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The Yellow Papers Series




The
Power of
Six Degrees
Changing the way we think about communication
The Power of Six Degrees The Yellow Paper Series                                                      2




                                                            Introduction

                                                            These days, a lot of people talk about
                                                            360 degree solutions. Everyone’s
                                                            doing it. Trying to surround consumers
                                                            with advertising. Using every channel
                                                            and touchpoint.

                                                            Following people wherever they go.
                                                            Bombarding their ‘target audience’
                                                            with intrusive messages at every turn.
                                                            But the truth is, it just isn’t working any
                                                            longer.

                                                            For one thing, it’s incredibly expensive.

                                                            And, for another, intrusive messages
                                                            can be pretty irritating after a while.

                                                            According to Synovate’s global
                                                            study on media and advertising from
                                                            November 2009, ad avoidance is
                                                            increasing. 87% have actively tried
                                                            to avoid ads on TV or radio. 50% of
                                                            respondents in Hong Kong and Taiwan
                                                            say there are too many ads on cell
                                                            phones. 67% actively take measures
                                                            to avoid websites with intrusive
                                                            advertising.

                                                            Clearly 360 degrees isn’t the marketing
                                                            cure-all some people claim. So we
                                                            have a different idea.

                                                            Instead of 360 degrees, how about
                                                            six degrees?




                                                   Clearly 360 degrees
                                                   isn’t the marketing
                                                   cure-all some people
                                                   claim.
The Power of Six Degrees The Yellow Paper Series                                                                                                      3




                                              Lucy Jameson is the Executive Strategy Director at DDB London. She is responsible for turning the
                                              30 or so planners working at the ‘home of planning’ into one collective planning brain. Additionally,
                                              she is co-chair of DDB Worldwide’s Planning Futures Group.




                                              What is six degrees?
                                              You remember the old urban myth about Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon. The
                                              idea that everyone in Hollywood could be connected to the actor Kevin Bacon
                                              in six steps or less. It helped to spawn a whole new field of science. Network
                                              science. Scientists discovered that nature has a hidden blueprint. A structure
                                              that connects us all. Every network has its hubs and connectors.

                                              The scientists believe the six degrees finding has the potential to change the
                                              way we fight terrorism, predict pandemics and combat the spread of disease.
                                              And, more importantly of course, we believe it can also change the way we
                                              approach advertising.

                                              If everybody really is connected to everyone else, they can help spread our
                                              message for us. All we need to do is create something compelling, involving and
                                              valuable enough for people to want to pass on.
The Power of Six Degrees The Yellow Paper Series                                                    4




People are the most important media
In many ways ‘six degrees’ is not a new idea. It builds on something we’ve
believed for a long time. That people are the most important media.
Bill Bernbach famously said ‘Word of mouth is the best medium of all.’ In the
21st century, the power of word of mouth has been kicked into hyperdrive by
technology.

Today, social media has overtaken porn as the number one activity on the
web. There are over 200,000,000 blogs, 77% of internet users read blogs and
34% of bloggers post opinions about products and brands and the statistics
are showing an exponential growth. If Facebook were a country it would be
the 3rd largest in terms of its population and more than 1.5 million pieces of
content are shared…daily...on Facebook.

People don’t just like to share their views, we also find that recommendations
which come via friends and family are more powerful than those that come
from advertising.

Just look at this comparison from Nielsen.

Trust Somewhat / Completely

                                                                                       90%
Recommendations from people I know                                               78%
                                                                               70%
                        Brand websites                                   60%
                                                                            70%
             Consumer opinions online                                    61%
                                                                          63%
                    Brand sponsorhsips                             49%
                                                                       61%
                             Ads on TV                               56%
                                                                         61%
                    Ads in newspapers                                     63%                2009
                                                                     55%                     2007
                      Ads in magazines                               56%
                                                                    55%
                            Ads in radio                            54%
                                                                     55%
                  Emails I signed up for                           49%
                                                                    52%
                     Ads before movies                       38%
                                                              41%
   Ads served in search engine results                      34%
                                                          33%
                     Online banner ads                  26%
                                                      24%
            Text ads on mobile phones               18%


Source: The Nielsen Company. Global survey of over 25,000 consumers online across more than 50
        markets. July 2009



According to Bain, the most recommended company in its category grows
2.5 times the category average. Meanwhile, McKinsey estimate that 2/3 of
the economy is influenced by personal recommendation. People are the most
influential media. So, if we can turn customers into advocates and find ways to
engage a ‘six degree effect,’ then it could have transformational effects for our
clients. The ‘six degree’ effect can reduce their dependency on ‘paid media’ vs
‘earned media’ and create huge savings for them.
The Power of Six Degrees The Yellow Paper Series                                                                                   5




                                              Will ‘six degrees’ work for brands?
                                              But is it really possible to create a ‘six degree effect’ for a brand? Will people
                                              really share and pass on content related to brands?

