9,5 Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Gamification

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Video: http://goo.gl/oKMFm // Are points and badges mere indulgences for the faithful looking for redemption in loyalty programs? In nine (and a half) theses, this talk will walk you through the history, definition, and issues of “gamification,” and point out what is worth salvaging for designers and researchers.

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9,5 Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Gamification

  1. 9.5 Theseson the power and efficacyof gamificationSebastian Deterding (@dingstweets)Hans Bredow Institute for Media Research, Hamburg UniversityOctober 2012cb
  2. Education
  3. Sustainability
  4. Activism
  5. Life
  6. Everywhere
  7. points badges leaderboards incentivesTracking, Feedback Goals, surprise Competition Rewards The blueprint (still)
  8. success storiessensors & analytics practices & discoursesThe Enablers
  9. 1 Gamification is nothing new.
  10. »One purpose of this book is to exploreways in which even routine activities canbe transformed into personallymeaningful games that provide optimalexperiences.« Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi flow (1990: 51)
  11. Precursors and parallelsSerious Digital Alternate Reality/ LudificationGames Serious Games Pervasive Games of culture(1960+) (2001+) (2001+) (2006+) Precursors Repurposings UX Playfulness (1980+) (2001+) (2002+) (2005+) Hedonic attributes Ludic design Persuasive Tech (2002+) (2006+)
  12. Precursors
  13. User Experience
  14. Playfulness
  15. Ludic Design
  16. Persuasive Technology
  17. Serious Games
  18. Pervasive Games
  19. Alternate Reality Games
  20. Ludification of Culture
  21. 2 Gamification is the use of game design elements in non-game contexts.
  22. Gamification:The use ofgame design elementsin non-game contexts
  23. Gamification:The use ofgame design elementsin non-game contexts
  24. Paidia Ludus play game improvisation skill, effort exploration strategizing tumultuous ordered immoderate rule-boundRoger Cailloisman, play, and games (1958)
  25. Gaming PlayingGaming, not playing
  26. Systems ElementsElements, not whole systems
  27. Game-based Controllers, AI, 3Dtechnology engines, ...Game-based practices Serious GamingGame-based design GamificationGame Design Elements
  28. Non-Game Contexts
  29. Gaming (serious) games gamification ElementsSystem (serious) toys playful design Playing
  30. 3 Gamification is an inadvertent con.
  31. »Gamification is an inadvertent con. Ittricks people into believing that there’s asimple way to imbue their thing ... with thepsychological, emotional and social powerof a great game.« Margaret Robertson can’t play, won’t play (2009)
  32. si on fu 1Con #
  33. »Ninety percentof everything is crud.«Theodore Sturgeonsturgeon‘s revelation (1958)
  34. Con(fusion) #1Games are not fun becausethey are games, but whenthey are well-designed.
  35. si on fu 2Con #
  36. Score: 964,000,000,000,000 (You rock!)Earn 1,000,000,000,000 points
  37. Level: 1 (You rock!)Drop all loot!
  38. Score: 400 princesses (You rock!)Get princess!
  39. »Fun is just another word for learning.« Raph Koster a theory of fun for game design (2005)
  40. »Fun from games arises out of mastery. Itarises out of comprehension. It is the actof solving puzzles that makes games fun.With games, learning is the drug.« Raph Koster a theory of fun for game design (2005)
  41. Extrinsic motivation http://www.flickr.com/photos/diego_rivera/4261964210
  42. Intrinsic motivation http://www.flickr.com/photos/areyoumyrik/308908967
  43. »An understanding of human motivationrequires a consideration of innatepsychological needs for competence,autonomy, and relatedness.« Edward Deci, Richard Ryan the what and why of goal pursuit (2000)
  44. Con(fusion) #2The fun in playing gameschiefly arises fromintrinsic enjoyment, notextrinsic incentives.
  45. si on fu 3Con # http://www.flickr.com/photos/apartmentlife/6559123353/
  46. »Mowing the lawn or waiting in adentist’s office can become enjoyableprovided one restructures the activity byproviding goals, rules, and the otherelements of enjoyment to be reviewedbelow.« Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi flow (1990: 51)
  47. Con(fusion) #3»Gaminess« is not afeature you can add.
  48. 4 Motivational design is a promising proposition.
