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• What are the students’ needs, i.e.
What is the goal of the CLIL program?
• What should we teach?
• How should we teach it?
In fact: the 4Cs in CLIL:
• communication &
Communication & culture = language acquisition
= focus on content (history, geography …) taught through
the medium of a language which is not the mother tongue
i.e. adapting one’s language to the CONTEXT
S’s social status, his role in the exchange
H’s social status, his role in the exchange
the social distance between S & H
the situation of the utterance (time & place)
activity type, discourse type …
MAK Halliday – Functional grammar
S conveys meaning by every aspect of his utterance: pronunciation,
intonation, word choice, grammatical complexity …
Austin: Speech Acts
Grice: H – must make inferences
S & H negotiate meaning on a case-to-case basis
- clarify ambiguities, explain misunderstandings, ask for more info, …
Grice: Cooperative Principle
Austin: S performs language functions
the functional perspective to language teaching
- to ask for/offer (information), to apologize/praise, to
covering/concealing inadequacies (lack of vocabulary or
self-correction, reformulation (monitoring & repair)
catching H’s attention, interest, good will (humor, figurative
indirectness & politeness (to avoid hurting H’s feelings)
negotiating power positions (getting things done your way)
• thinking skills:
- to construct meaning
- to express thinking
• creative skills
• analytical skills
• evaluating skills
both CEFR & CLIL:
- self-, peer- and group-evaluation rather than testing
Situation (close to the learners’ life experience &
Authentic material (input & output texts)
You are … and you want to … Unfortunately, your …
1. Communicative tasks
In CLIL classes
travel in time & space
make research, consult bibliography
select & systematize the material
write the project (hard copy)
make a PowerPoint presentation …
Skills: creative, analytical & evaluating, i.e.
Instruction: Your teacher of English wants to take you and 9 of your
classmates on a 7-day trip to London. Help him/her to plan the trip.
Task 1: Find 3 ways to get to London. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of
each of them (e.g. price, duration, effort, …).
Task 2: Find 3 types of accommodation. Describe the advantages and disadvantages
of each of them (type, location, price, …).
Tasks 3: Download a map of London and pick 3 sites that you want to visit. Make a
short description of each site (50 words/each).
Tasks 4: Traveling around London: download maps of bus and underground routes
and describe briefly how you can get to a certain place from your residence.
Tasks 5: Get information about other tourist offers: hop-on-hop-off buses, the London
Pass, etc. List advantages and disadvantages for each.
Tasks 6: Entertainment: find information about 3 ways you might want to spend one
of your evenings, e.g. going to the theater (name, place, show, price, …), to a
restaurant/club (name, place, probable cost, …), ….
Tasks 7: You have always dreamed about visiting London, but accomplishing your
dreams will not be easy. Discuss your problems and find solutions to overcome them.
http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/cadre_en.asp, Relating Language
Examinations to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages:
Learning, Teaching, Assessment (CEFR), A Manual, Council of Europe,
Language Policy Division, Strasbourg, 2009
http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/cadre_en.asp, Common European
Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment. Case
Studies, Council of Europe Publishing F-67075 Strasbourg Cedex, 2002
Vizental Adriana, Metodica predării limbii engleze – Strategies of Teaching and
Testing English as a Foreign Language, Ediţia a IV-a revăzută şi adăugită,
Iaşi, Editura Polirom, Seria Collegium, 2014