                                              Yes.

                                              In fact, they’re already doing it. Work from around the DDB Network is already
                                              creating the ‘six degree’ effect. According to Synovate more than 70% of
                                              respondents have discussed ads they have seen with friends. 43% have
                                              searched for an ad online (e.g. on YouTube) and 38% have shared links with
                                              friends. Nearly three in ten across 11 markets have promoted a brand or
                                              campaign on their social networking page or become a fan of a brand. Some
                                              of the biggest increases in online brand engagement behavior over the past
                                              year can be found across Asia. Especially in China where 53% have searched
                                              for an ad online, 40% have shared links to ads and 35% have promoted a
                                              brand via social networking.




                                              Six degrees in action

                                              Over the last two years, we’ve created six degree effects with traditional
                                              pieces of film/TV like ‘Bud Swear Jar’. Around interactive films for Philips TVs
                                              (Carousel and Parallel Lines). WIth integrated social media campaigns like those
                                              for Canada Tourism and VW People’s reviewer. We’ve created six degree
                                              ripples playing off cultural events like the solar eclipse, for J&J Neutrogena’s
                                              SunStopper campaign. And we’ve even created promotions with six degree
                                              effects, such as that for Spain’s Bellotta Tools. From this experience we believe
                                              that, with the right level of creativity, you can create a ‘six degree’ effect around
                                              any kind of brand, problem or activity, in any sector and in any country.

                                              Here are three examples from different markets and categories with a little
                                              more detail.
The Power of Six Degrees The Yellow Paper Series                                                                                6




Clorox Green Works
Reverse Graffiti
Green Works set out to become the            140-foot wall at the entrance of San
#1 green cleaner within one year of          Francisco’s Broadway tunnel, using
launch. In our research we found a           Green Works.
clear problem with most cleaners. As
one of the consumers said, “The cure         If Green Works could clean years of dirt
is worse than the disease.”                  and grime off the Broadway Tunnel,
                                             it could probably cope with your
It is unacceptable to have a dirty home,     bathroom.
but introducing cleaning chemicals into
the home feels just as bad. The trouble      We made a documentary about
was, they didn’t really believe that the     the event and housed it on                 And 7.5 million media impressions,
alternative - existing green cleaners,       ReverseGraffitiProject.com, giving         worth 2.1 million USD with a total
actually worked.                             people an inside look at the project.      spend of just 55K USD.

So, we needed to prove that Green            The documentary also debuted on            Within 6 months, Green Works had
Works was a natural cleaner that             YouTube and was seeded on popular          become the #1 green cleaner.
actually worked. We decided to create        social and environmental blogs like
a product demo. But a product demo           boing boing, The Huffington Post, Al       It had also doubled the size of the green
with a difference.                           Gore’s Current TV.net and Discovery        cleaning category. And, more than a
                                             Channel’s Planet Green.                    year later, the mural is still visible.
“Clean tagging” artists create graffiti
in reverse. Instead of adding paint to       It became the #1 YouTube video in
a wall, they clean a wall to create an       13 countries over two days, with over
image. We commissioned one of the            400,000 views in the first week. It
top clean taggers to ‘clean a mural’         generated more than 200 blog posts in
of plants and trees out of the filthy        the first week.
The Power of Six Degrees The Yellow Paper Series                                                                                  7




Telstra Mum
2.0 Digital Makeover

When Australia’s largest telco asked
DDB Sydney to review their long-
running, TV-led ‘Call Mum’ campaign, a
number of things became clear.

