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SlideShare utilise les cookies pour améliorer les fonctionnalités et les performances, et également pour vous montrer des publicités pertinentes. Si vous continuez à naviguer sur ce site, vous acceptez l’utilisation de cookies. Consultez notre Politique de confidentialité et nos Conditions d’utilisation pour en savoir plus.
Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye), known officiallyas the Republic of Turkey is a Eurasian countrylocated in Western Asia and in EastThrace in Southeastern Europe. Turkey isbordered by eight countries: Bulgaria to thenorthwest; Greece to the west; Georgia to thenortheast; Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran to theeast; and Iraq and Syria to the southeast.
The Mediterranean Sea and Cyprus are tothe south; the Aegean Sea is to the west; andthe Black Sea is to the north. The Sea ofMarmara, the Bosphorus andthe Dardanelles (which together formthe Turkish Straits) demarcate the boundarybetween East Thrace and Anatolia; they alsoseparate Europe and Asia. Turkey is one of the six independent Turkicstates. The vast majority of the population areMuslims. The countrys official language isTurkish.
Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary,constitutional republic with an ancientcultural heritage. Turkey has becomeincreasingly integrated with the West throughmembership in organisations such asthe Council of Europe, NATO, OECD, OSCE andthe G-20 major economies. Turkey began fullmembership negotiations with the EuropeanUnion in 2005, having been an associatemember of the European EconomicCommunity since 1963 and having joinedthe EU Customs Union in 1995.
Wedding CustomsBefore the wedding I. Matchmaking and asking for the hand of a daughter II. a. Verbal agreement to betrothal b. Sherbet c. Engagement III. Koran-accompanied wedding gift announcement IV. Sending and exhibiting the trousseau V. Bridal bath
Wedding I. Henna night a. Bride henna b. Groom henna II. Receiving the bride III. Marriage IV. Bridal Chamber V. After the Bridal Chamber
Military Service and Leaving Home The beginning and end of military service,which Turkish society in general attaches such agreat importance, like the other majorlandmarks in life, marked with ceremonies.There are regional differences in the ceremoniesfor sending someone off and welcoming himback.
BeliefsGood Luck- Bad Luck Many of them have no scientific basis and are not linked to any particular religious faith. Although they often appear illogical or unreasonable, they are still an integral part of peoples’ hearts, brains and minds.
Popular Beliefs Related to Spirits, Graveyards, Holy Tombs and Visits:- It is considered bad luck to break a mirror.- If a child constantly cries, it is believed that someone will die in that house.- The howling of a dog is considered a sign of approaching death.- If a cat jumps over a dead body before it is taken out of the house, it is believed that the body will become a fearsome ghost.
Popular Beliefs Related to Animals:- A snake in a house, guards it.- When a wolf howls, the weather will be very cold, or there will be snow.- A black cat passing in front of a person and the hooting of an owl are both considered bad luck.- It is good to see scorpions in one’s dreams.
Evil Eye and Amulets Used for the Evil Eye People who suffer from the evil eye, its effects and characteristics, the act of being stricken by the evil eye, the evil eye and amulets used for protection against it for goods, property and animals, measures taken against the evil eye, talismans such as the muska (a necklace containing hidden prayers) used against evil eye, practices such as pouring lead, turning salt and making incense.
Fortune Telling Traditional popular practices such asfortune telling and fortune tellers, the reasonswhy people go to fortune tellers, differentkinds of fortune telling such as using coffee, tea, tarot cards, playing cards etc., materials used in fortune telling, interpretation of events, interpretation of dreams,“istihare” (making a wish before sleeping)
and its different varieties, practices carried outbefore “istihare,” making contact withsupernatural beings, necromancy, mediums,reading others’ thoughts, influencinganother’s faith, destiny and luck, and makingwishes.
Vows "If my wish comes true, I will sacrifice ananimal”. There are also other vows for thegood of a person or a group, such as lightingcandles. Vows may be aimed at an animal orobject as well as behavior or a change inattitudes. Fasting is one example. Places nearrocks, trees, water and the graves of holyfigures may be used for votive offerings.
Prayers for Rain A number of religious and traditional practicesare particularly to be found on mountains, high hillsor near the graves of holy figures, either toencourage rain or stop heavy rain which may causefloods. Prayers for sufficient rainfall may also beoffered.
FOLK CULTURESNevruz Nevruz, a combination of Persian words Nev (New) and Ruz (Day), means the new day and it is celebrated as New Years day by Turks living in Central Asia, by Anatolian Turks and Persians. It is March 22nd according to the western and March 9th according to the moslem calendars, when the day and night are equal.
Hıdırellez Arrival of Spring or Summerwhich means revival of Natureand its starting to live again isan important event in the lifeof human being in every cornerof the World. A widespreadbelief in connection withtradition of “Hıdırellez” isperformance of a celebrationfor commemoration of thedate on which “Hızır” and“İlyas” came together. The dayof “Hıdırellez” has beengenerally celebrated on May6th.
