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1Linguistics is a sciencePresented by :Khadija khadimZahid aslamNauman Qamar
2INTRODUCTION OF LINGUISTICThe word linguistic has been derived from latin word lingua(tongue) andistics ( knowledge and science).it is study not only of one particular language but of human languages ingeneral.It attempts to describe and analyze languages .
3Definition of linguisticsItis defined as,“The science of language or, alternatively , as the scientificstudy of language”.“Linguistics is a science which studies the origin, organizationand natural development of a language .It can formulatesgeneral rules and regulations of grammar”.
4Scientific approach of linguisticsLinguistic is discipline as scientific study of language so thereare some scientific and nonscientific way of doing things.Linguistics scientific approaches are as follows :ObjectivityEmpiricismRationalismExhaustivenessConsistencyEconomy
5ObjectivityObjectivity is that, “it considers all languages to be equal ”.For a linguist , there are no primitive ,pure, beautiful ,cultural and sophisticatedlanguagesObjectivity is difficult to attain because language is so familiar to us that we canhardly dissociate our selves from it.The objective study of language is hindered by various cultural ,social andhistorical misconception about certain languagesEmpiricismLinguistics is basically an empirical, not a speculative or intuitive, discipline in thsense that it examines the specific data (e.g. speech and writing), and proceedsby variables and justifiable .It relies on observation and experiments, and uses formalized principles and ththeory capable of formulation.It aims to analyze the data and make generalization about the regularitiesencountered in linguistics phenomenon under study.
6canons of scienceLinguistics obey following canons of scienceExhaustiveness:linguistics deals with all relevant data, i.e., it analyzes all the facts oflanguages that fall with in its scope and studies systematically everylinguistic element from all angles.ConsistencyIt allows no contradictory statements and requires that all parts of analysisbe consistent with the whole.EconomyRepetition is not allowed ether, and more economic statements containingfewer concepts or symbols are preferred.RationalismIt emphasize the role that mind plays in the acquisition of knowledge.
Scientific methodology in linguisticsAs we know that linguistics is scientific study of language. The approach andmethodology of linguistics is scientific. like a scientist a linguistic observes his data.Linguist uses by observing simple listening and phonetic transcriptions and usesvarious instruments like oscilograph, endoscope, laryngoscope etc.A linguist has his own language laboratory too. Like a scientist a linguist developshypothesis makes generalized statement in the favor of fact of language. When alinguist makes his statement about language he makes it on the basis of observation.First he observes linguistics events he finds some similarities and contrast on the basisof which he makes sounds.Like any scientific discipline linguistic too is not static. View points and theoreticalmethod in the field change even in fundamental ways from time to time.
7Scientific methodResearch is based on scientific method in any field of science. Itcomprises on following steps:ObservationHypothesisExperimentsResultsGeneralizationVerification of resultsTheory
8Principles of linguisticsThere are two principles that prove linguistics as scienceVerification principleReductionismVerification principleThe principle that no statement is meaningful unless it could by verified byobservation standard scientific methods applied to the data provided byobservation.ReductionismThe principle that, of the sciences, some one more basic than others and that inthe grand synthesis of unified science the concept and propositions of the lessbasic sciences were to be reduced.
10Relation of linguistics to natural and social sciencesFinally closeness of linguistics with other natural sciences like biology,physiology, anatomy, etc. it is another proof of its scientific natureLinguistics is getting more and more technical and sophisticated dayby day. Yet it is not a pure science its position is between the naturalscience and social sciences…….In case of natural science it is impossible to produce language withoutuse of internal and external structures of the human mouth…also theirphysiology is included in phonetics, so it is related to natural sciences.And in case of relation with social sciences, languages usually depictsthe behavioral aspects of a language, the values,social interactionswith different societies…
11Conclusion:By discussing the scientific and methodological approaches that are used inlinguistics along with certain principles and theories it is believed that linguisticsis a branch of science. Now a days it is progressing day by day and students oflinguistics are much more concerned about understanding the deep physiologyand method by which sounds are uttered instead of just uttering sound.Linguistics is now become vast subjects both technically and academically…