The “guilt” proposition of Call Mum
wasn’t resonating with the audience
anymore. But while few people were
talking about ‘Call Mum’ online,
there were literally thousands of
conversations about how parents were
parents connecting online.
                                              inserted in Australian Women’s Weekly.     now actively engaged with Telstra.
Using the social media that kids thought
was designed just for them. The               We enlisted comedian and mum Wendy         The total number of unique visitors to
dominant theme was “OMG – Mum’s               Harmer to lead a national PR campaign      the website. hit 125,000+ in the first few
on Facebook”.                                 and, online, we hosted six video           months (150% more than the previous
                                              tutorials, informative enough for mums     campaign that ran for 7 months).
                                              to learn from, and funny enough for kids
And the theme was polarizing: some
                                              to send around.                            The PR had a circulation reach of
kids loved connecting with their parents
via Facebook and IM, and others were                                                     13,739,337 people, with an advertising
aghast at the thought.                        Everything led consumers to the Mum        value of $315,375.76. We achieved an
                                              2.0 website, which provided instant        ROI on the ad spend of 3:1.
                                              connectivity with the Digital Mum
Through analysis of over 10,000
                                              Facebook page.                             But most importantly, Mum 2.0 Digital
conversations a unique insight – and
opportunity– emerged. Mums need to                                                       Makeover is not a ‘campaign’, but an
understand net etiquette if they are to       Here, mums and young alike could           ongoing conversation with Australian
connect with their kids better.               share advice.                              mums and kids. Turning them into
                                                                                         Telstra brand advocates.
The opportunity for Telstra was to            There were weekly prizes for sharing
deliver a digital makeover to Australian      experiences and polls for further        In the next phase of the campaign
mums.                                         engagement.                              we’re developing more video and
                                                                                       written tutorials and using our digital
                                              There was also a final “exam” where      mums and kids as an outreach medium
So, we ran a campaign for kids to ‘dob
in their mum’ for a digital makeover and      mums could become a fully accredited to convince their friends and their
                                              Mum 2.0.                                 friends’ mums to become Mum 2.0
another targeted at mums, inviting them
                                                                                       certified.According to Bain, the most
to learn the etiquette in a fun ‘makeover’
                                              The program is still running with more   recommended company in its category
style. An instructional booklet was
                                              digital tutorials and retail integration grows 2.5 times the category average.
                                              coming up in the next few months. The Meanwhile, McKinsey estimate that
                                              increase in mentions from the previous   2/3 of the economy is influenced by
                                              Call Mum campaign is at 1200% and        personal recommendation. People are
                                              there was a 100% increase in positive    the most influential media. So, if we can
                                              mentions for Mum 2.0 compared with       turn customers into advocates and find
                                              other recent Telstra campaigns.          ways to engage a ‘six degree effect,’
                                                                                       then it could have transformational
                                                                                       effects for our clients. The ‘six degree’
                                              There’s a growing Facebook community
                                                                                       effect can reduce their dependency
                                              of over 4,000 mothers and kids who are
                                                                                       on ‘paid media’ vs ‘earned media’ and
                                                                                       create huge savings for them.
The Power of Six Degrees The Yellow Paper Series                                                                                  8




VW Fun Theory
“the most viral video in the world”


The eco car market is booming. An                                                        evening it was put up compared to two
environmental focus is no longer new                                                     people who used a nearby recycling
news, particularly in Sweden, a market                                                   station that same evening.
awash with green advertising. So how
could we launch VW’s BlueMotion                                                          We also created an award for the best
technologies & improve VW’s green                                                        new experiment to test out ‘the fun
credentials?                                                                             theory’.

As with Green Works, again we found           A stairway at a Stockholm subway           All this was housed on a website, the
a clear tension in the market which we        station was turned into a giant piano      funtheory.com.
could help to resolve. Despite feeling        in order to encourage people to take
they should buy green, many of our            the stairs not the escalator next door.    It created enormous attention - over
potential audience didn’t really want to      People voted with their feet. 66%          11 million views on Youtube, 6,000
buy green. It all seemed a little bit like    more of them chose the stairs over the     subscribers to our Youtube Channel,
hard work and they worried that when          escalator, compared to an average day.     14,000 tweets and nearly 4,000 blog
it came to cars, they would have to                                                      posts. International sites have copied
trade off driving performance for green                                                  and posted the video independently
credentials. The reality is very different:                                              no less than 163 times, meaning the
VW cars with BlueMotion technology                                                       actual viewing figures have probably
are fun to drive.                                                                        be doubled.