  49. How might we ...restructure a system to supportintrinsic enjoyment, usinggame design as a lens?
  50. Put differentlyIf this were a game –in what ways is it broken?
  51. Game Atoms model/skill goal action rule system success! / failure! challenge feedback immediate/progress
  52. Games in class > Class as game
  53. Games in school > School as game
  54. Games in Undergrad > You get the idea ...
  55. FeedbackAccuracy, speed, friendliness incomparison, w/ recommendationsGoalsDaily, weekly, monthly,annually w/ progressChallengeTraining, job rotation,job enrichmentReality Check
  56. http://www.flickr.com/photos/dpstyles/4141140976/sizes/o/in/faves-7834371@N04/
  57. 5 Gamification is thinking inside the box.
  58. Game The Box A designed artifact PlayingA frame of engagement
  59. »Even though we are involved in agame, we are not always playing …Even though we are playing, we arenot always involved in a game ...Playing a game is a special conditionof both play and games.« Bernie de Koven the well-played game (1978/2002: 7)
  60. debuggingplaytesting/reviewingpresenting gameplaymaking a machinimaa scientific studylearning (serious games)sports (e-sports)work (goldfarming)
  61. So ...What about thisframe called playing?
  62. »I need to be very routinized;I mustn’t let myself drift.«»I hammer it through.«»Often, you have to force yourself to do it.«»You’re under real pressure.«»It’s extremely exhausting.«»It wears you out.«»My friends usually cannot comprehend howstressful this is.«
  63. »Sometimes, you have toplay, you have to get further –and then, play is work.«
  64. e ntElem #1 »First and foremost, all play is a voluntary activity.« Johan Huizinga homo ludens (1938/1950: 7)
  65. »The key element of anoptimal experience is thatit is an end in itself.« Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi flow (1990: 67)
  66. »An understanding of human motivationrequires a consideration of innatepsychological needs for competence,autonomy, and relatedness.« Edward Deci, Richard Ryan the what and why of goal pursuits (2000)
  67. Fun VoluntaryVoluntary Fun
  68. e ntElem#2 A vs. Quality …safe space and Variety
  69. »Psychosocial moratorium principle:Learners can take risks in a spacewhere real-world consequences arelowered.« James Paul Gee what video games have to teach us... (2003: 67)
  70. e ntElem # 3 Attunement http://www.flickr.com/photos/wondermonkey2k/6188527275
  71. »When mother and child have funtogether, … they are establishing ... theconvention that they take precedenceover the fun. When the child cries, themother stops having fun.« Bernie de Koven the well-played game (1978: 18)
  72. http://www.flickr.com/photos/iboy/5709372593
  73. http://www.flickr.com/photos/iboy/5709372593
  74. »It is the nature of a fun community to caremore about the players than about thegame. ... We are having fun. We are caring.We are safe with each other. This is whatwe want.« Bernie de Koven the well-played game (1978: 19-20)
  75. e nt em 4El # Shared focus & attitude of exploring ... http://www.flickr.com/photos/docentjoyce/3138887652
  76. … mastery, ... http://www.flickr.com/photos/paulgorman/1392988135
  77. … benign transgression, ...
  78. … and most importantly, fun http://www.flickr.com/photos/bixentro/540642579
  79. e ntElem#5 I won‘t let you fall. I‘ll know and say when it‘s too much. Trust http://www.flickr.com/photos/lucianvenutian/439410200
  80. »An understanding of human motivationrequires a consideration of innatepsychological needs for competence,autonomy, and relatedness.« Edward Deci, Richard Ryan the what and why of goal pursuits (2000)
  81. er ng 1da # Rewarded or mandatory games ... http://albanyny.bitsbytesbots.com/after-school-enrichment
  82. … curbs autonomy through control
  83. … detrains autonomous regulation http://www.flickr.com/photos/courosa/4955407599/sizes/l/in/photostream/
  84. er ng 2da # the rule of irrelevance
  85. Framing as strategic instrumental action http://www.rasmusen.org/x/images/pd.jpg
  86. … crowds out communal ethics, ...
