Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Le téléchargement de votre SlideShare est en cours. ×

Foundation of education (1)

Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) Review
Area: Professional Education
Focus : Philosophical, Historical, Legal, Soc...
Implications of these Axioms
1. Reality is Absolute: The Primacy of Existence -This means that reality is not subject to w...
a. Ethics. - Theory of morality (good and evil)
b. Aesthetics. - Realm of art and beauty
c. Religions. - realized through ...
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité

Consultez-les par la suite

1 sur 33 Publicité
Publicité

Plus De Contenu Connexe

Diaporamas pour vous (20)

Publicité

Plus récents (20)

Publicité

Foundation of education (1)

  1. 1. Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) Review Area: Professional Education Focus : Philosophical, Historical, Legal, Sociological Foundations and Theories of Learning Lecturer: Prof. Michael M. Nael Overview of Education What is Education? Education is the total social processes that bring a person into life in a culture. It is the process of acquiring knowledge, habits, attitudes, skills, and abilities. It is the art of utilizing knowledge to make humans more humane. It is the sharing of wisdom. Purpose of Education The purpose of education is total human formation. The school system is tasked to be the catalyst of educative processes, which will bring about social, cultural, intellectual, economic, moral-spiritual and technological formation of students in order to develop them into productive members of society. The schools are challenged to provide quality education through an efficient, effective and logical educational delivery system because society expects the graduates to contribute to the attainment of society’s internal integration and external adaptation Education is also perceived as an investment of human capital. The stakeholders of education expect a return of investments not only in terms of personal but societal benefits as well. The development of human resources who think correctly and reason rightly that will mobilize industries, produce goods and services and that will serve as the manpower of the nation in achieving its goals is the benefit that the stakeholders clamor for. Shared philosophies, beliefs and values, which members have agreed upon to uphold and practice, weld the interrelationship among the members of the social subsystem. This interrelationship, guided by the school cultural sub-system and supported by the economic subsystem, determines the school’s ability, to face up to the challenge of providing quality education. Focus 1: Philosophical Foundation of Education PART I: BASIC CONCEPTS A. Concepts from General Philosophy 1. Philosophy (from the Greek words, "Philia" and "Sophia," meaning "love of wisdom") - is defined technically as the science of beings in their ultimate reasons, causes and principles, acquired by human reason alone. Philosophy is the Science and Art of all things naturally knowable to man’s unaided powers in so far as these things are studied in their deepest causes and reasons. It is humanity’s attempt to think speculatively, reflectively, and systematically about the universe and the human beings’ relationship to the universe. It is humanity’s communal search for the ultimate explanation of the realities of life. 2. Types of Philosophy (according to functions) 2.1 Speculative (synoptic/synthetic/armchair) - is systematic thinking designed to arrive at worldviews, coherent systems of thought, or world outlook. Examples: a. Naturalism b. Idealism c. realism d. pragmatism 2.2 Analytical (critical) - is critical thinking that aims to examine ideas, concepts, issues, or problems with the purpose of clarifying them.Examples: a. logical analysis b. languages analysis c. philosophical analysis 2.3 Prescriptive (normative/evaluate) - is reflective thinking that strives to formulate goals, norms, or standards with the purpose of guiding human thinking and conduct. Examples a. ethics b. logic c. social philosophy, etc. 3. Branches of Philosophy 3.1 Metaphysics. It is the theory of reality. It is the philosophical study of essence and existence. It establishes what to be taught in education 3.1.2 Basic Axioms An axiom is an irreducible primary. It doesn't rest upon anything in order to be valid, and it cannot be proven by any "more basic" premises. A true axiom cannot be refuted because the act of trying to refute it requires that very axiom as a premise. An attempt to contradict an axiom can only end in a contradiction. 1. Existence exists is an axiom which states that there is something, as opposed to nothing.. 2. The Law of Identity. To have an identity means to have a single identity; an object cannot have two identities. 3. Consciousness-Descartes argued that consciousness is axiomatic because you cannot logically deny your minds existence at the same time as using your mind to do the denying. 1
  2. 2. Implications of these Axioms 1. Reality is Absolute: The Primacy of Existence -This means that reality is not subject to wishes, whims, prayers, or miracles. If you want to change the world, you must act according to reality. 2. Causality -Causality is the Law of Identity applied over time. It is the identity of actions. Action is a change in the identity of an entity. 3. Every effect must have a cause. That cause, however, is an effect of a previous cause. Causality is the law that states that each cause has a specific effect, and that this effect is dependent on the identities of the agents involved. 4. Nothing. Nothing, or non-existence, is that which doesn't exist. It is not a metaphysical entity. It doesn't exist. It has no identity. 5. Contradiction-Contradictions don't exist in reality because reality simply is as it is and does not contradict itself. 6. An Entity is the Sum of its Parts -Assuming there are basic building blocks of the universe, it is conceivable that these entities have a fixed identity, except location. They do not change. They act, and interact, but do not ever actually change their identity. 3.2 Epistemology. It is the theory of knowledge. Its major concerns are the nature of knowledge itself and the grounds for its validity. 3.2.1. Positions in relation to knowledge a. Agnosticism - coined a/by Thomas Huxley which means "not being able to know" or belief in the impossibility of knowledge. b. Skepticism is the doubting or questioning attitude towards knowledge (also known as the scientific attitude). c. Affirmation of knowledge. It is the possibility of knowledge. 3.2.2. Types of knowledge in relation to observation a. A priori - knowledge not requiring observation; literally means "before" or "prior to" b. A posteriori - knowledge based on observation; literally means "after" or "posterior to" c. Experimental - knowledge resulting from tested observation. 3.2.3. Types of knowledge according to means / instruments a. Empirical - knowledge acquired through sense perception (equivalent to scientific knowledge). The school of thought is known as empiricism. b. Rational - knowledge acquired primarily through reason and belief is called rationalism. c. Intuitive - knowledge acquired primarily through intuition (sudden flash of insight) and the belief is known as intuitionism. d. Authoritative - knowledge acquired through an authority (expertise) and the belief is known as authoritarianism e. Revealed. Knowledge acquired through revelation (what God discloses to man). And the belief is revelation ism. It is also called religious knowledge. 3.2.4. On the Criterion of truth 1.Naïve realism – argues that reality is precisely what as it appears to be. So it adheres to the belief that “ seeing is believing” Truth therefore is what is seen and experienced. The disadvantage of this criterion is the overdependence on appearance 2.Feelings- the belief that what one feels is the truth. that the best criterion of truth is a hunch. The disadvantage of this is that feelings are not sometimes true 3.Custom and tradition- this is used by many as a criterion of truth particularly in matters pertaining to morals, politics, dress etc. 4.Time- is regarded as an excellent test if not the final test of truth. The disadvantage is that we have to wait until the end of time to discover the truth 5.Intuition- “truth that comes from one knows not where”. It is not a test of truth but a source of truth 6.Revelation-“Truth which comes from God” This is also a source of truth and not a test of it 7.Instinct- What is instinctive must by virtue of that fact be true since nature deemed it so. But most knowledge are beyond the bounds of instinct. It is not therefore a test of truth 8.Majority, Plurality, Consensus Gentium- The number of people who believes in the truth determines its truthfulness. but truth is not necessarily dependent on how many believes it to be true 9.Authority- certain individuals who have mastered a field of study may be a criterion of truth but authority gives only opinions which could be true or which could be false 10.Correspondence- a belief that when an idea agrees with its object, it is proof of its truth. However, it is a definition of truth not a criterion 11.Pragmatism- If an idea works then it is true, but not all truths works. it cannot be the ultimate criterion of truth 12.Consistency- means the absence of contradiction. But there is a possibility to be consistently false sometimes. 13.Coherence- a systematic consistent explanation of all the facts of experience. Its technical name is reason. this is believe to be the ultimate criterion of truth. It makes use of all the other 12 criteria to come up with a reasonable view of reality. 3.3 Logic. Is the science and art of correct thinking/reasoning. The types of logic are also known as modes or methods of thinking. 3.3.1. Types of Logic a. Inductive. It is reasoning from particular/specific to general/universal. Popular in the sciences because it leads to the discovery of principles, laws, etc. b. Deductive. It is reasoning from the general/universal to the particulars/specifics. It main justification is to show proofs of the known principle. It is often used in Mathematics, Syllogism is the verbal form of deductive reasoning. c. Dialectic. It is reasoning in which the conflict or contrast of ideas is used a means of detecting the truth. In Hegel's dialectic, there are three stages: thesis (affirmation of the idea); antithesis (negation of the idea); and synthesis (reaffirmation of the idea or truth itself). d. Experimental or problem solving. It is the testing of hypothesis and makes use of both induction an deduction. 3.4 Axiology. It is the theory of values (from the root word/'axios" meaning "of like value" or "worth as much as"), 3.4.1 The types of Values