• Death Traditions and Graveyards• Beliefs, Traditions, Places to Visit• Wedding Tradition• Local Theatres• Turkish World• Folk Medicaments
• Common Usage, Custom, Tradition and Convention• Local Calendar• Local Meteorology• Folk Literature• Superstitions• Village Shows• Karagöz• Puppet Theater• Ortaoyunu• Meddah (Public story teller and mimic)
Places, Dancers, Preparations and Reasons for the Performance of Folk Dances Folk dances are performed atweddings, engagement ceremonies,when sending young men off toperform their military service, atnational and religious festivals, aftervictories, going to and coming backfrom from the high plateaus and atmeetings such as ferfene, yarentalks, barana or sira gezmesi.
Dances are generallyperformed in all suitableopen areas, but mayalso be performed inclose areas as well.
People who enjoyreputations as goodfolk dancers areespecially invited towedding ceremonies.These are respectablepeople who haveknowledge of thatregion’s music and folkdances. Folk dancesowe their rich varietyof moves to suchpeople,
who happily improvise while performing inorder to show off their skills. In this way,dances are successfully passed on to peoplewho may or may not be capable of dancingthemselves, especially the young ones.
Turkish Music Culture Turkey’s culturalfabric is made up of arich combination ofdiverse cultures rooteddeeply in history. Byvirtue of its geographicalposition, Turkey lies atthe axis of the culturesof the East, the West,the Middle Eastern, theMediterranean andIslam.
Anatolia is one of theworld’s oldest humanhabitats – hosts ofcivilizations have called ithome – and it enjoys aunique cultural richnesswith its thousands ofyears of history.Anatolia’s cultural variety is so rich that we cansee great cultural differences even in areasgeographically quite close to each other.
This colorful portrait holds just as true for Turkey’s music. We can categorize the types of music heard through the years of Anatolia’s long history into three groups:• Traditional/Local Music• Modern Turkish Classical Music• Popular Music• Other Music Examples
Romany Folk Culture Photography Exhibition• There were 52 black and white photographs in the exhibition, which was open to the public from 29th September to 6th October, 2000. Bride ( Edirne )
Drummer and Zurna Player Groom ( Edirne ) ( Sakarya )
Romany Entertainment Clarinet Player ( Edirne ) ( Sakarya )
Basket-making Romany Girls Dancing ( Edirne ) ( Edirne )
THE OTTOMAN CUISINE The Turkish tribes that once took the longtrek from Asia to Anatolia had carried withmuch success this rich culture which stemmedfrom the Far and which they had enrichedwith the materials gathered from everycountry along their pathway to their newhomeland cradling so many civilisations. It wasquite logical that the culinary culture wouldreceive its right place in this process.
The task in their new homeland wascommunicated to the newcomers with thesacrosanct order of “feed the hungry, cloth thepoor, rebuild the ruins and increase thepopulation”. Thus have evolved, developed andacquired renown the Ottoman culture. There were a lot of elements to develop thisflexible cultural acquis in the new homeland: Thecountry was first of all encircled by three seas:Black Sea, Aegean Sea and Mediterranean andthe two straits (İstanbul strait and Dardanelles)connecting
them were offering their unmatched fertilityto the squatters while the Anatolia, with thebenefit of living all four seasons at the sametime was providing fresh vegetables and fruitsto the entire country that had the luxury of aspringtime in the West, summer in the Southand a mild autumn along the Black Sea coast.
Traditional TheatreKARAGÖZ This is a shadow play based on the movements of representations of people, animals or objects called “tasvir” made of water buffalo or camel skin with the help of sticks against a curtain with s strong source of light behind it. The play takes name from its main character, Karagöz.
Southeast Asia is considered to be the origin ofshadow theatre. There are different opinions as to itsexistence in Turkey. According to one view, the “korkolcak” and “ cadir” games of Central Asia were in factexamples of shadow theatre and came to Anatolia bymeans of migration. Another opinion holds that SultanYavuz Selim brought shadow theatre artists to Turkeywhen he captured Egypt in 1517. Karagöz, which took its final shape in the 18thcentury, was always one of the most popular forms ofentertainment. Karagöz shows are performed by onesingle artists. Movements of the models on the curtain,their voices, different accents and mimicry are allcarried out by a single person.
PUPPET Puppets, meaning “baby” in Turkish, areone of the oldest forms of entertainment, andhave been found in Anatolia under differentnames such as korcak, kudurcuk, kaburcuk,kogurcak, kaurcak, lubet etc. Puppet shows“Korkolcak” and “Cadir Hayal” (puppet withropes) are also known by the same names inCentral Asia, which is therefore believed to bethe origin of the whole tradition.
Puppet shows can be seen in many Turkishcommunities, and have their own basictechniques. They have been performed inTurkish cities since the 17th century, and aregenerally known as “bebek, cömce, gelin orkaracor” in villages. The puppet show a play ofmovement and considerable volume thattakes its topics from daily life and literarystories. It has been performed since the 14thcentury. The main characters of the play are“Ibis” and “the old man.” While Ibis is cunningand good at making quick replies, the old manis wise and wealthy.