  87. »It is through a community of peoplewho care more about fun than winningthat the Well-Played game happens.« Bernie de Koven the well-played game (1978: 5)
  88. … fixates thinking inside the system and ... http://www.rasmusen.org/x/images/pd.jpg
  89. … encourages gaming the system http://www.flickr.com/photos/5tein/2347819903
  90. In short: a ludic mindset Paidia Ludus play game improvisation skill, effort exploration strategizing tumultuous ordered immoderate rule-bound Roger Caillois man, play, and games (1958)
  91. er ng 3da # Utopia lost in amusement
  92. »The unreality of games givesnotice that reality is not yetreal. Unconsciously theyrehearse the right life.« Theodor W. Adorno minima moralia (1951)
  93. »Simply because the child deprives thethings with which he plays of theirmediated usefulness, he seeks to rescuein them what is benign towards men andnot what subserves the exchange relationthat equally deforms men and things.« Theodor W. Adorno minima moralia (1951)
  94. a thing enjoyed for its own sakeis a moment of life well-lived
  95. »Amusement is the extension ofwork in late capitalism. It is soughtout by him who wants to escapethe mechanised process of workonly to become fit for it anew.« Theodor W. Adorno dialectics of enlightenment (1969)
  96. 6 Playful reframing is a promising proposition.
  97. Play
  98. What we usually designhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/mrlerone/405730185/sizes/o/
  99. Who decides whether this is play (or playing is allowed)
  100. ip le nc 1 ri #P Support autonomy http://ascottallison.files.wordpress.com/2009/12/p1030286.jpg
  101. ip le nc 2 ri # P Create a safe spacehttp://www.flickr.com/photos/charamelody/4613804703
  102. ip le nc 3 ri #P Metacommunicate: »This is play!«
  103. Make a bow http://www.flickr.com/photos/mccun934/3604759449 http://www.flickr.com/photos/amrufm/2593920251/sizes/z/in/photostream/
  104. Disrupt standing frames
  105. Use cues and associations http://www.flickr.com/photos/webatelier/5929298899
  106. ip le nc 4 ri #P … vs. Quality and Variety Model attitude and behaviors
  107. ip le nc 5 ri #P Offer generative tools/toys
  108. Small pieces, loosely joined
  109. »So when designing toolsfor play, underspecify!« Kars Alfrink a playful stance (2008)
  110. (Obligatory Minecraft slide)
  111. FarmVille
  112. MySpace!
  113. ip le nc 6 ri #P Provide invitations http://www.flickr.com/photos/purplemattfish/3205907410/sizes/o/in/photostream/
  114. AutonomyChoice in goals & strategies,concordant w/ values & needsSafe spaceCulture of trust, forgiveness,mutual care, zero blameShared attitudeLived focus on exploring, mastery,benign transgression, shared joyGenerative tools/toysInviting openings for explorationand redesign
  115. 7 Gamification is materializing morality.
  116. ue iss#1 Evil mind control?
  117. »If you use the power of games to givepeople an opportunity to do somethingthey want to do, then you’re doing good. Ifyou’re using the power of games to getpeople to do something you want them todo, then you’re doing evil.« Jane McGonigal digital ethics symposium (2011)
  118. Technologies of power
  119. Get your friends to shop more
  120. Technologies of the self
  121. Help me meditate
  122. … are technologies of control
  123. Regularthe game.at the gym.Get outin exercize associate employees.Not drinking too MoveMoremoreHappier.Fitter. with your much. on.Stay productive.