  3. 3. a. Ethics. - Theory of morality (good and evil) b. Aesthetics. - Realm of art and beauty c. Religions. - realized through worship, experience and service d. Educational. - Inherent in the educative process. e. Social. - Realized in the community through then individual's relation to society. f. Utilitarian. - Realized in harmonious adjustment to or efficient control of the forces of the physical environment. 3.4.2. Issues about values in general: Values are either: a. absolute (contrast) or relative (changing) b. objective or subjective c. hierarchical or non-hierarchical d. bipolar or unipolar 3.4.3. Theories on nature of values a. interest theory - believes that values depend upon the interest of the person who enjoys them. What is desired has value. b. existence theory. Believes that values exist on their own right, independent of the person and his interest. c. Experimentalist theory. Believes that what is of value yields a greater sense of happiness in the present and most likely in the future. d. Part-whole theory. Believes that the key to realizing and enjoying value is the effective relating of parts to whole. 4. Other branches of Philosophy 4.1 Cosmology is the study of the theories of the nature and origin of the universe 4.2 Philosophy of Man/ Philosophy of human person- deals with the nature and purpose of man. 4.3 Social and Political Philosophy- deals with the nature of society and socialization Process. 4.4 Theodicy is the study of the nature, essence and existence of God using human 4.5 Aesthetics- the study of the nature and appreciation of beauty 4.6 Ethics- the study of the morality of Human 4.7 Rational Psychology –the study of the human mind and its Processes The following branches serve as foundations to the educative processes and are very much related to Education. Metaphysics- because we will have to know the nature and essence of Education. Epistemology- because we will investigate the different theories of truth and knowledge Axiology/Ethics- for education has a moral dimension Logic- since we will be looking at the reasonability of the aims, the curriculum, and the methodologies and strategies of different Philosophies as applied in education B. Philosophy of Education 1. It is an attempt to comprehend education in its entirely, interpreting it by mean of general concepts that will guide the choice of educational ends and practices. (Kneller). It is the application of philosophical ideas to educational problems (Ozmon & Craver). It is the study of educational problems of aims, curriculum, and methods from philosophical perspective (Botor & Ortinero). 1. Distinct Character of Eastern/Asian Philosophy. 1.1 It thinks of time in a cyclical manner. Nothing really ends; nothing really begins absolutely. Once in existence, always in existence. 1.2 There is no dichotomy between a way of life and a way of thinking. As one thinks, so one lives. Religion and philosophy are one. 1.3 It has propensity to mysticism, at its use of super-consciousness, existence of the third eyes, or a sixth sense. 2. Chinese Philosophy 2.1 Confucianism 3.1.1. It is body of beliefs based on the Analects, the teachings of Confucius 3.1.2. Confucius was born at Kung-Fu-tzu in 551 B.C. and died in 479 B.C. 3.1.3. He taught the importance of li which means propriety and orderliness and the ideal of a gentleman. He also taught filial piety, devotion to the family, loyalty to elders, love for learning, brotherhood, honesty and efficiency in government service (civil service), and universal love and justice. 3.1.4. For almost 2500 years it has been the religion of the great masses in China. 2.2 Taoism 3.2.1. The word "tao" means the path, the way, of the great. It is the source of all being, the First Cause, the Ultimate Reality. 3.2.2. The original teachings of Taoism are found in Tao TeChing, attributed to Lao Tzu, born in 604 B.C. 3.2.3. To follow the Tao is to follow the way of nature. Thus, its main tenet is harmony with nature. It regards nature as sacred and even as an extension of human selves. 2.3. General Character of Chinese Philosophy 3.3.1. The highest achievement of man is to be a sage or wise man. 3.3.2. The Chinese are a this-world people. Life is desirable. 3.3.3. They believe in the cycle of ups-and-downs in this life. 3.3.4. They believe in the coordination of thought and action. 3. Indian Philosophy 3.1 Hinduism. It is the major religion of India, accounting for 85% of the population. It has known as "Trimurti" which consists of BRAHMA, the supreme spirit, VISHNU, the preserver, and SHIVA, the destroyer and creator. Since the ancient times, people are already destined into social classes known as the caste system. Brahmins / Brahmans - the priests Kshatriyas - the nobles and the warriors
  4. 4. Vaisyas - the traders, cultivators, peasants Sudras - the servants (Outside the caste system are the untouchables or outcasts) The Hindu's life is governed by the law of "karma" which is a process or series of birth and rebirth until one attains perfection and finally reaches "nirvana" - the place or eternal happiness and bliss. Under this belief, the sum of the person's actions carried from one life to the next results in either an improved or worsened fate. 3.2 Buddhism. It is one of the major religions of the world; founded by Siddharta Gautama, the Buddha, who lived in Northern India. Today, Buddhism has two major divisions: 1. Theravada or "Way of the Elders" (the more conservative type), popular in Sri Lanka, Burma, and Tahilanf 2. Mahayana or "Great Vehicle" (liberal type), dominant in Taiwan, Korea, Japan, and Tibet Buddha advocated four noble truths: 1. Life is suffering (duhka); 2. The cause of suffering is desire; 3. the end of suffering is to stop desire; and 4. to stop desire is to follow the Noble Eight-fold Path (to break the chain of karma and to reach Nirvana) The Noble Eight-fold Path consists of 1) Right View; 2) Tight Resolve; 3) Right Speech; 4) Right Action; 5) Right Livelihood; 6) Right Effort; 7) Right Concentration; and 8) Right Contemplation. 4. Japanese Philosophy Shintoism. It was popular during the Imperial regime but lost its popularity when Japan lost during the Second World War. Shinto was not a Japanese word. It was derived from the Chinese "shon" (Gods) and "tao" (the way). The intention was to distinguish this religion from Buddhism when it first entered Japan. Shintoism is the belief in the "kami no michi" or the "way of the kami". Kami are Japanese deities or goods of nature like the sun goddess, Kmaterasu, whom the Japanese believed that the Imperial family came from. During the Imperial reign, Japan is said to be a theocratic state. 5. Arabian Philosophy (Islam) Islam is a major world religion (one of the three monotheistic religions), comes from the Arabic word "al-islam" which literally means complete submission to God (Allah). Islam traces its origin to the prophet Muhammad who was born in Mecca, Arabia about AD 571. in middle life, Muhammad showed mystical traits and developed the habit of withdrawing to the bills for contemplation. Later, at the age of forty, he received a revelation calling him to denounce the paganism and polytheism of Mecca and reach the existence of one God - Allah. In AD 622, he left Mecca for Medina. This came to be known as hijra, the event from which the Muslim calendar begins. Is AD 632, Muhammad died without naming a successor. He was succeeded by a series of Caliphs, the first being Abu Bakr and Umar. The Islamic faith is centered on these five Pillars of Islam: 1. Shahada (confession of faith): There is no other God but Allah and Muhammad is his prophet. 2. Salat (prayer). Muslims pray five times daily facing Mecca - at daybreak, noon, mid afternoon, after sunset and early in the night. They also go to the Mosques during Fridays. 3. Zakat (almsgiving). Muslims give 2 Vi percent of their income and other properties to charity. 4. Ramadan (fasting) During this period, Muslims do not eat, drink, smoke, or engage in sex between dawn and sunset. 5. Haji (Pilgrimage). A Muslim is required to go to Mecca at least once in his lifetime. Other important concepts in Islam are: 1. Qur'an/Koran (recitation) - collection of the revelations received by Muhammad from Allah. 2. Hedith (tradition) - is the record of the life and activities of Muhammad and early Muslim communities. 3. Sunna (example) - set of standards of Muhammad which all Muslims should follow. 4. Shiari'a (law) - formed by the combined Qur'an and Sunna to serve as an extraordinary comprehensive guide to life and conduct. D. Western Philosophies 1. Naturalism. It is probably the oldest philosophic thought in the west. 1.1. Nature is the be-all and end-all of reality. Its antithesis is supernaturalism. Nature is the aggregate of things around us. 1.2. its educational theme is harmony with nature as exemplified in Rousseau's Emile and the hedonistic principle of pleasure in the educative process. 1.3. Its chief educational spokesman is Herbert Spencer who believes that the goal of education is complete living. 1.4. The child (pupil) is viewed as a child of nature and so is inherently good. 2. Idealism. It is also one of the oldest schools of thought in the West. It rebelled against the philosophy of naturalism. 2.1 Its origin is traced to Plato who advocated a doctrine of ideas (also the doctrine of the universals). 2.2 Since an idea is nonmaterial, idealism stresses moral and spiritual reality. 2.3 Rene Descartes, an idealist, advocated a perfect being. God and humans are imperfect beings (the belief of the one and the many) 2.4 Its educational philosophy is ideal-centered. God is the absolute/ perfect ideal. Sometimes, it is regarded as perfectionalism. 2.5 Plato's Republic is believed to be the first educational classic/treatise ever written. It envisioned a society ruled by a philosopher-king. 3. Realism. It is attributed to Aristotle, a pupil of Plato. 3.1 Realism believes that things exist independent of the mind. Its origin is traced to Aristotle's doctrine of particulars. 3.2 It has greatly influenced the socialistic (communistic) educational philosophy. 3.3 John Amos Comenius, a great realist, believes that education is formation and that the school is the true forging place of man. 3.4 It believes in determinism (man is not free because he is governed by laws or forces of nature beyond his control). One of the primary goals of education is habit formation.