So, our idea was challenge the current                                                   The list of publications and television
belief that green is dull and hard work                                                  programs that have featured the Fun
and show that green can be fun. More                                                     Theory is a long and prestigious one
than that, we wanted to show that it          A waste bin was modified with sound        from the biggest Swedish newspapers
is possible to change behavior for the        effects. It attracted more than twice as   like Dagens Nyheter and Svenska
better by making things more fun. We          much rubbish compared to a normal          Dagbladet to automotive magazines
called this ‘the Fun Theory’.                 bin nearby.                                to international media giants like
                                                                                         The Guardian, LA Times, the New
                                                                                         York Times and even the Discovery
                                                                                         Channel. The list of blogs and other
                                                                                         consumer media that have praised the
                                                                                         Fun Theory includes the well-known
                                                                                         environmentalists at Top Gear.com,
                                                                                         The Freakonomics Blog, Mashable.
                                                                                         com, BoingBoing (the world’s most
                                                                                         popular blog), The NY Times Wheels
Instead of just creating some traditional     Finally, a bottle recycling station was    Blog, Doga (Japan) - and that’s on top
advertising around green being fun,           turned into an arcade game where you       of the usual automotive blogs.
DDB Stockholm and VW decided to               gained points by putting bottles in the
create some social experiments.               correct hole when a light lit up. Close    The earned media value was
                                              to a hundred people used it during the     enormous and the effect on the brand
                                                                                         and sales has also been strong.
The Power of Six Degrees The Yellow Paper Series                                      9




What’s the secret to creating a ‘six degree’ effect?

We have found that whatever the category or country, there appear to be some
clear lessons in creating a six degree effect.

•	 First	you	need	to	be	absolutely	clear	about	what	your	brand	stands	for	and	
   what behavior it is you are trying to change.

•	 Second,	you	need	to	find	a	cultural	tension	your	brand	can	help	to	resolve	
   or a relevant passion that your brand can be associated with.

That way, you can unlock the desired new behavior. Where there is tension or
passion, there is also heat, energy and conversation both on and offline.

And that creates the momentum required for ‘six degrees.’

•	 Third,	you	need	to	create	content	with	‘share	value’	built	in	–	ideas	which	
   people can participate in, play with and pass on.

•	 Finally,	if	it’s	going	to	be	shared,	the	content	you	create	must	be	innovative,	
   entertaining and/or useful. Or ideally, all three

Only those with a real understanding of social creativity will master the final
point and be to create 6 degree effects for their clients consistently.
Sources:

Network Science/6 degrees:

Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo, Linked: How Everything Is Connected to Everything
Else and What It Means, 2003

Reichheld, Frederick F.,The One Number you You Need to Grow, Bain &
Company, Harvard Business Review 2003

Watts, Duncan J., Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age, 2003

Trust, Value and Engagement in Advertising , Nielsen Global Online Consumer
Survey, July 2009

Synovate IN;FACT global study on media and advertising, November 2009

McKinsey Quarterly

Facebook Statistics from f8 2010 & facebook

Blog Statistics from socialnomics [http://socialnomics.net/2009/08/11/
statistics-show-social-media-is-bigger-than-you-think/]




DDB Worldwide Communications Group Inc (www.ddb.com ) is one
of the world’s largest and most influential advertising and marketing
services network. With more than 200 offices in over 90 countries,
DDB provides creative business solutions by its proprietary philosophy
and process built upon the goal of influence. DDB and its marketing
partners create and deliver unique, enduring, and powerful brand
experiences for competitive advantage.

DDB is excited by ideas. We invite you to visit our website to share yours and
keep abreast of ours. We believe that creativity is the most powerful force in
business and that ideas get sharper with more minds rubbing against them.

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Happening dc thepowerofsixdegrees