MEDDAH Meddahlik (the art of the meddah) is theart of storytelling and mimicry. The curtain,stage, decoration and costumes are all foundin a single person, and it is therefore a one-man show. The meddah tells stories to audience whilesitting on a chair. His stories deal with eventsfrom daily life, folk tales, epics, stories andlegends.
VILLAGE PLAYS Village plays are ritual plays performed byvillagers on special days, festivals and weddingceremonies, and are aimed increasing abundanceand good health or else to welcome in the NewYear. These plays are performed either in openspaces or indoors on winter days. These playshave come down from ancient times, althoughthey have changed in the process, but the firstexamples were performed to give thanks to thegod and supernatural powers for abundance andprosperity in life.
These plays are based on myths and similar beliefsand contain the cultural essence of the people ofAnatolia, cultural elements brought in from CentralAsia and some other Islamic elements which enteredTurkish culture after conversion to Islam.Cemal Play: This is performed on the day of sowing orat the end of the harvest.Ram mating: This aims to control the reproductionseason of the animals, since their young are unable tosurvive or feed themselves in the winter months. Thisis one variety of seasonal festival.Face of Camel, Face of Sheep: Performed on the daywhen the unborn young grow their first hair inside thewombs of pregnant animals.
Traditional Sports The sports in this section are largelyvariations of wrestling (aba wrestling, greasewrestling), horse race, jereed, camel wrestling,bullfighting, cockfighting, hunting etc. Jereed was very popular all over Anatolia 50-60 years ago, although today it is only seen insome parts of the Kars- Erzurum region and in theAegean. The great interest felt by Turkish peoplein horse riding, and their considerable success atit, turned first into an entertainment and laterinto a sport. The jereed was a kind of a javelingame played either on horse or on foot, althoughtoday it appears as a cudgel.
The mounted variation is played with twoteams, each consisting of ten people. Ridersthrow the jereed while approaching eachother at the gallop. Avoiding the jereed, andparticularly catching it in mid-air, earns ascore. When or how to throw the jereed ispre-determined. The game is played by men,and generally performed at weddings, onspecial days or at fairs.
Examples for Traditional Sports• Bullfighting (Kafkasör)• Camel Wrestling• Kırkpınar Wrestling• The game of Jereed
CircumcisionThe tradition of circumcision is mainly separated into the following headings;- The best age and time for circumcision,- Preparations for the ceremony,- Preparing the child,- The circumcision procedure and the circumciser,- Gifts and presents.
Ramadan Bayram Ramadan is the Muslim holy month, theninth one in the Lunar year; it is moved 10days backwards every year. As it is the casewith all Muslims in the world. The very holy day is a strict obligation(farz) for every Muslim. Ramadan is theholiest month in Islam, when the Koran waspublished in year 610.
Congratulations on theholy day begin afterwards,firstly to the eldest (kissingthe hand). Younger peoplealways pay the visit toolder ones. There are traditional dishes for the festivity (Bairam meet, alanditi, and baklava). The celebration lasts for three days and visits are made all the time.
Sacrifice Bayram In sacrifice Bayram, the Muslims cut sheep,goat, cow, ox and camel. The meat of theseanimals are distributed to the poor people.Some people give money to some associationsinstead and it is done through them.Moreover, everybody exchanges bayramgreetings with each other.
Do’s and Don’t sMen Only If you are a woman, the only establishments that you need to be aware of are the Turkish tea houses. Culturally women do not go in there. Instead look for a Turkish tea garden where couples and families will go. If you are in any doubt, take a look at who else is there. Countless amounts of tables filled with men playing cards mean it is a no go area for females.
An Invitation To Their House Turkish people invite anybody and anyonearound to their house. It might just be forbreakfast or a formal evening meal.Remember to say Hos bulduk when enteringand they tell you that you are welcome. Shoesin the house are generally not allowed.Instead you will be given a pair of slippers.
Dressing In rural areas a modest type of dressing isrequired. It will be better if you wear knee-height shorts and t-shirts instead of toplesstanks.
Gift Giving Nobody will think that you are rude or something if you don’t. But bringing a gift to your host is one of the most applied Turkish customs. There are even a phrase for this; "Coming empty handed".What can you bring as a gift?• * A desert like baklava• * A box of chocolate• * Flowers (Cut or in a pot)
Meeting and Greeting• When meeting someone, shake hands firmly.• When departing shake hands again.• Friends and relatives greet each other with two kisses on the cheek. If you are not that close, you dont have to kiss someone.• Don’t be surprised if you see children kissing the hands of the elderly. It is the way to show respect.• When entering a room, if you are not automatically met by someone greet the most elderly first.• Always greet the people when you enter somewhere. Greeting; “Selam” is very important here.
So here are basic greetings in Turkish;• Hello = Merhaba (read as: mer-huh-bach),• Good morning = Günaydın (read as: ghew-ny- den),• Good evening = Iyi akşamlar (read as: e-yee akh-shum-lar, "lar" as in large) ,• Thank you = Teşekkürler (read as: ta-shaq- quer-lar, "lar" as in Larry).