  5. 5. 3.5 The teacher is the key figure, a master teacher; one who transmit knowledge to his pupils (an authority). 4. Pragmatism. It is the most recent among the four classical philosophies. 4.1. Pragmatism is the belief that the meaning of an idea is determined by the consequences when it is put into test or practice in the world of reality. 4.2. Although Greek in origin, it later became an American philosophy. The foremost American philosophers are William James (practicalism), Charles Peirce (experimentalism), and John Dewey (intrumentalism) 4.3 It believes that change is the essence of reality. "Everything flows; nothing remains the same." 4.4 Its chief method is the experimental method that yields experimental knowledge. 4.5 It believes that education is life; a continuous process of reconstruction. Education is never complete. 5. Existentialism. It is principally a contemporary or modern philosophy. 5.1. It grew out from the works of European philosophers particularly Soren Kieregaard (Danish) 5.2. Its chief principle is "existence precedes essence." 5.3. It was two types: atheistic and theistic. The chief atheistic philosopher is Jean Paul Sarte (French) 5.4. It clamors for individually and freedom in education. 5.5. It stresses individual decision-making; the teacher offers knowledge and the pupil can either accept or reject it. E. CONTEMPORARY EDUCATIONAL THEORIES A Theory is a set of assumptions initially verified or tested but not yet universally accepted. An educational theory is one that is directed to education. The contemporary educational theories have their roots in formal philosophies. 1. Perennialism. It is a theory founded on the belief that the body of knowledge that has endured through time and space should form the basis for one's education. Rooted in classical realism and idealism, the chief exponent is Robert N. Hutchins. He believes that the basic principles of education are both timeless and recurring. 1.1 Purpose. To help students uncover and internalize truths that are universal and constant. 1.2 Curriculum and Method. Its curriculum is subject-centered relying heavily on the disciplines of literature, mathematics, languages, history, philosophy, and-religion (liberal education). Reading and discussion of the "Great Books" would be the principal method of study. 1.3 Teacher. The teacher is viewed as an authority, a master teacher, whose expertise is not to be questioned. 1.4 School. The school's role is to train intellectual elite and to prepare the young for life, 2. Progressivism. It grew out from pragmatic philosophy and pats emphasis on democratic experience and skills on how to think. Its chief exponent is Francis Parker. 2.1 Purpose. To give the necessary skills-and-tools with which they interact with the-environment within a constant process of change. 2.2 Curriculum and Method. Its curriculum is built around the personal and social experiences of the learners. It draws most often from the social sciences. Scientific methods of inquiry and problem solving are its favored methods. 2.3 Teacher: Since the students are capable of thinking and exploring their own environment, the teacher's role is that of a guide, group leader, consultant, and facilitator in the student's activities. 2.4 School. It is viewed as a microcosm of society, a living learning laboratory, and a working model of democracy. 3. Essentialism. It is rooted in classical idealism and realism with William C. Bagley as principal advocate. It clamored for curricular reforms with emphasis on the basics or essential. 3.1 Purpose. To transmit the cultural and historical heritage to each new generation of learners. 3.2 Curriculum and Method. It puts emphasis on the 3 r's in the elementary and a concentrated study of mathematics, sciences, humanities, languages and literature in the secondary. Mastery of the basic facts and concepts of essentials is imperative. 3.3 Teacher, The teacher is a master of his/her discipline and a model worth emulating. 3.4 It becomes one of conserving and transmitting to the present generation to the rich cultural heritage of man. 4. Reconstructionism Also known as social reconstructionism it is rooted in pragmatism and progressivism. It is Utopian because it clamors for a new world social order, its principal exponents are George Counts, Theodore Brameld and Edwin Reischauer." ,-, 4.1 Purpose. To raise the consciousness of students regarding social, economic, and political problems facing mankind. 4.2 Curriculum and Method. Its subject is the multitude of social, political and economic problem of man and uses pragmatic methods of scientific inquiry. 4.3 Teacher. The teacher is a social catalyst, a change agent, a social engineer, and the other roles of the progressivist teacher. 4.4 School. It becomes the primary agency for societal change. Focus 2: Historical Foundation of Education Early Conception of Education 1. Education for Conformity/ Primitive Education Aims: Education for security, survival or self-preservation To conform to the tribe to which they belong Types: Practical Education- work activities necessary to stay alive Theoretical Education- spiritual and worship activities, social knowledge on customs, rites of his social groups Agency: the family was the center for practical training. Father taught the boys duties of securing life. Mother instructed the girls’ duties of household management. Tribe elders acted as priests. Organization: No levels of instruction Contents: Ritualistic and prescriptive Methods: tell me and show me, organic, trial and error, enculturation, indoctrination
  6. 6. Effects: culture was passed on and preserved for generations. People were able to adjust and adapt political and social life Proponents: Primitives 2. Education for the Preservation of Social Stability/ Oriental Education Aims: to impress traditional ideas and cultures in order to maintain and perpetuate the long established social order. Recapitulation, i.e. to recall the past China: to preserve and perpetuate ancestral tradition India: to preserve he caste system Egypt: to preserve religious tradition Persia: to strengthen military traditions Types: Moral Training- training in customs, duties and polite behavior Theoretical training- language and literature Agency: home as center for most ethical and social training. Others are pagoda, temple, and covered sheds Organization: elementary and high school levels Contents: imitation, memorization Effects: development of static and highly formal education system. Learning was mechanical and Individual development becomes impossible Produced individuals who are patient, obedient, gentle, polite, submissive and respectful but lacking in ambition, self-confidence, responsibility, initiative and resourcefulness Ideal for those who oppose change Traditions were perpetuated Citizens were easily integrated to social life Proponents: Orientals China: It was taken mostly from the teachings of philosophical masters like Confucius, Mencius, and Lao Tzu. Confucianism and Taoism teach the ethical life and love of nature respectively. The Chinese have given us filial piety, close family ties, respect for elders, selfless and honest service in the government, civil service, The Golden Rule, reverence for teachers, scholarship (earnest learning), and the earliest form of education for all or democratic education. Chinese ethical education is the forerunner of our present day character education (GMRC and Values Education) in our schools. Japan: Its ancient educational activities were patterned mostly from the Chinese. The ethical teaching of Confucianism and the religious beliefs of Zen Buddhism were assimilated into the Japanese way of life. Though it develop its own religion called Shintoism (worship of the “kami”), educational ideas are dominantly Chinese. The Japanese ideal is the “warrior” with his “samurai” ethic of respect for authority, determination and hard work. Unlike the Chinese, the Japanese open themselves to foreign influences and made foreign ideas into what are uniquely Japanese. India: Hindu education is characterized by deep spirituality and rigid social stratification (Caste System). Hinduism is a spiritual way of life tied to the rigid caste system. The highest class (Brahmins or priests) receive the highest or complete education while the “sudras” and the untouchable receive the least or no education at all. The Indians were educated for the ideal (Nirvana) based on the “Vedas” and so their education developed along the lines of religion and not in the direction of science, art and practical aspects of life. Teaching was done orally by the master called “guru” including their great epics, the “Mahabharata,” and “Ramayana” which contains the “Bhagavad-gita.” Egypt: if the basic concept of education is the civilization and the unity of the people, then ancient Egypt could be recognized as the oldest civilization in History. The Egyptians already showed the evidence of skilled labor, craftsman, knowledge of practical arts and sciences, and true apprenticeship programs. They already possessed a system of writing called “hieroglyphics” and originated the modern paper from “papyrus” which grows abundantly along the Nile River. The Egyptian practical education is perhaps the origin of present day vocational education in our schools. They were very much ahead of their time; knowledgeable in arithmetic, algebra, trigonometry, astronomy, medicine, chemistry, and other practical sciences. 3. Education for the Development of Individuality / Greek Education Aims: To promote individual success and welfare through the harmonious development of the various aspects of human personality Spartan: to develop a good soldier in each citizen Athenian: to perfect man for individual excellence needed for public usefulness Greek educational theorist; Socrates- truth Plato- justice Aristotle-happiness Types: Military and physical training (Spartan) Liberal Education (Athenians) Methods: Principle of Individuality (Athenian) Competition and rivalry (Spartan) Effects: Emphasized the complimentary development of the human personality for his cultural improvement and for social transformation of the State Proponents: Greeks Ancient Greek Education It has been said that the origin of Western civilization and culture is the “glory that was Greece and the grandeur that was Rome.” In fact, there must be truth in the saying that “After Greeks, there is nothing new anymore.” Unlike the ancient East, education saw the beginning of formal education. Ancient Greek Education could be described in the two leading city-states: Sparta and Athens. Spartan Education Sparta was basically a military socialistic state and so it is stressed military education. Its aim was to prepare the boys for citizenship and military service, and the girls for family life as healthy wives and mothers. In brief, Spartan education was for the state and not for the individual. The “paidonomous” took care of the early military training and physical training of the young Spartan until he becomes a military recruit and eventually a real soldier. Spartan military education is the forerunner of military training in our schools.