  • 1. The Yellow Papers Series The Power of Six Degrees Changing the way we think about communication
  • 2. The Power of Six Degrees The Yellow Paper Series 2 Introduction These days, a lot of people talk about 360 degree solutions. Everyone’s doing it. Trying to surround consumers with advertising. Using every channel and touchpoint. Following people wherever they go. Bombarding their ‘target audience’ with intrusive messages at every turn. But the truth is, it just isn’t working any longer. For one thing, it’s incredibly expensive. And, for another, intrusive messages can be pretty irritating after a while. According to Synovate’s global study on media and advertising from November 2009, ad avoidance is increasing. 87% have actively tried to avoid ads on TV or radio. 50% of respondents in Hong Kong and Taiwan say there are too many ads on cell phones. 67% actively take measures to avoid websites with intrusive advertising. Clearly 360 degrees isn’t the marketing cure-all some people claim. So we have a different idea. Instead of 360 degrees, how about six degrees? Clearly 360 degrees isn’t the marketing cure-all some people claim.
  • 3. The Power of Six Degrees The Yellow Paper Series 3 Lucy Jameson is the Executive Strategy Director at DDB London. She is responsible for turning the 30 or so planners working at the ‘home of planning’ into one collective planning brain. Additionally, she is co-chair of DDB Worldwide’s Planning Futures Group. What is six degrees? You remember the old urban myth about Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon. The idea that everyone in Hollywood could be connected to the actor Kevin Bacon in six steps or less. It helped to spawn a whole new field of science. Network science. Scientists discovered that nature has a hidden blueprint. A structure that connects us all. Every network has its hubs and connectors. The scientists believe the six degrees finding has the potential to change the way we fight terrorism, predict pandemics and combat the spread of disease. And, more importantly of course, we believe it can also change the way we approach advertising. If everybody really is connected to everyone else, they can help spread our message for us. All we need to do is create something compelling, involving and valuable enough for people to want to pass on.
  • 4. The Power of Six Degrees The Yellow Paper Series 4 People are the most important media In many ways ‘six degrees’ is not a new idea. It builds on something we’ve believed for a long time. That people are the most important media. Bill Bernbach famously said ‘Word of mouth is the best medium of all.’ In the 21st century, the power of word of mouth has been kicked into hyperdrive by technology. Today, social media has overtaken porn as the number one activity on the web. There are over 200,000,000 blogs, 77% of internet users read blogs and 34% of bloggers post opinions about products and brands and the statistics are showing an exponential growth. If Facebook were a country it would be the 3rd largest in terms of its population and more than 1.5 million pieces of content are shared…daily...on Facebook. People don’t just like to share their views, we also find that recommendations which come via friends and family are more powerful than those that come from advertising. Just look at this comparison from Nielsen. Trust Somewhat / Completely 90% Recommendations from people I know 78% 70% Brand websites 60% 70% Consumer opinions online 61% 63% Brand sponsorhsips 49% 61% Ads on TV 56% 61% Ads in newspapers 63% 2009 55% 2007 Ads in magazines 56% 55% Ads in radio 54% 55% Emails I signed up for 49% 52% Ads before movies 38% 41% Ads served in search engine results 34% 33% Online banner ads 26% 24% Text ads on mobile phones 18% Source: The Nielsen Company. Global survey of over 25,000 consumers online across more than 50 markets. July 2009 According to Bain, the most recommended company in its category grows 2.5 times the category average. Meanwhile, McKinsey estimate that 2/3 of the economy is influenced by personal recommendation. People are the most influential media. So, if we can turn customers into advocates and find ways to engage a ‘six degree effect,’ then it could have transformational effects for our clients. The ‘six degree’ effect can reduce their dependency on ‘paid media’ vs ‘earned media’ and create huge savings for them.
  • 5. The Power of Six Degrees The Yellow Paper Series 5 Will ‘six degrees’ work for brands? But is it really possible to create a ‘six degree effect’ for a brand? Will people really share and pass on content related to brands? Yes. In fact, they’re already doing it. Work from around the DDB Network is already creating the ‘six degree’ effect. According to Synovate more than 70% of respondents have discussed ads they have seen with friends. 43% have searched for an ad online (e.g. on YouTube) and 38% have shared links with friends. Nearly three in ten across 11 markets have promoted a brand or campaign on their social networking page or become a fan of a brand. Some of the biggest increases in online brand engagement behavior over the past year can be found across Asia. Especially in China where 53% have searched for an ad online, 40% have shared links to ads and 35% have promoted a brand via social networking. Six degrees in action Over the last two years, we’ve created six degree effects with traditional pieces of film/TV like ‘Bud Swear Jar’. Around interactive films for Philips TVs (Carousel and Parallel Lines). WIth integrated social media campaigns like those for Canada Tourism and VW People’s reviewer. We’ve created six degree ripples playing off cultural events like the solar eclipse, for J&J Neutrogena’s SunStopper campaign. And we’ve even created promotions with six degree effects, such as that for Spain’s Bellotta Tools. From this experience we believe that, with the right level of creativity, you can create a ‘six degree’ effect around any kind of brand, problem or activity, in any sector and in any country. Here are three examples from different markets and categories with a little more detail.