  124. Stay in the game. Move on.
  125. ue iss#2 Implicit values, virtues, normality
  126. »Products ... are vividarguments about how weshould lead our lives.« Richard Buchanan design and the new rhetoric (2001) http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/philosophy_and_rhetoric/v034/34.3buchanan.html
  127. The Good Life http://www.flickr.com/photos/amanky/1722371602
  128. Compare. Compete. Be on top.
  129. What vision ofThe Good Lifedo your designs convey?
  130. ue iss#3 “Extended willpower” Implicit theory of social change
  131. When discipline is reinforced, revolution cannot fail!
  132. »Commentators blithely assure us that it is ‘all aboutwho wants it the most’, as though sporting podiumsare arranged exactly according to the amount ofwillpower that went into the struggle. Bronze:considerable self-belief; silver: still stronger self-belief;gold: self-belief on an epic scale. … Our own age hasindulged a pseudoscientific cult of willpower: thedeification of determination.« Ed Smith the voodoo cult of positive thinking (2012) http://www.newstatesman.com/culture/books/2012/09/voodoo-cult-positive-thinking
  133. http://www.guardian.co.uk/sustainable-business/small-painless-behaviour-change
  134. What theory ofsocial changedo your designs convey?
  135. 8 Gamification is worth researching.
  136. ic op 1T # Motivational Design Marrying the psychology of motivation with the practice of design.
  137. The Gameful Classroom
  138. ic op 2T # Rule Design Studies The holistic study and design of rule systems.
  139. Law Sociology Governance Social order Public Policy Institutionalization Interpretation Scripts (STS) computer Economics scienceGame Theory AlgorithmsIncentives Modeling, abstraction,Business processes Game Studies automation, simulation Design Dynamics & Aesthetics Semiotics
  140. ic op 3T # Playing Studies Understanding and designing for playful and gameful reframing.
  141. Are you “playing” or “using” it?
  142. Mandatory or optional?
  143. How to counteract a gaming mindset? http://www.flickr.com/photos/5tein/2347819903
  144. 9 “Gamification” is a terrible word to use.
  145. ue ss 1I # »Gamification is bullshit.« Ian Bogost gamification is bullshit (2011) http://www.gamasutra.com/view/feature/4294/persuasive_games_shell_games.php
  146. »This is why gamification is such aneffective term. It keeps the term game andputs it right up in front, drawing attentionto the form’s mysterious power. But thekicker comes at the end: the -ify suffixmakes applying that medium to any givenpurpose seem facile and automatic.« Ian Bogost exploitationware (2010)
  147. ue ss 2I # What is a “game element”?** Most game definitions have multiple necessary conditions
  148. Game Atoms model/skill goal action rule system success! / failure! challenge feedback immediate/progress
  149. Rules Avatars not game-specific Quantitative feedback Goals Story gamification Notifications Comments not game-related AnalyticsRedeemable rewards Commitment
  150. ue ss 3I # Encourgaing “add-on” thinking
  151. Remember “Playfulness”?
  152. Gamefulness!
  153. Paidia Ludus play game improvisation skill, effort tumultuous ordered immoderate rule-boundRoger Cailloisman, play, and games (1958)
  154. Gaming (serious) games gamification Gameful DesignSystem/Artefact Quality/mode Elements (serious) toys playful design Playing
  155. 1 Gamification is nothing new.2 Gamification is the use of game design elements in non-game contexts.3 Gamification is an inadvertent con.4 Motivational design is a promising proposition.5 Gamification is thinking inside the box.6 Playful reframing is a promising proposition.7 Gamification is materializing morality.8 Gamification is worth researching9 »Gamification« is a terrible word to use.
  156. 9.5 Ceterum Censeo You should all read The Well-Played Game
  157. »Inscribed in gold in our flag is themotto If you can’t play it, change it,and woven into our banner are thewords If it helps, cheat.« Bernie de Koven the well-played game (1978/2002)
  158. Thank You. @dingstweets sebastian@codingconduct.cc codingconduct.cc