  7. 7. Athenian Education Athens was a democratic state and it stressed liberal education – education for the gentleman, charming in person and graceful in manners. Education was a family prerogative. For seven years, the home took care of the first child’s education. At seven, the boy was entrusted to the “paidogogus,” a learned slave. (The term pedagogy was derived from this name). At 14, his education was over. The boy could then go to the “palaestra” which was a public gymnasium for his physical training. There were other schools and teachers: “kitharist” (teacher of music), the “grammatist” (teacher of letters), and the “paedotribe” (teacher of gymnastics). Greeks’ Contributions to Civilization and Education a. Discovery of reason (philosophy) b. Arts and sciences c. Knowledge towards virtue d. Democracy e. Discovery of, which means many things – reason, science, idea or even God f. Olympics g. The Greek Triumvirate – Socrates, Plato, Aristotle 4. Education for Unitarianism / Roman Education Aims: To educate the Roman youth for realizing national ideals Early Romans: Vir bonus Later Romans: Linguistic facility Types: Physical training Agency: Military camps Contents: Liberal arts, rhetoric. Dialectic, geometry, music Professional- law, medicine, architecture Methods: Elementary- memorization, imitation Secondary- literary exercises, intensive drill on speech, grammar Effects: introduced the concept of educational ladder Produced a nation of doers Proponents: Romans Ancient Roman Education Ancient Rome made its lasting impact on Christianity, the Western World, and on the whole human civilization. Its history and education can be divided into the Republic and the Empire, or into the pure Roman and Graeco-Roman. The Republic This was a mixture of oligarchy and democracy with two distinct classes of people – “patricians” and “plebians”; the former were the aristocrats and the latter were soldiers, traders, farmers, artisans, and other Romans. They were already noted for their political organization and law. They also practice the electoral system, legislation, political machineries, veto, lobbying, taxation, and other political ideas that we have today. The Empire (Graeco-Roman) The Republic engaged in continuous conquests and eventually became powerful empire. In 146 B.C., Greece itself is conquered. However, the Roman poet, Horace, wrote, “captive Greece took captive her capturer”. Thus the pure Roman became Graeco-Roman. Schools were established offering both Greek and Roman (Latin) languages. The “ludus” was for elementary education where the child learned the 3 R’s. This lasted for six years. Secondary education was offered in the grammar school where the young Romans learned two languages – Greek and Latin. Later the “quadrivium” was offered consisting of arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy. Earlier, the “trivium” consisting of grammar, rhetorics, and dielectric was learned. After the secondary level, the young Roman proceeded to military service, a calling to rhetorical school and become a statesman. Later, higher education was established and this was called “Athenaeum” which first offered oratory and law. A public school system was also established (during the reign of Emperor Theodosius, 383-395 B.C.) Roman Contributions to Education and Civilization a. Practical Education (utilitarian education) b. The Latin Language c. Bilingual Education d. Cross-cultural studies e. Socio-political organization and law f. Roman educators like Cato, Cicero, Plutarch and Quintilian Jewish Education Jewish education can be described in terms of its history which is divided into four periods: a. Patriarchal period, from the call of Abraham to Moses b. Tribal period, from Moses to the monarchy c. Royal period, from King Saul to the Babylonian Captivity d. Period of Restoration, from the Babylonian Captivity to the birth of Jesus Christ Goal: Religious Conformity (Obedience to Torah) Jewish Education under Jesus Christ Jesus Christ was born in 4 B.C. during the reign of Emperor Augustus with Jewish parents. Christianity came from Christ, the Greek word for “Messiah,” Jesus taught new principles of human relationships based on universal love. The most frequent title of Jesus in the Gospels is “teacher” (rabbi, master). He taught practically anywhere. The persistent theme of His teachings is salvation or liberation from sin to gain eternal life in the Kingdom of God. Among others, his more popular methods are: a. Gnomic method – from gnomes (proverbs)
  8. 8. b. Use of parables – Parables use comparison or analogy c. Conversional/dialectic method – use of dialogue d. Personal example Early Christian Education In the first two centuries after Christ, the Christians gained followers but they were still persecuted. It was only in 313 A.D. through the Edict of Milan when Emperor Constantine recognized Christianity and made in the official state religion. Thus, began the rise of Christianity. The first school were called “catechumenal” schools for prospective converts, then came the catechetical schools for advance training, and then the cathedral schools under the bishoprics. Goal: Moral regeneration Monasticism and the Dark Ages Monasticism arose during the Dark Ages (400 A.D. to 750 A.D.) The term “monasticism” came from the word “monos” meaning alone or one who lives a solitary life. The regular clergy called the monks strictly adhered to their vows of monastic life such as obedience, simplicity, and industry (chastity in others). The “Dark Ages” was so-called because invasions and destructions of barbarians spread throughout the empire until it finally fell. Only the church was spared and remained the bastion of education. The monks established the “monastic schools” in addition to the cathedral, parish, and other schools already existing. They instilled religious discipline for the clergy and lay people. The parish schools taught the 4 R’s – reading, writing, arithmetic, and religion. Monasticism reached its peak in St. Benedict, founder of the Benedictine Order. Goal: Religious Discipline MEDIEVAL EDUCATION The medieval period is marked from the 11th to the 15th century and lies between antiquity and the modern period. There was much educational activity during the time. Scholasticism and Intellectual Discipline The term scholasticism is a general designation for the particular method of scholarly, intellectual, and philosophical pursuit of universal truths. Its aim was to support the doctrines (truths) of the church by reason. This is to justify faith by reason and in the strictest sense, scholasticism designates a special system of philosophy that reached its peak in Thomism of St. Thomas. Aquinas (1224-1274). Scholastic education led to the rise of universities with University of Paris, a former cathedral school as the first university founded. The word “university” then meant a number, a plurality, or aggregate or persons. The entire student body was known as stadium generale. The term “universitas” meant a corporation of teachers and students. Education for Chivalry and Social Discipline This kind of education as a result of feudalism, a system of political, social, and economic relationship based on landlord-vassal relation. Chivalric education was the response to the increasing educational needs of the sons of the nobility. Chivalry and other social manners are stressed. The boy goes through the following stages: Page -an attendant at the noble courts at age 7 Squire -an attendant to a knight at age 14 Knight -a full-pledge warrior whose duties are to protect the women and poor, defend the church and the state, attack the wicked/evil elements, and shed blood for the sake of the country and his comrades. Saracenic Education A new religion, founded by Mohammed was born in Arabia, came to exist six hundred years after the birth of Jesus Christ. This came to be known as Islam among the Arabs. Roman and Greek writers called the wandering Arabs as Saracens. The whole world owes them the scientific method of investigations and its application to the affairs of daily life. Saracenic education aimed at the development of individual and social welfare through scientific knowledge. Saracenic schools in the Middle Ages were the most adequate and complete at the time. Their elementary, secondary, and higher level schools were more advanced then than their European counterparts. They made advances in astronomy, geometry, trigonometry, Hindu system notation, algebra, chemistry, physics, medicine, and surgery. The Guild System of Education Toward the end of the medieval period, economic forces brought about considerable social and cultural changes. Earlier, the “crusades” (first sanctioned by Pope Urban II) led to the growth of trade and commerce. With this development, free cities came to exist along with a new social class – the burghers, bourgeoisie, pre-middle class. This new social class demanded a different kind of education. Related to the growth of commerce was the strengthening of the guild, an organization of person with common interests and mutual needs for security and welfare. There were two types: the merchant guild and the craft guild. These types of schools were established to meet their educational needs: 1. Chantry schools – established through foundation under the clergy 2. Guild schools – served the children of the members of the craft guild. 3. Burgher schools – served the children of the members of the merchant guild. The stages of development under these systems are: apprentice (usually 7 years), journeyman, and master craftsman. Subsequently governmental regulation and the licensing of polytechnics and vocational education formalized and bureaucratized the details of apprenticeship. MODERN CONCEPTIONS OF EDUCATION 1. Education for rich and full life/ Italian or Individualistic Humanism Aims: to secure rich and full life for each individual through contacts either the ancient Types: literary, aesthetic, aristocratic Agency: School
  9. 9. Contents: 3 worlds- World of the past, subjective world of emotion and World of grammar, rhetoric and mathematics Methods: text study, written themes, self-activity and self-expression Effects: Classic learning was revived. Education was very aristocratic Served as foundation of modern academic freedom Proponent: Vittorino de Feltre 2. Northern or Social Humanism Aims: for social reform Types: religious, moral, social Agency: court, schools, secondary schools, universities Contents: classical and biblical literatures Methods: individualized instruction, repetition and mastery, motivation, use of praise rewards Proponent: Desiderius Erasmus 3. Reformation Aims: Religious moralism Types: character Education, universal, compulsory and free education Agency: home, vernacular school, secondary school, university Contents: singing, physical education, Methods: memorization, religious indoctrination Proponent: Martin Luther 4. Counter-Reformation Aims: to develop an unquestioning obedience to the authority of the church Jesuits: train leaders Christian Brother’s: teach the poor Jansenists: spiritual salvation Types: religious and moral, domestic and vocational Agency: elementary, secondary and higher Contents: 4R’s Methods: JESUITS Adapting the lesson to the abilities and interest of children Participation of pupils by question and answer Review A lot of repetition for mastery Doing a small amount of work at a time, doing it well, and making sure it is retained CHRISTIAN BROTHER’S Pupils recite to the class not to the teacher Grade pupils according to ability JANSENISTS Memorization with understanding Use of textbooks 5. Humanistic or Verbal Realism Aims: complete knowledge and understanding of human society JUAN LUIS VIVES- Develop one’s personality FRANCOIS RABELAIS- develop the whole man JOHN MILTON- prepare for actual living Types: literary and liberal Agency: vives- home then public school at age of 7 Rabelais- tutor Milton- academy Contents: vives- vernacular Rabelais- physical exercises, games and sports, bible study Milton- ancient and literary classics Methods: vies- make use of the principle of individual differences Rabelais- incidental method Milton- discussion, fieldtrips 6. Social Realism Aims: to prepare the aristocratic youth for a life of a gentleman in the world of affairs Types: practical, physical, moral, intellectual Agency: private tutorial system Contents: activity curriculum Methods: emphasized understanding and judgment, knowledge assimilated action imitated, ideas applied in conduct Proponent: Michael de Montaigne 7. Sense or Scientific Realism Aims: to develop natural individual in a natural society FRANCIS BACON-to give man dominance over things RICHARD MULCASTER- represses not the natural tendencies and activities on childhood JOHN AMOS COMENIUS- eternal happiness with GOD WOLFGANG RATKE Types: Practical scientific; religious, intellectual