  • 6. The Power of Six Degrees The Yellow Paper Series 6 Clorox Green Works Reverse Graffiti Green Works set out to become the 140-foot wall at the entrance of San #1 green cleaner within one year of Francisco’s Broadway tunnel, using launch. In our research we found a Green Works. clear problem with most cleaners. As one of the consumers said, “The cure If Green Works could clean years of dirt is worse than the disease.” and grime off the Broadway Tunnel, it could probably cope with your It is unacceptable to have a dirty home, bathroom. but introducing cleaning chemicals into the home feels just as bad. The trouble We made a documentary about was, they didn’t really believe that the the event and housed it on And 7.5 million media impressions, alternative - existing green cleaners, ReverseGraffitiProject.com, giving worth 2.1 million USD with a total actually worked. people an inside look at the project. spend of just 55K USD. So, we needed to prove that Green The documentary also debuted on Within 6 months, Green Works had Works was a natural cleaner that YouTube and was seeded on popular become the #1 green cleaner. actually worked. We decided to create social and environmental blogs like a product demo. But a product demo boing boing, The Huffington Post, Al It had also doubled the size of the green with a difference. Gore’s Current TV.net and Discovery cleaning category. And, more than a Channel’s Planet Green. year later, the mural is still visible. “Clean tagging” artists create graffiti in reverse. Instead of adding paint to It became the #1 YouTube video in a wall, they clean a wall to create an 13 countries over two days, with over image. We commissioned one of the 400,000 views in the first week. It top clean taggers to ‘clean a mural’ generated more than 200 blog posts in of plants and trees out of the filthy the first week.
  • 7. The Power of Six Degrees The Yellow Paper Series 7 Telstra Mum 2.0 Digital Makeover When Australia’s largest telco asked DDB Sydney to review their long- running, TV-led ‘Call Mum’ campaign, a number of things became clear. The “guilt” proposition of Call Mum wasn’t resonating with the audience anymore. But while few people were talking about ‘Call Mum’ online, there were literally thousands of conversations about how parents were parents connecting online. inserted in Australian Women’s Weekly. now actively engaged with Telstra. Using the social media that kids thought was designed just for them. The We enlisted comedian and mum Wendy The total number of unique visitors to dominant theme was “OMG – Mum’s Harmer to lead a national PR campaign the website. hit 125,000+ in the first few on Facebook”. and, online, we hosted six video months (150% more than the previous tutorials, informative enough for mums campaign that ran for 7 months). to learn from, and funny enough for kids And the theme was polarizing: some to send around. The PR had a circulation reach of kids loved connecting with their parents via Facebook and IM, and others were 13,739,337 people, with an advertising aghast at the thought. Everything led consumers to the Mum value of $315,375.76. We achieved an 2.0 website, which provided instant ROI on the ad spend of 3:1. connectivity with the Digital Mum Through analysis of over 10,000 Facebook page. But most importantly, Mum 2.0 Digital conversations a unique insight – and opportunity– emerged. Mums need to Makeover is not a ‘campaign’, but an understand net etiquette if they are to Here, mums and young alike could ongoing conversation with Australian connect with their kids better. share advice. mums and kids. Turning them into Telstra brand advocates. The opportunity for Telstra was to There were weekly prizes for sharing deliver a digital makeover to Australian experiences and polls for further In the next phase of the campaign mums. engagement. we’re developing more video and written tutorials and using our digital There was also a final “exam” where mums and kids as an outreach medium So, we ran a campaign for kids to ‘dob in their mum’ for a digital makeover and mums could become a fully accredited to convince their friends and their Mum 2.0. friends’ mums to become Mum 2.0 another targeted at mums, inviting them certified.According to Bain, the most to learn the etiquette in a fun ‘makeover’ The program is still running with more recommended company in its category style. An instructional booklet was digital tutorials and retail integration grows 2.5 times the category average. coming up in the next few months. The Meanwhile, McKinsey estimate that increase in mentions from the previous 2/3 of the economy is influenced by Call Mum campaign is at 1200% and personal recommendation. People are there was a 100% increase in positive the most influential media. So, if we can mentions for Mum 2.0 compared with turn customers into advocates and find other recent Telstra campaigns. ways to engage a ‘six degree effect,’ then it could have transformational effects for our clients. The ‘six degree’ There’s a growing Facebook community effect can reduce their dependency of over 4,000 mothers and kids who are on ‘paid media’ vs ‘earned media’ and create huge savings for them.
