also  Which were commenced before 1st April 2012 but the revenue is being recognised for the first time on or after 1st April 2012  Can be applied from earlier date- IF applied on all transactions 10
  11. 11. Definition- “Project”  Project is the smallest group of units/plots/saleable spaces which are linked with a common set of amenities in such a manner that unless the common amenities are made available and functional, these units /plots / saleable spaces cannot be put to their intended effective use. 11
  12. 12. Project Costs- Comprises  Cost of Land+ development rights (including rehabilitation cost etc.)  Borrowing Cost in terms of AS 16  Construction & Development Cost (Includes- Direct Costs and That may be attributable in general and can be allocated to the project and also estimated cost of rectification, guarantee and expected warranty cost) 12
  13. 13. Cost NOT part of Construction Cost- If material  General administration costs;  selling costs;  research and development costs;  depreciation of idle plant and equipment;  cost of unconsumed or uninstalled material delivered at site; and  payments made to sub-contractors in advance of work performed 13
  14. 14. Project Revenue- Includes  Sale of plots, undivided share in land,  sale of finished and semi-finished structures,  consideration for construction,  for amenities and interiors,  for parking spaces and sale of development rights. 14
  15. 15. Application of % Completion Method (PCM)  Where economic substance is similar to construction contracts  Indicators-  Multiple Accounting periods involved  Features common to construction contracts  Individual units to be delivered to different buyers these are interdependent upon or interrelated to completion of a number of common activities 15
  16. 16. PCM applied when  When outcome can be estimated reliably AND when ALL of the following conditions are satisfied  total project revenues can be estimated reliably;  probable that economic benefits will flow to the enterprise; Contd. 16
  17. 17. Contd.  the project costs to complete the project and the stage of project completion at the reporting date can be measured reliably; and  the project costs attributable to the project can be clearly identified and measured reliably so that actual project costs incurred can be compared with prior estimates 17
  18. 18. Rebuttable presumption  That outcome of a project can be estimated reliably and revenue should be recognised under PCM only when the following (a) to (d) are completed 18
  19. 19. (a)  All critical approval necessary for commencement obtained. These include 1.Environmental clearances 2.Plan approvals 3.Title of land and other rights of development 4.Change in Land Use 19
  20. 20. (b)  Completion reaches a reasonable level- is achieved if expenditure incurred on construction & development cost is more than 25% of construction and development cost in terms of Para 2.2(c) read with 2.3 to 2.5  i.e. Project Cost LESS:  Cost of Land & cost of development rights etc.  Borrowing Cost 20
  21. 21. (c)  At least 25% of the Saleable project area is secured by contracts or agreements with buyers  Which are legally enforceable 21
  22. 22. (d)  Min 10 % of the total revenue as per the agreements of sale are realised in respect of each contract and it is reasonable to expect that parties will comply with payment terms. 22
  23. 23. If outcome can be estimated reliably  Revenue & project costs of the project should be recognised as revenue and expenses by reference to the stage of completion of the project activity at the reporting date. 23
  24. 24. Computation of Revenue  For computation of revenue the stage of completion is arrived at with reference to the entire project costs incurred including land costs, borrowing costs and construction and development costs as defined in paragraph 2.2. Contd. 24
  25. 25. Computation of Revenue- Stage of Computation  Preferred method- is with reference to project costs  Does not prohibit other methods, e.g., surveys of work done, technical estimation, etc.  However, revenue with reference to other methods of determination of stage of completion should not, exceed the revenue computed with reference to the 'project costs incurred‘ method. 25
  26. 26. The Recognition of Revenue Not to exceed  At any point the estimated total revenues from 'eligible contracts’ / other legally enforceable  'Eligible contracts’ means contracts / agreements where at least 10% of the contracted amounts have been realised and there are no outstanding defaults of the payment terms in such contracts. 26
  27. 27. If Probable Cost > Eligible Revenue  When it is probable that total project costs will exceed total eligible project revenues, the expected loss should be recognised as an expense immediately.  The amount of such a loss is determined irrespective of:  (a) commencement of project work; or  (b) the stage of completion of project activity. 27
  28. 28. PCM applied on  Cumulative basis in each reporting period  Change in estimate is accounted for as change in accounting estimates.  include changes arising out of cancellation of contracts.  Where subsequently earmarked for own use or for rental purposes. Revenue recognised to be reversed & cost to be accounted for as per AS 10 28
  29. 29. Sale of Plots  Without Developments  To be recognised when conditions of Para 4.2 met  Sale of Developed Plots  Where the development activity is significant the percentage completion method is used to account for such sales. 29
  30. 30. Transactions with Multiple Elements  Development + e.g. property management services, sale of decorative fittings (excluding fittings which are an integral part of the unit), rental in lieu of unoccupied premises, etc.].  The consideration should be split into separately identifiable components  The consideration for the contract should be allocated to each component on the basis of the fair market value of each component 30
  31. 31. Disclosure  The amount of project revenue recognised  The methods used to determine the project revenue recognised in the reporting period; and  The method used to determine the stage of completion of the project. 31
  32. 32. Disclose also- for projects in progress  the aggregate amount of costs incurred and profits recognised (less recognised losses) to date;  the amount of advances received;  the amount of work in progress and the value of inventories; and  Excess of revenue recognised over actual bills raised (unbilled revenue) 32
  33. 33. Sample Note in Notes to Accounts Revenue from Projects is recognized on the “Percentage of Completion Method’ of accounting. Revenue is recognized, in relation to the sold areas only, on the basis of percentage of actual cost incurred thereon including land as against the total estimated cost of the project under execution subject to such actual costs being 25% or more of the total estimated cost. The estimates of saleable area and costs are revised periodically by the management. The effect of such changes to estimates is recognized in the period such changes are determined. 33
  34. 34. Accounting System  “For that purpose it was the duty of the Income-tax Officer to find out that profit the business has made according to the true accountancy practices “  P.M. Mohd 73 ITR 735 (SC) & 98 ITR 167 Challapalli (SC) 34
  35. 35. Virtual Soft Systems Ltd 18 Taxman 119 (Del) Accounting for lease rentals was based on the Guidance Note “Accounting for Leases” issued by the ICAI, the AO was not entitled to disregard the same. The Guidance Note reflects the best practices adopted by accountants the world over and the fact that it was not mandatory is irrelevant. The change by the assessee in the policy of accounting for leases had the imprimatur of the ICAI and so the AO was not entitled to disregard the books of accounts or the method of accounting for leases; Followed Woodward Governor India P Ltd. 294 ITR 451 (Delhi) and Dai Lchi karkaria Ltd 156 CTR 172 (SC) 35
  36. 36. TAS and Change in Policy  TAS- The method of valuation of inventory shall not be changed without a reasonable cause  Snow-white food products 141 ITR 847- can be changed if intended to be followed regularly in future  CIT v Mopeds India 173 ITR 347- can be changed for bonafide purposes 36
  37. 37. TAS & Anticipated Losses  TAS- Future & anticipated losses shall not be allowed unless actually incurred  Shiv Shanti Punavasan Prakalp 135 ITD 51 (Mum)- Entire anticipated losses can not be allowed. Only proportionate to work completed can be allowed.  Allowed in CIT v Triveni Engg 196 Taxman 94 and Jacobs Engg 14 Taxmann.com 186 (Mum) 37
  38. 38. Grey Areas  New Complex structuring of Transactions combined with financing  No clarification where developers takes land and gives the owner constructed space in the project.  Volatility in earnings.  Rule based regarding threshold of applicability of 25%- can be abused 38
  39. 39. Have a good day 39

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