  10. 10. Agency: MULCASTER- tutors, vernacular schools RATKE- experimental school COMENIUS- 4 schools School of the Mother’s knee (birth-6 yrs. Old) Vernacular- sensory training (7-12 years old) Latin- training for understanding and organization of information (13-16 yrs. old) University- (19-24 yrs. old) Contents: FRANCIS BACON-knowledge of nature MULCASTER- reading, writing vernacular COMENIUS- encyclopedic RATKE- natural, bible Methods: MULCASTER: Makes use of games, plays and exercise BACON::Uses inductive method RATKE: Learning should only be one thing at a time Repetition must be done as often as possible Everything should be learned first in the vernacular Learning should be done naturally Rote memorization should not be done Learning should be done by induction and experimentation COMENIUS Sense is learning is encouraged Everything learned should appeal to the children’s interest Whatever is learned must be of practical value Principles must be thoroughly mastered Pupils learn by doing There should be a daily exercise of senses, memory, imagination and understanding 8. Education as training of the Mind / Formal Discipline Aims: to train the mind through rigorous exercises in order to develop intellectual capacities and to form specific habits Types: Physical, mental and moral Agency: schools and colleges Contents: classical languages and math Methods: formal- sensation memory and reasoning Effect: emphasis on the process of learning and not on the things learned Proponent: John Locke “A sound mind in a sound body” 9. Rationalism Aims: to enable man to think for themselves Types: aristocratic, intellectual and social Agency: self education, dancing master Contents: philosophical/ scientific knowledge, ethics and morality Methods: critical analysis, application of reason 10. Education in Harmony with Nature/ Naturalistic Conception of Education Aims: to develop the individual; in accordance with the laws of human development To preserve the natural goodness of man Types: Holistic education Agency: family tutors Contents: Nature Phenomena Organization: 1. Savage – infancy 2. savory- childhood 3. Solitude – boyhood 4. Social being - adolescence Methods: Principles of teaching 1. Growth 2. Activity “Nothing must be done for the child if he can do it himself” 3. Individuality Effect: Considers principles of human growth and development for teaching and earning More people oriented to approach Proponent: Jean Jacques Rousseau 11. Education for Patriotic Citizenship Aims: to develop military preparedness and aggressiveness for the preservation and glorification of the State Types: Secular, civic, physical health, compulsory, free, common Contents: social studies Methods: Safe, practical, and efficient Effect: education became an agency for national development and progress 12. Education as Psychological Development Aims: to direct and control growth and development through appropriate educational procedures JOHANN HEINRICH PESTALOZZI- social regeneration of humanity FRIEDRICH FROEBEL- development of the child JONATHAN HERBART- moral development EDWARD LEE THORNDIKE- realize the fullest satisfaction of human wants Types: intellectual, moral, industrial, practical and physical
  11. 11. Agency: all existing institution Contents: PESTALOZZI- math, science, language FROEBEL- self-expressing activities play HERBART- studies about things Methods: Principle of pupil activity- uses impression and expression Principle of interest- interest=will=action Principle of apperception -new knowledge depends upon previous experience Principle of concentration/ Principle of self-activity- learning by doing Principle of correlation- focus is achieved on connected units of subject matter Principle of socialization- learning through cooperative activity Principle of recapitulation/ Principle of individualization Principle of motivation- stimulating learner’s influence Law of Readiness – learning starts from learner’s enthusiasm and motivation Law of Exercise- the more frequently the bond is exercised, the stronger it becomes Law of Effect- pupils’ success leads to feeling of satisfaction 13. Education as a Scientifically Determined Process Aims: to make education a science Types: utilitarian, universal, democratic, liberal Agency: schools offering and specializing in science Contents: Science Methods: experimental problem-solving, scientific method and research Effect: Systematic and objective analysis of the curriculum materials Scientifically determine learning objectives Inclusion of more sciences in the curriculum 14. Education as a Social Conformity / Social Traditionalism Aims: to give pupils insights into their social inheritance into the ideals, institutions, conditions and customs of society Types: social education- formation of the skills of social communication through language and the building of human relationship Contents: elementary-tools of social living Habits of human education Secondary- specialized training for individuals’ specific needs Extra curricular- training the young to live together. Methods: Social Communication and Social cooperation Effect: Learners were trained to make intelligent choices to solve life problems Education was contributory to the development of human potentials for national development and progress 15. Education as Social Reconstruction/ Social Experimentalism Aims: prepare for a progressive rebuilding of the social order Types: Intellectual- critical examination of the social conditions and social problems Civic- intelligent participation and cooperation in civic affairs MODERN EDUCATION 1. 16th -17th Centuries: Education of this World The down-to-earth of this world became the focus of education during this period. Various labels were attached to this period: humanism, renaissance, realism, naturalism and modernism. The religious called it Reformation and the rise of Protestantism under Martin Luther. The outstanding educators were: Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1621) – introduced the inductive method for scientific inquiry. Before beginning this induction, the inquirer is to free his or her mind from certain false notions or tendencies which distort the truth. The end of induction is the discovery of forms, the ways in which natural phenomena occur, the causes from which they proceed. Wolfgang Ratke (1571-1635) – initiated repetition to ensure mastery. His system of education was based upon Francis Bacon’s philosophy, the principle being that of proceeding from things to names, from the particular to the general, and from the mother tongue to foreign languages. His fundamental idea was that the Baconian theory of induction was following nature, meaning that there is a natural sequence along which the mind moves in the acquisition of knowledge, through particulars to the general. He advocated, above all, the use of the vernacular as the proper means for approaching all subjects, and demanded the establishment of a vernacular school on the basis of the Latin school. John Amos Comenius (1592-1670) – regarded as father of modern education; wrote “Orbis Sensualism Pictus” or the World of Sensible Things Pictured, the first illustrated book that led to the use of visual aids in the classroom. The texts written by Comenius were all based on the same fundamental ideas: (1) learning foreign languages through the vernacular; (2) obtaining ideas through objects rather than words; (3) starting with objects most familiar to the child to introduce him to both the new language and the more remote world of objects: (4) giving the child a comprehensive knowledge of his environment, physical and social, as well as instruction in religious, moral, and classical subjects; (5) making this acquisition of a compendium of knowledge a pleasure rather than a task; and (6) making instruction universal. John Locke (1632-1704) – known as the father of English empiricism, foremost exponent of “disciplinism” (education as based on discipline), and authored the “tabula rasa” theory (the mind of the child at birth is a blank tablet). Richard Mulcaster (1531-1611) – suggested that teachers be required to obtain university training and developed teacher training schools (normal schools). Francois Fenelon (1651-1715) – pioneered in the education of women. He is a defender of human rights.
  12. 12. John Baptist de la Salle (1651-1719) – founded the La Salle schools that aimed to the poor and underprivileged and introduced a practical teacher training program. 2. 18th -19th Centuries: Child Centered Education The shift in aim of education is very evident – from the external end to the development of the child himself. Thus, the new aim of education is to allow the child to develop according to natural capabilities. The child becomes the center of the educative process. The main proponents are Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Herbart, and Froebel. Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) – best known for his work, “Emilie,” which laid out his naturalistic philosophy of education; also wrote “Social Contract” that advocated a democratic government. Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1827) – advocated the following: object study with language, education for societal regeneration, learning through observation and experience, avoidance of bookish learning, discipline based on love, and education as contact of souls. Johann Friedrich Herbart (1779-1841) – advocated the theory of appreciation and the inductive method of teaching which came to be known as “Herbatian Method.” This consists of the following steps: (1) Preparation; (2) Presentation; (3) Comparison and Abstraction; (4) Generalization; and (5) Application. Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel (1782-1852) – known as the father of the kindergarten (Garden of Children) and advocated the use of play or games in the school program. 3. 19th -20th Centuries: Democratization of Education Democratization of education stood out among the manifold aims of education during this period. The following were the best known educators: John Henry Newman (1801-1890) – advance a new concept of a university in his book, “The idea of a University,” that a university should offer universal knowledge. Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) – attempted to compile all knowledge in his “Synthetic Philosophy.” He and Darwin popularized the evolution theory. He authored the ethical concept, “survival of the fittest,” before Darwin. He defined education as “preparation for complete living.” Pedro Poveda (1878-1936) – modified the past Christian education with his own Christian Humanism which commits Christianity to the upliftment of the poor and marginalized people. He also pioneered on the establishment of Teacher Formation Centers. Maria Montessori (1869-1952) – a doctor of medicine who turned to education of the handicapped and underprivileged youth; later, she introduced a new pedagogy for young children which has three main features: freedom and individuality, prepared environment, and specific goals for each child. Paolo Freire – a Brazilian who criticized contemporary education as the education of the oppressed. He wrote “The Pedagogy of the Oppressed” in 1968. He described conventional education as the banking concept of education responsible for the culture of silence among the masses. John Dewey and other American educators like Horace Mann, William James, J. Stanley Hall, Francis Parker, and Edward Lee Thorndike, among others – also made great contributions to education. John Dewey believes that education is life, a continuous process (i.e., never complete) and it aims is social efficiency. SUB-AREA: LEGAL FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION A. Introductory Concepts 1. The Philippines has a great heritage from two sources: the East and the West. To understand the present Philippine education, we must study this legacy. 2. Philippine education went through periods of historical development: Pre-Spanish, Spanish, Revolutionary (1st Republic), American, Commonwealth, Japanese, Third Republic, Martial Law (New Society), and Post-EDSA Republic. 3. Our country’s educational system has been shaped and influenced by environmental factors and conditions prevailing during each historical period. 4. The primary legal basis of Philippine education is the existing fundamental law of the land, the Constitution. 5. Legal notations follow a chronological order and/or named according to the political set-up then existing. B. Education During the Pre-Spanish Period Education aimed for - survival and conformity - enculturation - result of individual experiences/by product of the accumulation of race experiences Training consisted of - Informal education through apprenticeship which started at home - Domestic chores and practical/occupational honing of skills in hunting, farming, etc. - Theoretical/moral and spiritual awakening e.g. worship, laws, codes Education was done through: - “Tell me” and “show me” or demonstration - Observation and imitation - Indoctrination - Given by older priests – 1st teachers and custodians of knowledge - Considered education as preserver of their culture and transmitter of the knowledge acquired by earlier generation to their posterity and a vital factor in the propagation of their tradition Teaching content was: - broad, indefinite and unwritten - unstructured/incidental