  • 8. The Power of Six Degrees The Yellow Paper Series 8 VW Fun Theory “the most viral video in the world” The eco car market is booming. An evening it was put up compared to two environmental focus is no longer new people who used a nearby recycling news, particularly in Sweden, a market station that same evening. awash with green advertising. So how could we launch VW’s BlueMotion We also created an award for the best technologies & improve VW’s green new experiment to test out ‘the fun credentials? theory’. As with Green Works, again we found A stairway at a Stockholm subway All this was housed on a website, the a clear tension in the market which we station was turned into a giant piano funtheory.com. could help to resolve. Despite feeling in order to encourage people to take they should buy green, many of our the stairs not the escalator next door. It created enormous attention - over potential audience didn’t really want to People voted with their feet. 66% 11 million views on Youtube, 6,000 buy green. It all seemed a little bit like more of them chose the stairs over the subscribers to our Youtube Channel, hard work and they worried that when escalator, compared to an average day. 14,000 tweets and nearly 4,000 blog it came to cars, they would have to posts. International sites have copied trade off driving performance for green and posted the video independently credentials. The reality is very different: no less than 163 times, meaning the VW cars with BlueMotion technology actual viewing figures have probably are fun to drive. be doubled. So, our idea was challenge the current The list of publications and television belief that green is dull and hard work programs that have featured the Fun and show that green can be fun. More Theory is a long and prestigious one than that, we wanted to show that it A waste bin was modified with sound from the biggest Swedish newspapers is possible to change behavior for the effects. It attracted more than twice as like Dagens Nyheter and Svenska better by making things more fun. We much rubbish compared to a normal Dagbladet to automotive magazines called this ‘the Fun Theory’. bin nearby. to international media giants like The Guardian, LA Times, the New York Times and even the Discovery Channel. The list of blogs and other consumer media that have praised the Fun Theory includes the well-known environmentalists at Top Gear.com, The Freakonomics Blog, Mashable. com, BoingBoing (the world’s most popular blog), The NY Times Wheels Instead of just creating some traditional Finally, a bottle recycling station was Blog, Doga (Japan) - and that’s on top advertising around green being fun, turned into an arcade game where you of the usual automotive blogs. DDB Stockholm and VW decided to gained points by putting bottles in the create some social experiments. correct hole when a light lit up. Close The earned media value was to a hundred people used it during the enormous and the effect on the brand and sales has also been strong.
  • 9. The Power of Six Degrees The Yellow Paper Series 9 What’s the secret to creating a ‘six degree’ effect? We have found that whatever the category or country, there appear to be some clear lessons in creating a six degree effect. • First you need to be absolutely clear about what your brand stands for and what behavior it is you are trying to change. • Second, you need to find a cultural tension your brand can help to resolve or a relevant passion that your brand can be associated with. That way, you can unlock the desired new behavior. Where there is tension or passion, there is also heat, energy and conversation both on and offline. And that creates the momentum required for ‘six degrees.’ • Third, you need to create content with ‘share value’ built in – ideas which people can participate in, play with and pass on. • Finally, if it’s going to be shared, the content you create must be innovative, entertaining and/or useful. Or ideally, all three Only those with a real understanding of social creativity will master the final point and be to create 6 degree effects for their clients consistently.
  • 10. Sources: Network Science/6 degrees: Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo, Linked: How Everything Is Connected to Everything Else and What It Means, 2003 Reichheld, Frederick F.,The One Number you You Need to Grow, Bain & Company, Harvard Business Review 2003 Watts, Duncan J., Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age, 2003 Trust, Value and Engagement in Advertising , Nielsen Global Online Consumer Survey, July 2009 Synovate IN;FACT global study on media and advertising, November 2009 McKinsey Quarterly Facebook Statistics from f8 2010 & facebook Blog Statistics from socialnomics [http://socialnomics.net/2009/08/11/ statistics-show-social-media-is-bigger-than-you-think/] DDB Worldwide Communications Group Inc (www.ddb.com ) is one of the world’s largest and most influential advertising and marketing services network. With more than 200 offices in over 90 countries, DDB provides creative business solutions by its proprietary philosophy and process built upon the goal of influence. DDB and its marketing partners create and deliver unique, enduring, and powerful brand experiences for competitive advantage. DDB is excited by ideas. We invite you to visit our website to share yours and keep abreast of ours. We believe that creativity is the most powerful force in business and that ideas get sharper with more minds rubbing against them.