  13. 13. C. Education During the Spanish Era Miguel Lopez de Legaspi – conquered the Philippine Archipelago in 1565 Concerns: Establishment of schools for their children with the objective of rearing the virtue and skills of the Spanish youth Education aimed to propagate Christianity Training was done formally through the - visitas which served as the first schools - parochial schools established such as the colegios, beaterios, and seminaries - institutions established for higher learning to provide the church with centers of learning and the state with much needed judges and lawyers Education was considered a status symbol, a privilege and not a right Teaching was done through - dictation, memorization - other techniques such as the moro-more, cenaculo and other theatrical performances Teaching content consisted of - Christian doctrine in the elementary levels - Ecclesiastical studies, classical courses and vocational education The media of instruction used were - Spanish - Latin Education was characterized by - Authoritarianism (Spaniards refused to give quality education to the masses) - teacher-dominated - subject-centered - imposition of severe discipline - direct control of the Roman Catholic church and was dominated by the priests and clergy - education purely religious in nature. Aimed at Christianization of the natives for the glory of God - Ecclesiastical studies, classical courses and vocational education To uplift the education in the Philippines the Royal Decree of 1863 (Education Act of 1863) was promulgated which provided for the following - complete system of education - free system of education - establishment of normal school - reorganization of the school curriculum - government supervision and control of school thus breaking the 3 century church domination in education D. Revolutionary Republic (1st Republic) 1. The first republic was established on June 12, 1898 in Kawit, Cavite with General Emilio Aguinaldo as President, June 12 is now the official independence day of the country. 2. The first organized reaction against Spanish injustice happened from 1862 to 1872. Patriotic Filipinos formed the “Comite de Reformadores” in 1862 to work for reforms for the assimilation of the country as a province of Spain. This group was led by the priest Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora (GOMBURZA). The reform movement ended up at the Cavite mutiny and the execution of the three priests in 1872. 3. Continuing the assimilation reform, Filipino expatriates in Europe initiated the propaganda movement through their pen. These were Graciano Lopez Jaena, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Jose Rizal, Mariano Ponce, Antonio Luna and Jose Ma. Panganiban. In 1889 in Barcelona, they founded the “La Solidaridad” with Jaena as the first editor, followed by del Pilar who founded the short-lived “Diariong Tagalog” in 1882. 4. The reforms of the propaganda movement did not materialize. The first republic gained by the revolution in 1898, began with modest educational plans because education was not the priority at that time. The 1898 Malolos Constitution had no direct provisions for education. The “Decalogues” of Apolinario Mabini and Andres Bonifacio helped somewhat to provide direction for the scant of educational activities. The obvious goal of education is love of country within the framework of love of God. Aguinaldo allotted a meager amount for public instruction in 1899 budget. Schools, however, closed due to the conflict with the new colonizers – the Americans. E. Education During the American Era • Education total changed the educational concepts introduced by the Spaniards • Education aimed to promote democratic ideals and way of life • Education should be universal and free for all regardless of sex, age, religious and socio-economic status of the individual • Means of giving people an orientation towards a democratic way of life • Training was done through the - schools both public ad secular manned by chaplains and military officers of the US army and the Thomasites brought here by the vessel Thomas • Curricular programs were patterned from the United States - Religious freedom was enforced (exact contradiction of Spaniards view of religion) - Development of the intelligence, right attitudes and habits of children who were to become citizens of the future were emphasized - Citizenship training for adults became important - Democratic ideal as a philosophy was emphasized - Supervision of schools took the role of guidance and consultancy • Legal Mandates - Education Act of 1901 laid the foundation of the Philippine public school system - Act No. 2957 (in 1921) created the Board of Textbooks for the selection and adoption of textbooks for the public schools - Act No. 3162 and 3196 made possible the conduct of the Monroe Survey and recommended the following
  14. 14. ♦ educational reforms regarding methods and techniques of teaching, supervision, teacher training and curriculum ♦ evaluation of teaching and learning - Constitution of 1935 mandated the establishment and maintenance of a complete and adequate system of public education, free public primary instruction, and citizenship training to adults citizens F. Education During the Commonwealth Period (1935-1942) • Education aimed to continue the promotion of democratic ideals and way of life • Training wad done through the - the public schools - the private schools (sectarian and non sectarian) • Curricular emphasis was on character education and citizenship training • Legal Mandate - Education Act of 1940 otherwise known as Commonwealth Act 586 which ♦ provided for the complete revision of the public elementary school system ♦ shortening of elementary grades to six years ♦ adoption of double-single sessions in the primary grade with one teacher one class assignment of intermediate teachers - R.A. Act No. 4007 completely abolished matriculation fees G. Education During the Japanese Era • Education aimed at - making the people understand the position of the Philippines as a member of the East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere (a Japanese version of the “Monroe Doctrine” established by US President James Monroe - eradication of the old idea of reliance upon western states - elevating the morals of the people giving up over-emphasis on materialism - striving for the diffusion of the Japanese language in the Philippines and the termination of the use of the English language in schools - inspiring the people with the spirit to love labor • Training was done formally through the schools, which gave more emphasis on vocational, technical, agriculture - reopening of schools - opening of vocational schools - establishment of agricultural schools and colleges • Curricular content centered on values rooted on love for labor - emphasizing vocational education - diffusing the use of Nippongo - teaching physical education and singing Japanese songs • Legal mandate - Proclamation No. 1 ♦ informed the people that the sovereignty of the United States over the Philippines was over and that Martial Law was to reign ♦ made the Philippines a member of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity sphere H. Education during the Republic – Philippine Independence (1945-72) Third Philippine Republic (July 4, 1946). Administration of President Roxas until the Marcos regime, before the Proclamation of martial law. • Education aimed at the full realization of the democratic ideals and way of life the characteristics of which are: - Democracy is predicated upon the intrinsic worth of the individual - Individuals realize their capacities best in a social context - Society is not separated from the individual - Democracy thrives on change; it is dynamic and flexible - It fosters persuasion and consensus and rejects coercion and indoctrination • Curricular content stressed - social orientation as manifested by the conservation of the Filipino heritage - training for occupation - promotion of democratic nation building - a new thrust on community development • Legal Mandates - Republic Act No. 1123 provided for ♦ creation of the Board of National Education as the highest policymaking body of the Philippines ♦ R.A. No 869: known as Elementary Act of 1953: Every parent to enroll a child of age to finish elementary education ♦ revision of the Elementary Education Curriculum of 1957 to emphasize skill development and proper attitude for work ♦ reduction of class enrollment to 40 ♦ use of vernacular as the medium of instruction in Grades I and II in all schools, and English as medium of instruction from Grade III to VI ♦ revision of the Secondary Curriculum which consisted of 1. General curriculum for 1st and 2nd year 2. Differentiated Curricula for 3rd and 4th year ♦ provision for a guidance program in every secondary school ♦ provision of equal educational opportunities
  15. 15. ♦ formation of the Presidential Commission to survey Philippine Education (PSPE) to determine how to structure the educational system to meet the demands of society I. Education During the New Society (1972-1986) • Education aimed for national development (Education Act of 1982) - achieve and maintain an accelerating rate of economic development and social progress - assure maximum participation of all the people in the attainment and enjoyment of the benefits of such growth - achieve and strengthen national unity and consciousness and preserve, develop and promote desirable cultural, moral and spiritual values in a changing world • Curricular changes in Elementary Education - Education Act 1982 measures to maintain quality education - Voluntary accreditation: refers to the recognition of an educational program or where applicable of an educational institution as possessing certain standards of quality or excellence (Sutaria, 1989) e.g. PAASCU/PACUCOA, ACSC- AA, ISO - focused on the 3Rs - integration of values in all learning areas - emphasis on mastery learning • Curricular changes in Secondary Education - Increased in time allotment - YDT and CAT introduced a new courses - Elective offerings as part of the curriculum • Educational Programs Initiated - Project IMPACT - Instructional Management by Parents, Community, and Teachers - ISOSA - In school, Off School Approach - CPS - Continuous Progression Scheme - PRODED - Program for Decentralized Educational Development - NCEE - National College Entrance Examination - NEAT - National Elementary Assessment Test for VI = battery of achievement tests of multiple choices - NSAT - National Secondary Assessment Test replaces NCEE; not pre-requisite to entrance to college; 20% of the result is computed to the GPA • Legal Mandates - PD No. 1 - Integrated Reorganization Plan (September 24, 1972) 1. Decentralization of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports 2. Decision-making is shared by the 13 DECS regional offices - Bilingual Education Policy - use of English and Filipino as media of instruction in specific learning areas J. The Fourth Republic : Education During the Present Period (1986-present) • Promulgation of the 1987 Constitution which provided the present philosophy of education in the Philippine Art. XIV, Sec. (32) Article XIV, Sec. (32) “All education institution shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster love of humanity, respect for human rights, appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country, teach the rights and duties of citizenship, strengthen ethical and spiritual values, develop moral character, and personal discipline, encourage critical and creative thinking, scientific and technological knowledge and provide vocational efficiency.” Stresses: • System of education relevant to society • Free public education: R.A. 6655 Act of 1988: Free Public Secondary Education • Scholarship Program and Student Loan Program: Selected Ethnic Groups Educational Assistance Program (SEGEAP) - Study Now Pay Later Plan (SNPLP) 1. State Scholarship for Sciences, Arts and Letters (R.A. 4090, Jan. 27, 1964) 2. Private Education Student Financial Assistance Program (PEAFA) 3. R.A. 6728 Financial Assistance to Students and Teachers in private education sector in 1989 • Non-Formal, Informal and Indigenous Learning: (for profitable employment). Ex. Technical and vocational courses. (Indigenous Learning: ways and methods within the cultural communities which are used in preserving and building certain traditions; taking into account their needs while allowing for the influx of external cultural factors) • Special Education and adult education: Constitution (ph. 5 sec. 2) stated that training in civics, vocational efficiency and other skills to adult citizens, the disabled, and out-of-school youth. - Commonwealth Act No. 3203: provided for the care and protection of disabled children. Articles 356 and 259 of the Civil Code of the Philippines mentioned “the right of every child to live in an atmosphere conducive to his physical, moral and intellectual development,” and the concomitant duty of the government to “promoted the full growth of the faculties of every child.” - Declaration of the Rights of the Child (U.N. Gen. Assembly-1959) affirmed: “The child who is physically, mentally or visually handicapped shall be given the special treatment, education and care required of his particular condition.” - Presidential Decree No. 603 – the Child and Youth Welfare Code, abound with specific provisions for the welfare of the exceptional child. Article 3, Right of the Child, provides among other that “emotionally disturbed or socially maladjusted child shall be treated with sympathy and understanding, and shall be entitled to treatment and competent care required by his particular condition.” - Article 74, provides for the Creation of Special Classes: “Where needs warrant, there shall be at least special schools for physically handicapped, the mentally retarded, the emotionally disturbed and the specially gifted. The private sector shall be given all the necessary inducement and encouragement. - Magna Carta for Disabled Persons (January 22, 1992, R.A. 7277) affirms the full participation and total integration of persons with disabilities into the mainstream of our society. - World Conference on Special Needs Education held at Salamanca, Spain on June 7-10, 1994; recognized the necessity and urgency of providing education for children, youth and adults with special educational needs within the regular educational system.
  16. 16. - Republic Act Nos. 3562 and 5250 approved on June 21, 1963 and June 13, 1968 respectively, these acts provided that teachers, administrators and supervisors of special education should be trained by the Department of Education and Culture. - 1981 International Year of Disabled Persons – focusing attention on the enjoyment of Disabled Persons of right and opportunities in order to ensure their full participation and integration into society. - Convention on the Rights of the Child – Article 28: adopted by the U.N. in December 1989 states that children have a right to education and details the obligations of the State to provide this right. It also says that every child should have access to academic or vocational secondary education and that if secondary education is not free, financial aid should be given to children who need it. - Jean-Marc Gaspard Itard, a French physician considered to be the father of Special Education. He worked with deaf children. - Followed by Edward Sequin – student of Itard who published “Moral Treatment, Hygiene, and Education of Idiots and other Backward Children. He believed that sensorimotor exercises could help stimulate learning for children with disabilities. - Maria Montessori first female physicians (Italy – 1912) was influenced by Seguin and then worked first with children with mental disabilities. • Education aimed to promote national development and values education • Curricular Reforms - Implementation of NESC - addressed to civic, intellectual, and character development of the child. Its features are: 1. Fewer learning areas; emphasis on mastery learning 2. Focused on the development of the 3rs 3. Emphasis on the development of intellectual skills which are as important as work skills - Focus on the development of humanism and Filipinism in all learning areas • Implementation of SEDP in response to the need to continue pupil development. It aims to improve policy making and increase the internal efficiency of the educational system. Its features are: - subjects generally oriented to the development of values - specific competencies - concept-based subject areas - uni-disciplinary treatment of curriculum content • Implementation of NSEC. Its features are: - multi-disciplinary treatment of curriculum content - student-centered - cognitive-affective manipulative based curriculum - values education offered as separate subject area - emphasis in Science and Technology - uses bilingual policy - critical thinking emphasized • Ramos Administration onward to the Philippine 2000: Major priorities include economic development, political stability, effective bureaucracy, people empowerment, and environmental protection; stressed that the delivery of quality education to all the people as mandated by the Constitution is the chief means to empower the masses; people need to become globally competitive; Vision of Philippines 2000, the Philippine attaining the status of a Newly Industrialized Country (NIC) – educating the people, equipping them with scientific and technological knowledge and skills, and providing them the facility to understand and be understood by others through communicative competence. - With the passage of R.A. 7722 known as the Higher Education Act of 1994, Commission on Higher Education taking charge of the tertiary level education - R.A. 7796 or TESDA Act of 1994 created the Technical Education Skills and Development Authority (TESDA) to oversee all the technical and vocational programs OTHER IMPORTANT LEGAL BASES: 1. The Education Act of 1982 (Batas Pambansa Blg. 232), provides for the establishment and maintenance of an integrated system of education that shall apply to both formal and non-formal system in public and private schools in all levels. It also provide for the national development goals and goals of education in all levels. In section 29, it provides for “voluntary accreditation” for schools, colleges and universities to improve their standards over and above the minimum standards required by the state. 2. R.A. 6655, May 26, 1988, “Free Public Secondary Education Act of 1988.” 3. R.A. 6728, June 10, 1989, “Act Providing Government Assistance to Students and Teachers in Private Education.” 4. Executive Order No. 27, issued on July 4, 1986, provides for the inclusion of courses or subjects on human rights in the school curricula, textbooks, and in the qualifying examinations on government service. 5. Executive Order No. 189, issued on June 10, 1987 placed all public secondary school teachers under the Administrative supervision and control of DECS> 6. R.A.6850, February 8, 1990, provide for the granting of Civil Service Eligibility to all government employees who have provisional or temporary status and who have rendered a total of at least (7) years of efficient and dedicated service. 7. R.A. 7079, July 5, 1991, “Campus Journalism Act of 1991,” provide for the establishment and maintenance of a student publication in all levels in both public and private schools. 8. R.A. 7323, February 3, 1992, provided for the employment of poor but deserving students, aged 15-25, during summer and/or Christmas vacation, with a salary not lower than the minimum wage, 60% of which shall be paid by the employer and 40% by the government. Focus 3: Sociological-Anthropological Foundations of Education ANTHROPOLOGY Derived from the Greek words anthrope which means man, and logos which means science
  17. 17. a. Science that studies the origin and development of man b. Science of man, his development, work and achievements c. Includes the study of physical, intellectual, moral, social and cultural development of man, including his customers mores, folkways and beliefs 1. CULTURE - (Emphasis of Anthropology) .a The shared products of human learning .b The complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, morals, customs and other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society (Taylor) .c A social heritage, transmitted to another and shared (Dressler) .d A fabric of ideas, beliefs, skills, tools, aesthetic objects, methods of thinking, customs and institutions into which each member of society is born (Smith, Stanley, Shores) .e The set of learned behaviors, beliefs, attitudes, values, and ideals that are characteristics of a particular society or population CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE ELEMENTS OF CULTURE • Language - an abstract system of word meanings and symbols for all aspects of culture; the foundation of culture; verbal and nonverbal • Norms - are established standards of behavior maintained by a society; it must be shared and understood - Formal Norms - rules that are written down; punishment is strictly implemented to violators e.g. laws - Informal Norms - generally understood but are not precisely recorded e.g. one person who comes to school dressed differently from everyone - Mores - are norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of society because they embody the cherished principles of a people; violation of mores can lead to severe punishment - Folkways – norms governing our everyday behavior whose violation raises comparatively little concern; it is our customary way of doing things; habits • Sanctions - penalties or rewards for conduct concerning social norms e.g. (positive sanctions) pay, promotion, medals, word of gratitude or (negative) fines, imprisonment, threats, stares, ostracism • Values - are collective conceptions of what is considered good, desirable and proper or bad, undesirable and improper in a particular culture; values are use to evaluate the behavior of others 2. Aspects of Cultural Variation a. Subculture - is a segment of society which shares a distinctive patterns of mores, folkways and values which differs from the pattern of the larger society e.g. celebration fiesta among Filipinos varies b. counterculture – is a subculture that rejects societal norms and values and seeks alternative lifestyles e.g. gay lingo c. culture shock - when one person is immersed in an unfamiliar culture, s/he may feel strangely disoriented, uncertain, out of place and even fearful e.g. when offered exotic food d. ethnocentrism – tendency to assume that one’s culture and way of life are superior to others e. xenocentrism – belief that the products, styles or ideas of one’s society are inferior to those that originate elsewhere 3. SOCIOLOGY a. Science of man and society b. Study of patterns of human behavior c. Study of groups and societies and how they affect the people 4. Society An organized group of population who interrelates and interacts with one another, with common shared attitudes, sentiments, aspirations and goals (Kessing) Composed of human beings and the institutions by which people live together in their culture (Linton) A group of organized individuals who think of themselves as a distinct group, who have some things in common, a set of loyalties and sentiments, and a “esprit de corps” which make the individual under certain circumstances to sacrifice himself for the good of the group (Smith, Stanley and Shores) A social group that occupies territory, recruits its members by inter group sexual reproduction and has a shared comprehensive culture (Bectrand) 5. Groups a. A unit of interacting personalities with an interdependence of roles and status existing between or among the members (Cole) b. A number of people who at a given time interrelate and interact with one another, with common shared attitudes, aspirations and goals c. Types of Group: • Primary Group – refers to small group characterized by intimate, face to face association and cooperation e.g. street gang, family • Secondary Group – refers to formal, impersonal group in which there is little social intimacy or mutual understanding e.g. class, social clubs • In-groups – any group to which people feel they belong. Every member is regarded as “We” or “us” • Out-group – group to which people feel they don’t belong • Reference group - any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behavior. • Dyad – two-member group • Triad – three-member group • Coalition - temporary or permanent alliance toward a common goal • Transferable • Continuous • Symbolic • Dynamic • Shared • Adaptive • Learned • Universal • Borrowed
  18. 18. 6. Status a. Refers to the position assigned by a person in a group or organization Types of Status: 1. Ascribed Status – social position “assigned” to a person without regard for the person’s unique characteristics or talents 2. Achieved Status - social position “attained” by a person largely through his or her own effort 3. Master Status - status that dominates others and thereby determines a person’s general position in society 7. Social Stratification Refers to the classification of group members according to certain criteria which may differ according to the nature of the group; structured ranking of people in society that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in society Is influence by the economic status of an individual ii. Criteria of Stratification: 1. Income/Wealth 2. Power 3. Prestige b. Social inequality - describes a condition in which members of a society have different amounts of wealth, prestige and power 8. Social Mobility Refers to movement of individuals or groups from one position of a society’s stratification to another Types of Social Mobility: - Horizontal Mobility - movement of a person from one social position to another of the same rank e.g. electrician who becomes a funeral director - Vertical Mobility – movement of a person from one social position to another of a different rank e.g. electrician who becomes a lawyer or doctor - Intergenerational Mobility - involves changes in the social position of children relative to their parents e.g. parents who are rich but their children become poor - Intragenerational Mobility – involves changes in a person’s social position within his/her adult life e.g. a poor boy who struggle to become a successful entrepreneur 9. Social Process Refers to the patterned and recurrent form of social interaction (reciprocal action or effect) May come in the form of competition, conflict, cooperation, accommodation, assimilation or acculturation 10. Socialization A process of adapting or conforming to the common needs and interests of a social group The process of entering the human groups, of being included into the secretes of society A process whereby people learn the attitudes, values and actions appropriate to individuals as members of a particular society A process where a member of a group learns and internalizes the norms and standards of the other member among whom she/he lives Agents of Socialization: • Family – smallest social institution whose members are united by blood, marriage or adoption, constituting a household and carrying a common culture whose functions include transmission of culture and providing opportunities for growth and development • School (Education) – established by society for the basic enculturation of the group and an agency which makes student learn how to value oneself and eventually others. It is also an agency organized by society for the basic function of teaching and learning. • Church, government, mass media, workplace, economy, non-government agencies and other institutions wherein an individual is a part of. 12. Change An enduring force in history, is inevitable as this takes place from time to time The adjustment of persons or group to achieve relative harmony Is persuasive and is taking place in culture, society and personality Forms of Change: • Cultural change – refers to all alteration affecting new trait or trait complexes to change the culture’s content and structures • Technological change – revision that occur in man’s application of his technical knowledge and skills and he adopts himself to environment • Social change – refers to the variation or modifications in the patterns of social organization, of such groups within a society or of the entire society 13. Cultural Lag Occurs when society cannot adjust to changes for quite a time 14. Sociology of Education Provides a study of the regular patterns of relationships between society and the educational processes and the explanation for such relationships which contributes to the analysis and eventual solution to problems confronting the educational system. Some Social Concepts: 1. Values  generally considered as something – a principle, quality, act or entity – that is intrinsically desirable (Hall, et. al)
  19. 19.  possesses a degree of excellence, some lasting genuine merit that rests on deeper intrinsic worth and more enduring qualities than mere preference by individual or in consonance with given cultures (Hall, et. al.) 2. Value System  a system of established values, norms, or goals existing and shared in a society or group 3. Value Clarification (value building) involves having a clear set of values and realizing the values a person holds depend on such factors as environment, education, and personality 4. Value Ranking a conscious, deliberate process by which a mature person arrives at a fairly well-articulated, thoughtful ranking of his chosen values; here, interrelationship of values is explored within any given individual 5. Value Conflict conflict and polarization occur when somebody imposes a value ranking on someone else. The highest possibility then of polarity in a group is when two groups of people have opposite value rankings may be seen in the following situations: • Personal interests v. public interests • Bayanihan spirit v. kanya kanya mentality • Close family ties v. self-reliance • Personalism v. group solidarity 6. Justice defined as the habit or readiness to give others what is due to them; the constant and perpetual disposition of society to render everyman his due justice includes rendering to every man that exact measures of his due without regard to his personal worth or merit Justice and responsible government • provides man with structures that guarantee his right to live a decent life and protect him from exploitation by his fellowmen and/or certain system • provides every citizen a sufficient opportunity for advancement, growth and development • encourages every citizen to help build a just and responsible government, one which promotes growth and progress of its people • encourages its people to be vigilant and involved to ensure that they control the government and that it functions effectively for the common good • has authority, the legitimate power to command or bind the citizens of the state to the common good of the society; the power that direct social order for the common welfare of the whole community. This authority is the result of the social contract between the people and those to whom the people delegate this power 7. Some Views about the Relation of the Individual to Society 1Individualistic View - holds that the society is made up of individuals who are independent of one another; believes that the individual as an indestructible entity and society is merely an effect 2 Socialistic View - the individual is subordinate to the society 3 Dualistic View - recognizes the individual as independent but as he interacts with the others in a society, sees the need to become a part of a group and conform to its rules 4 Organic View - assumes that the society and the individual see common interests and that the development of the individual requires social consciousness and involvement; each one needs the other in realizing their own ends but it must be recognized that a moral bond must exist between them so that their ends may be fulfilled 8. Freedom, Rights and Responsibility 1. Freedom is not absolute, 2. freedom is independence (in a political context) 3. freedom is rights (in social context) 4. the whole moral life revolves around the use of freedom: 5. Right means (in ethics) what is just, reasonable, equitable, what ought to be, what is justifiable, something that is owed or due 6. Kinds of Rights: a. natural rights – inherent in the nature of man and thus above the law b. political rights – privileges of participating in the affairs of government c. civil rights – enjoyed by citizens 7 Rights and responsibility come in pairs. If one wants more rights and freedom, s/he shall also have to accept more responsibility. • rights are intended to be used, not abused. A right is abused when it interferes with the rights of others • all individual rights and freedoms should be conceived in the light of social order and justice • the reciprocation of rights and duties is the true foundation of social order • duties – refer to those that are due under justice to another individual or collective persons and to God. If moral obligation embraces one’s responsibilities toward himself, duties are properly directed to others. • Authority - refers to the right given to give commands, enforce laws, take action, make decisions, and exact obedience, determine or judge • Accountability – means to be answerable for; emphasizes liability for something of value either contractually or because of one’s position of authority • Responsibility – refers to trustworthy performance of fixed duties and consequent awareness of the penalty for failure to do so; is based on good judgment and relates to the obligation and commitment PROFESSIONAL ETHICS FOR TEACHERS
  20. 20. 1. Appropriate ethical standards values and principles of conduct as well as the rights and benefits due all teachers have been set forth and are embodied in such documents as the “Magna Carta for Public School Teachers” and the “Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers” 2. Teacher’s Rights and Benefits Security of Tenure: “Stability in employment and security of tenure shall be assured the teachers as provided for under existing laws” and “No officer or employee in the Civil Service shall be suspended or dismissed except for cause as provided by law.” Injury Benefits: “Teachers shall be protected against the against the consequences of employment injuries in accordance with existing laws” Leave Benefits: • Maternity leave for married women employees • 15-day sick leave and 15-day vacation leave for those teachers designated for continues duty throughout the year • 70-day vacation pay and vacation service credit for teachers not required to render service throughout the year • Study leave after seven years of service • Medicare benefits to all teachers regardless of age sex, means or status • Disability benefits • Death benefits • Right to permanent status after having rendered at least 10 years of continuous efficient and faithful service • Right to freely and without previous authorization establish and join organization of one’s own choosing subject to limitation • Right to academic freedom (freedom to investigate and discuss the problem of his science and to express his conclusion….without inference from political or ecclesiastical authority, or from the administrative officials unless his methods are found to be clearly incompetent or contrary to professional ethics…includes choice of methods, materials, course requirements • Right to be paid in legal tender without any unlawful deductions • Right to equitable safeguards in disciplinary cases: o Right to informed of the charges o Right to full access of evidence o Right to defend himself or be defended by a representative of his choice o Right to appeal to designated authorities • Right emanating from being persons in authority 3. Ethical principles culled from the Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers and the Magna Carta for Public School Teachers. The teacher shall • Maintain the nobility and dignity of the teaching profession • Maintain continuing professional growth to improve efficiency, competency and productivity, nationally and internationally • Maintain harmonious and pleasant personal and official relations with other professionals, government officials, and with the community • Transmit to learners cultural and educational heritage of the country: elevate national morality, promote national pride, cultivate love of country, instill allegiance to the constitution and all duly constituted authorities, promote obedience to laws of the state • Be imbued with the spirit of professional loyalty, mutual confidence and faith in one another, self sacrifice for the common good, and full cooperation with colleagues • Make an honest effort to understand and support policies of the school • Refrain from transacting any business in illegal manner • Show professional courtesy, helpfulness and sympathy to one another and exhibit cooperative responsibility to formulate change for the system at all levels • Be first and foremost concerned with the interest and welfare of the students and deal with students justly • Establish and maintain cordial (pleasant) relations with parents; inform them of their children’s progress; seek their cooperation for their children’s guidance and hear their complaints with sympathy and understanding • Maintain good reputation with respect to financial matters • Maintain dignified personality whether in school, in home, or elsewhere so as to serve as a model worthy of emulation by learners, peers and all others 9. Sense of nationhood – • may be equated with love of country, it may be synonymous with “Filipinism” (a concept of a Filipino community) • the sum of worthwhile values essential to the development of a sense of oneness and identity of interests with the community and a desire to contribute to common life and national well-being (O. D. Corpuz) • Ideology and Commitment: ideology – one must know what a nation is, what it can be, and what it ought to be; commitment – one must recognize and accept his duty to help develop his nation as he has so conceived (De La Costa) • people’s consciousness of unity based on common ancestry, homeland, customs, culture and destiny, which drive them to promote their collective interests over those of people of other countries 10. Nationalism • fosters a strong feeling of loyalty to the State and pride in their nationality, therefore education should be used as a prime means to develop nationalism • aims to achieve freedom from political oppressors to achieve political self-determination • central to nationalism is the conception of sovereignty, entirely independent from any legal or moral authority beyond its own borders • it is a moral virtue: an aspect of justice and embraces the duties of man towards his countrymen because he shares with them the same homeland, the same government, and common interests

×